1894 in literature
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The year 1894 in literature involved some significant new books.
- February - Oscar Wilde's play Salome is first published in English, with illustrations by Aubrey Beardsley.
- April - The Yellow Book (edited by Henry Harland) begins publication by John Lane and Elkin Mathews – The Bodley Head in London.
- April 21 - George Bernard Shaw's play Arms and the Man is premièred at the Avenue Theatre in London.
- August 15 - A. E. Waite starts to publish and edit his own occult periodical The Unknown World.
- November 8 - Robert Frost's first poem, "My Butterfly", is published in The New York Independent, which pays him fifteen dollars.
- December - Arthur Conan Doyle publishes "An Alpine Pass on "Ski"" in The Strand Magazine, popularizing skiing as a sport in Switzerland.
- December 22 - Claude Debussy's symphonic poem Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune, a free interpretation of Stéphane Mallarmé's 1876 poem, "L'après-midi d'un faune", is premièred in Paris.
- Mary Antin emigrates from Belarus to the United States with her family.
- J. M. Dent begins publication in London of the Temple Shakespeare pocket editions edited by Israel Gollancz.
- Lafcadio Hearn begins working as a journalist for the English-language Kobe Chronicle.
- Hermann Hesse begins his apprenticeship in mechanical engineering at a factory in Calw.
- Scottish writer William Sharp publishes Pharais, his first novel under the pseudonym Fiona MacLeod.
- The Century Roman typeface, first of the Century type family, is cut by American Type Founders' designer Linn Boyd Benton, originally for Theodore Low De Vinne's The Century Magazine.
- Gabriele D'Annunzio - Il trionfo della morte ("The Triumph of Death")
- R. D. Blackmore - Perlycross
- Mary Elizabeth Braddon - The Christmas Hirelings
- Walter Browne - 2894
- Hall Caine
- Kate Chopin - Bayou Folk
- Ella Hepworth Dixon - The Story of a Modern Woman
- Arthur Conan Doyle - The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes
- George du Maurier - Trilby (serialized in Harper's Monthly Magazine)
- Marcellus Emants - Een Nagelaten Bekentenis ("A Posthumous Confession")
- Theodor Fontane - Effi Briest (begins serialization in Deutsche Rundschau)
- Mary E. Wilkins Freeman - Pembroke
- George Gissing - In the Year of Jubilee
- H. Rider Haggard - The People of the Mist
- Knut Hamsun - Pan
- Robert Hichens - The Green Carnation
- Anthony Hope
- The Dolly Dialogues
- The Prisoner of Zenda
- William Dean Howells - A Traveler from Altruria
- Jerome K. Jerome - John Ingerfield: And Other Stories
- Rudyard Kipling - The Jungle Book
- Sheridan Le Fanu - The Watcher and Other Weird Stories
- Arthur Machen - The Great God Pan (in book form, with "The Innermost Light")
- Ian Maclaren - Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush
- George A. Moore - Esther Waters
- William Morris - The Wood Beyond the World
- Arthur Morrison - Martin Hewitt: Investigator
- John Muir - The Mountains of California
- Gustavus W. Pope - Journey to Mars
- Bolesław Prus - The New Woman (Emancypantki; book publication)
- Jules Renard - Poil de carotte ("Carrot Head")
- Margaret Marshall Saunders - Beautiful Joe
- Solomon Schindler - Young West
- Flora Annie Steel
- The Flower of Forgiveness
- The Potter's Thumb
- Tales of the Punjab (short stories)
- Stendhal - Lucien Leuwen
- Robert Louis Stevenson and Lloyd Osbourne - The Ebb-Tide
- Ethel Turner - Seven Little Australians
- Mark Twain
- Jules Verne - Captain Antifer
- Mary Augusta Ward - Marcella
- Israel Zangwill - The Bachelors' Club
- Émile Zola - Lourdes
- William Gillette - Too Much Johnson (adapted from Maurice Ordonneau's La Plantation Thomassin)
- Sydney Grundy
- Henry Arthur Jones - The Case of Rebellious Susan
- Josef Lauff - Ignez de Castro
- Maurice Maeterlinck - The Death of Tintagiles
- Victorien Sardou - Gismonda
- George Bernard Shaw - Arms and the Man
- Bliss Carman - Low Tide on Grande Pre: A Book Of Lyrics
- Pierre Louÿs - Songs of Bilitis
- Rainer Maria Rilke - Leben und Lieder
- Edward Carpenter - Homogenic love and its place in a free society
- King Gillette - The Human Drift
- Karl Marx - Das Kapital
- Leo Tolstoy - The Kingdom of God Is Within You
- Kate Chopin - "The Story of an Hour"
- Juhan Liiv - "Vari" ("The Shadow")
- H. G. Wells - "The Red Room"
- January 1 – Aurora Nilsson, Swedish writer (died 1972)
- January 22 – Charles Langbridge Morgan, English novelist and dramatist (died 1958)
- March 17 – Paul Green, American novelist and Pulitzer Prize winning playwright (died 1981)
- June 14 – W. W. E. Ross, Canadian geophysicist and Imagist poet (died 1966)
- June 15 – Trygve Gulbranssen, Norwegian novelist, businessman and journalist (died 1962)
- July 8 – Claude-Henri Grignon, Canadian novelist, journalist and politician (died 1976)
- July 9 – Phelps Putnam, American poet (died 1948)
- July 26 – Aldous Huxley, English novelist and poet (died 1963)
- August 31 – Albert Facey, Australian autobiographer (died 1982)
- September 6 – Howard Pease, American adventure novelist (died 1974)
- September 23 – Momčilo Nastasijević, Serbian poet, novelist and dramatist (died 1938)
- October 4 – Frans G. Bengtsson, Swedish novelist, essayist, poet and biographer (died 1954)
- October 9 – Agnes von Krusenstjerna, Swedish writer (died 1940)
- October 14 – E. E. Cummings, American poet (died 1962)
- October 26 – Eugene Jolas, American writer, literary translator and critic (died 1952)
- December 26 – Jean Toomer (Nathan Eugene Pinchback Toomer), African American writer (died 1967)
- December 31 – Hong Shen, Chinese dramatist (died 1955)
- February 8 – R. M. Ballantyne, Scottish novelist for youth (born 1825)
- April 8 – Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay (Bankim Chatterjee), Bengali writer and poet (born 1838)
- April 12 – Ludwig Pfau, German poet, journalist, and revolutionary (born 1821)
- April 14 – Adolf Friedrich von Schack, German poet, literary historian and art collector (born 1815)
- May 20 – Edmund Yates, Scottish novelist and dramatist (born 1831)
- June 5 – Edward Capern, English poet (born 1819)
- July 30 – Walter Pater, English essayist, critic and novelist (born 1839)
- August 6 – Otto Müller, German novelist (born 1816)
- September 29 – Christina Rossetti, English poet (born 1830)
- October 8 – Oliver Wendell Holmes, American poet and physician (born 1809)
- October 20 – James Anthony Froude, English historian, novelist and biographer (born 1818)
- December 3 – Robert Louis Stevenson, Scottish novelist, poet and travel writer (born 1850)
- Unknown dates
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- "An Alpine Pass on "Ski"". The Strand Magazine (London) 8: 657–661. 1894.
- Leavis, Q. D. (1965). Fiction and the Reading Public (rev. ed.). London: Chatto & Windus.
- Sutherland, John (2007). Bestsellers: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-19-921489-1.
- The Age of Leo the Tenth in Italy. The Newdigate prize poem, 1894 (British Library, Historical Print Editions (March 24, 2011))