1895 in science
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|List of years in science (table)|
|... 1885 . 1886 . 1887 . 1888 . 1889 . 1890 . 1891 ...
1892 1893 1894 -1895- 1896 1897 1898
... 1899 . 1900 . 1901 . 1902 . 1903 . 1904 . 1905 ...
|Art . Archaeology . Architecture . Literature . Music . Philosophy . Science +...|
- April 26 - The New York Zoological Society, the modern-day Wildlife Conservation Society, is chartered.
- David Bruce discovers the Trypanosoma parasite carried by the tsetse fly which causes the fatal cattle disease nagana.
- March 26 - Scottish chemist William Ramsay isolates helium on Earth by treating the mineral cleveite. These samples are identified as helium by Norman Lockyer and William Crookes. It is independently isolated from cleveite in the same year by Per Teodor Cleve and Abraham Langlet in Uppsala, Sweden, who determine its atomic weight.
- Emil Fischer and Arthur Speier first describe Fischer–Speier esterification.
- Eugen Warming publishes Plantesamfund (translated as Oecology of Plants, 1909) and founds the scientific discipline ecology.
- The first international meeting for the protection of birds is held in Paris.
- May 7 - Alexander Stepanovich Popov demonstrates a radio receiver (containing a coherer) refined as a lightning detector to the Russian Physico-Chemical Society, recognized as the first practical application of electromagnetic waves.
- November 8 - Wilhelm Röntgen discovers a type of electromagnetic radiation which he calls X-rays.
- February 13 - Auguste and Louis Lumière patent their cinematograph motion picture film camera/projector in France.
- May 6 - The Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railroad is opened in Chicago as the first electrically operated rapid transit system in the United States, including the first completed Scherzer rolling lift bridge.
- December 31 - Ogden Bolton Jr. is granted U.S. Patent 552,271 for an electric bicycle.
- Ernest A. Hummel invents the telediagraph.
- May - Publication of H. G. Wells' first "scientific romance", the novella The Time Machine (serial publication completed and first book editions).
- July 25 - Maria Skłodowska marries Pierre Curie in the town hall at Sceaux.
- May 20 - R. J. Mitchell (died 1937), English aeronautical engineer.
- October 19 - Lewis Mumford (died 1990), American historian & philosopher of science.
- October 22 - Rolf Nevanlinna (died 1980), Finnish mathematician.
- October 23 - Hans Ferdinand Mayer (died 1980), German physicist.
- October 30 - Gerhard Domagk (died 1964), German winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
- Asatour Sarafian, later Oscar H. Banker (died 1979), Armenian American inventor.
- January 26 - Arthur Cayley (born 1821), English mathematician.
- April 11 - Lothar Meyer (born 1830), German chemist.
- May 5 - Karl Vogt (born 1817), German scientist who published notable works in zoology, geology and physiology.
- June 29 - Sir Thomas Henry Huxley (born 1825), English biologist.
- August 10 - Felix Hoppe-Seyler (born 1825), German physiologist.
- August 26 - Friedrich Miescher (born 1844), Swiss biologist.
- September 24 - Hermann Hellriegel (born 1831), German agricultural chemist who discovered the mechanism by which leguminous plants assimilate the free nitrogen of the atmosphere.
- September 28 - Louis Pasteur (born 1822), French biologist.
- Bruce, D. (1895). Preliminary Report on Tsetse Fly Disease or Nagana in Zululand. Durban: Bennet & Davis.
- Duggan, A. J. (1977). "Bruce and the African Trypanosomes". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 26: 1080–3. PMID 20787.
- Hampel, Clifford A. (1968). The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. pp. 256–268. ISBN 0-442-15598-0.
- Ramsay, William (1895). "On a Gas Showing the Spectrum of Helium, the Reputed Cause of D3, one of the lines in the Coronal Spectrum. Preliminary Note". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 58 (1): 65–67. doi:10.1098/rspl.1895.0006.
- Ramsay, William (1895). "Helium, a Gaseous Constituent of Certain Minerals. Part I". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 58 (1): 80–89. doi:10.1098/rspl.1895.0010.
- Ramsay, William (1895). "Helium, a Gaseous Constituent of Certain Minerals. Part II". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 59 (1): 325–330. doi:10.1098/rspl.1895.0097.
- Munday, Pat (1999). "W.F. Hillebrand (1853–1925), geochemist and U.S. Bureau of Standards administrator". In Garraty, John A.; Carnes, Mark C (ed). American National Biography. 10–11. Oxford University Press. pp. 808–9; 227–8.
- Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks. Oxford University Press. pp. 175–179. ISBN 0-19-850341-5.
- Langlet, N. A. (1895). "Das Atomgewicht des Heliums". Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie (in German) 10 (1): 289–292. doi:10.1002/zaac.18950100130.
- Weaver, E. R. (1919). "Bibliography of Helium Literature". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry.
- Fischer, Emil; Speier, Arthur (1895). "Darstellung der Ester". Chemische Berichte 28: 3252–3258. doi:10.1002/cber.189502803176.
- "The Endangered Species Act - History Of Species Protection". Science Encyclopedia. Library Index. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
- "Report 12 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (A-97)". American Medical Association. 1997. Lay summary – 1997 Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association: Reports of the Council on Scientific Affairs (1997).[dead link]
- "Popov's Contribution to the Development of Wireless Communication, 1895". IEEE Global History Network. Milestones. IEEE. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
- Röntgen, W. (December 1895). "Eine neue Art von Strahlen". Sityzungs-Berichteder physikalisch-medicinisch Gesellschaft zu Würzburg (9).
- "New "L" Road Opens". Chicago Daily Tribune. 1895-05-07. p. 12.
- "Cermak Road Bridge District" (PDF). City of Chicago. 2003. p. 17. Archived from the original on January 31, 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-09.
- "Electrical Bicycle". Google Patents. 1895. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- Morchin, William C.; Oman, Henry (2006). Electric Bicycles. Hoboken: Wiley. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-471-67419-1.