1894 in literature
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This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1894.
- February – Oscar Wilde's play Salome is first published in English, with illustrations by Aubrey Beardsley.
- Early Spring – Mary Antin emigrates from Belarus to the United States with her mother.
- April – The Yellow Book (edited by Henry Harland) begins publication by John Lane and Elkin Mathews – The Bodley Head in London.
- April 21 – George Bernard Shaw's play Arms and the Man is premièred at the Avenue Theatre in London.
- May – Scottish writer William Sharp publishes Pharais, his first novel under the pseudonym Fiona MacLeod.
- June – Hermann Hesse begins his apprenticeship in mechanical engineering at a factory in Calw.
- August 15 – A. E. Waite starts to publish and edit his own occult periodical The Unknown World.
- October – Lafcadio Hearn begins working as a journalist for the English-language Kobe Chronicle in Japan.
- November 8 – Robert Frost's first poem, "My Butterfly", is published in The New York Independent, which pays him fifteen dollars.
- December 22 – Claude Debussy's symphonic poem Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune, a free interpretation of Stéphane Mallarmé's 1876 poem, "L'Après-midi d'un faune", is premièred in Paris.
- J. M. Dent begins publication in London of the Temple Shakespeare pocket editions edited by Israel Gollancz.
- The Century Roman typeface, first of the Century type family, is cut by American Type Founders' designer Linn Boyd Benton, originally for Theodore Low De Vinne's The Century Magazine.
- Gabriele D'Annunzio – Il trionfo della morte (The Triumph of Death)
- Clementina Black – The Agitator
- Léon Bloy – Disagreeable Tales
- Mary Elizabeth Braddon – The Christmas Hirelings
- Walter Browne – 2894
- Hall Caine
- The Madhi: or Love and Race, A Drama in Story
- The Manxman
- Anton Chekhov – "The Student" («Студент», published in Russkiye Vedomosti, April)
- Kate Chopin
- Bayou Folk
- "The Story of an Hour"
- Ella Hepworth Dixon – The Story of a Modern Woman
- Arthur Conan Doyle – The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes (collection)
- George du Maurier – Trilby (serialization in Harper's Monthly Magazine)
- Marcellus Emants – Een Nagelaten Bekentenis (A Posthumous Confession)
- Theodor Fontane – Effi Briest (begins serialization in Deutsche Rundschau)
- Mary E. Wilkins Freeman – Pembroke
- George Gissing – In the Year of Jubilee
- Katharine Glasier (as Katharine Conway) – Husband & Brother, a few chapters in a woman's life of to-day
- H. Rider Haggard – The People of the Mist
- Knut Hamsun – Pan
- Robert Hichens – The Green Carnation
- William Dean Howells – A Traveler from Altruria
- Jerome K. Jerome – John Ingerfield: And Other Stories
- Sheridan Le Fanu – The Watcher and Other Weird Stories
- Juhan Liiv – "Vari" ("The Shadow")
- Arthur Machen – The Great God Pan (in book form, with "The Innermost Light")
- Ian Maclaren – Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush
- George A. Moore – Esther Waters
- William Morris – The Wood Beyond the World
- Arthur Morrison – Martin Hewitt: Investigator
- John Muir – The Mountains of California
- Gustavus W. Pope – Journey to Mars
- Bolesław Prus – The New Woman (Emancypantki; book publication)
- Jules Renard – Poil de carotte (Carrot Head)
- Solomon Schindler – Young West
- Flora Annie Steel
- The Flower of Forgiveness
- The Potter's Thumb
- Tales of the Punjab (short stories)
- Stendhal – Lucien Leuwen
- Hermann Sudermann – The Undying Past (Es war)
- Robert Louis Stevenson and Lloyd Osbourne – The Ebb-Tide
- Mark Twain
- Jules Verne – Captain Antifer
- Mary Augusta Ward – Marcella
- H. G. Wells – "The Red Room"
- Israel Zangwill – The Bachelors' Club
- Émile Zola – Lourdes
Children and young people
- Harold Avery
- The Orderly Officer
- The School's Honour
- R. D. Blackmore – Perlycross
- Anthony Hope
- The Dolly Dialogues
- The Prisoner of Zenda
- Rudyard Kipling – The Jungle Book
- E. Nesbit – Miss Mischief
- Talbot Baines Reed – Tom, Dick and Harry
- Margaret Marshall Saunders – Beautiful Joe
- Ethel Turner – Seven Little Australians
- William Gillette – Too Much Johnson (adapted from Maurice Ordonneau's La Plantation Thomassin)
- Martin Greif – Agnes Bernauer, der Engel von Augsburg
- Sydney Grundy
- Henry Arthur Jones – The Case of Rebellious Susan
- Josef Lauff – Ignez de Castro
- Maurice Maeterlinck – The Death of Tintagiles (La Mort de Tintagiles, for marionette performance)
- Marc-André Raffalovich and John Gray – The Blackmailers
- Victorien Sardou – Gismonda
- George Bernard Shaw – Arms and the Man
- Hall Caine – The Manxman (the Pete version)
- Bliss Carman – Low Tide on Grande Pre: A Book Of Lyrics
- Pierre Louÿs – Songs of Bilitis
- Rainer Maria Rilke – Leben und Lieder
- Edward Carpenter – Homogenic Love and Its Place in a Free Society
- Christabel Rose Coleridge – The Daughters Who Have not Revolted (essays)
- Francis Darwin (with E. H. Acton) – The Practical Physiology of Plants
- King Gillette – The Human Drift
- Karl Marx – Das Kapital
- Leo Tolstoy – The Kingdom of God Is Within You
- January 1 – Aurora Nilsson, Swedish writer (died 1972)
- January 22 – Charles Langbridge Morgan, English novelist and dramatist (died 1958)
- February 6 – Eric Partridge, New Zealand/British lexicographer (died 1979)
- March 17 – Paul Green, American novelist and Pulitzer Prize winning playwright (died 1981)
- March 23 – Mark Slonim, Russian literary historian and critic (died 1976)
- April 6 – Elinor M. Brent-Dyer, English children's writer (died 1969)
- April 7 – A. A. Thomson, English cricket and travel writer (died 1968)
- May 27
- June 14 – W. W. E. Ross, Canadian geophysicist and Imagist poet (died 1966)
- June 15 – Trygve Gulbranssen, Norwegian novelist, businessman and journalist (died 1962)
- July 8 – Claude-Henri Grignon, Canadian novelist, journalist and politician (died 1976)
- July 9 – Phelps Putnam, American poet (died 1948)
- July 26 – Aldous Huxley, English novelist and poet (died 1963)
- July 30 – Păstorel Teodoreanu, Romanian poet and satirist (died 1964)
- August 31 – Albert Facey, Australian autobiographer (died 1982)
- September 6 – Howard Pease, American maritime adventure novelist (died 1974)
- September 23 – Momčilo Nastasijević, Serbian poet, novelist and dramatist (died 1938)
- October 4 – Frans G. Bengtsson, Swedish novelist, essayist, poet and biographer (died 1954)
- October 9 – Agnes von Krusenstjerna, Swedish writer (died 1940)
- October 14 – E. E. Cummings, American poet (died 1962)
- October 18 – H. L. Davis, American fiction writer, Pulitzer Prize winning novelist and poet (died 1960)
- October 26 – Eugene Jolas, American writer, literary translator and critic (died 1952)
- December 8 – James Thurber, American cartoonist and humorous writer (died 1961)
- December 26
- December 31 – Hong Shen (洪深), Chinese dramatist (died 1955)
- February 8 – R. M. Ballantyne, Scottish novelist for youth (born 1825)
- April 8
- April 12 – Ludwig Pfau, German poet, journalist, and revolutionary (born 1821)
- April 14 – Adolf Friedrich von Schack, German poet, literary historian and art collector (born 1815)
- May 7 – Marie Sophie Schwartz, Swedish novelist (died 1875)
- May 20 – Edmund Yates, Scottish novelist and dramatist (born 1831)
- June 5 – Edward Capern, English poet (born 1819)
- July 30 – Walter Pater, English essayist, critic and novelist (born 1839)
- August 6 – Otto Müller, German novelist (born 1816)
- September 29 – Christina Rossetti, English poet (born 1830)
- October 8 – Oliver Wendell Holmes, American poet and physician (born 1809)
- October 20 – James Anthony Froude, English historian, novelist and biographer (born 1818)
- December 3 – Robert Louis Stevenson, Scottish novelist, poet and travel writer (born 1850)
- Unknown dates
- February 15 – French anarchist Martial Bourdin accidentally kills himself while attempting to plant a bomb at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, a fictionalised version of which appears in Joseph Conrad's novel The Secret Agent (1907).
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- "An Alpine Pass on "Ski"". The Strand Magazine. London. 8: 657–661. 1894.
- Leavis, Q. D. (1965). Fiction and the Reading Public (rev. ed.). London: Chatto & Windus.
- Sutherland, John (2007). Bestsellers: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-19-921489-1.
- The Age of Leo the Tenth in Italy. The Newdigate prize poem, 1894 (British Library, Historical Print Editions (March 24, 2011))