1892 in science
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- September 9 – At Lick Observatory, Edward Emerson Barnard discovers Amalthea, the third moon of Jupiter and the last natural satellite found by direct visual observation.
- May 28 – Scottish American naturalist John Muir founds the environmental organization the Sierra Club in San Francisco, aided by a group of professors from the University of California, Berkeley, and Stanford University.
- American environmental chemist Ellen Swallow Richards, in a lecture in Boston, calls for the "christening of a new science" – oekology, to embrace environmental education and consumer nutrition.
- November – Traveller Isabella Bird becomes the first woman inducted as a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society in Britain.
- Georg Cantor shows there are different kinds of infinity and studies transfinite numbers.
- Gino Fano discovers the Fano plane.
- July 18 – Russian-born bacteriologist Waldemar Haffkine demonstrates the first anti-cholera vaccine.
- German pathologist Curt Schimmelbusch proposes that medical dressings should be sterilized daily prior to surgery and designs a form of autoclave to facilitate this.
- Czech neurologist Arnold Pick identifies the clinical syndrome of Pick's disease and the Pick bodies that characterise the frontotemporal lobe disorder.
- Johann von Mikulicz-Radecki first describes Sjögren’s syndrome.
- First edition of William Osler's textbook The Principles and Practice of Medicine, designed for the use of practitioners and students of medicine is published in Edinburgh while the author is Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University. It remains internationally significant in medical education for forty years.
- July – The American Psychological Association is founded.
- February 23 – Rudolf Diesel obtains a patent for a compression-ignition engine.
- François Hennebique patents his system of reinforced concrete.
- Brothers Richard and Cherry Kearton publish With Nature and a Camera in the United Kingdom, the first nature book illustrated entirely from photographs.
- January 1 – Guido Fanconi (died 1979), Swiss pediatrician.
- March 30 – Stefan Banach (died 1945), Polish mathematician.
- April 14 – Karl Wilhelm Reinmuth (died 1979), German astronomer.
- July 24 – Alice Ball (died 1916), African American chemist.
- August 15 – Louis-Victor de Broglie (died 1987), French winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics (1929).
- August 26
- October 26 – André Chapelon (died 1978), French steam locomotive designer.
- November 5 – J. B. S. Haldane (died 1964), British geneticist.
- November 21 – Margery C. Carlson (died 1985), American botanist.
- December 12 – Herman Potočnik Noordung (died 1929), Slovene pioneer of astronautics and cosmonautics.
- January 2 – George Biddell Airy (born 1801), astronomer.
- January 21 – John Couch Adams (born 1819), mathematician.
- March 29 – Sir William Bowman, 1st Baronet (born 1816), ophthalmologist, histologist and anatomist.
- April 2 – Emin Pasha (born 1840), explorer.
- May 5 – August Wilhelm von Hofmann (born 1818), chemist
- June 27 – Carl Schorlemmer (born 1834), organic chemist.
- December 6 – Werner von Siemens (born 1816), electrical engineer.
- December 18 – Richard Owen (born 1804), anatomist and paleontologist.
- James, Frank. "Dewar, James". Chemistry Explained. Advameg Inc. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-22.
- Bell, Morag; McEwan, Cheryl (1996-01-01). "The Admission of Women Fellows to the Royal Geographical Society, 1892-1914; the Controversy and the Outcome". The Geographical Journal. 162 (3): 295–312. doi:10.2307/3059652. JSTOR 3059652.
- Crilly, Tony (2007). 50 Mathematical Ideas you really need to know. London: Quercus. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-84724-008-8.
- Anleitung zur aseptischen Wundbehandlung ("Guide to the aseptic treatment of wounds").
- Parke, A. L.; Buchanan, W. W. (1998). "Sjögren's syndrome: History, clinical and pathological features". Inflammopharmacology. 6: 271–287. doi:10.1007/s10787-998-0012-6. PMID 17657625.
- Fox, R. I. (2005). "Sjögren's syndrome". The Lancet. 366: 321–331. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(05)66990-5. PMID 16039337.
- Golden, Richard (2004). A history of William Osler’s 'The Principles and Practice of Medicine'. Osler Library studies in the history of medicine, no. 8. Montreal: McGill University. ISBN 0-7717-0615-4.
- RP 67207 Arbeitsverfahren und Ausführungsart für Verbrennungsmaschinen.
- McBeth, Douglas (1998). "Francois Hennebique (1842–1921) – Reinforced concrete pioneer". Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers.