1905

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1905 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1905
MCMV
Ab urbe condita2658
Armenian calendar1354
ԹՎ ՌՅԾԴ
Assyrian calendar6655
Baháʼí calendar61–62
Balinese saka calendar1826–1827
Bengali calendar1312
Berber calendar2855
British Regnal yearEdw. 7 – 5 Edw. 7
Buddhist calendar2449
Burmese calendar1267
Byzantine calendar7413–7414
Chinese calendar甲辰年 (Wood Dragon)
4601 or 4541
    — to —
乙巳年 (Wood Snake)
4602 or 4542
Coptic calendar1621–1622
Discordian calendar3071
Ethiopian calendar1897–1898
Hebrew calendar5665–5666
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1961–1962
 - Shaka Samvat1826–1827
 - Kali Yuga5005–5006
Holocene calendar11905
Igbo calendar905–906
Iranian calendar1283–1284
Islamic calendar1322–1323
Japanese calendarMeiji 38
(明治38年)
Javanese calendar1834–1835
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4238
Minguo calendar7 before ROC
民前7年
Nanakshahi calendar437
Thai solar calendar2447–2448
Tibetan calendar阳木龙年
(male Wood-Dragon)
2031 or 1650 or 878
    — to —
阴木蛇年
(female Wood-Snake)
2032 or 1651 or 879

1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1905th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 905th year of the 2nd millennium, the 5th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1905, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

As the second year of the massive Russo-Japanese War begins, more than 100,000 die in the largest world battles of that era, and the war chaos leads to the 1905 Russian Revolution against Nicholas II of Russia (Shostakovich's 11th Symphony is subtitled The Year 1905 to commemorate this) and the start of Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland. Canada and the U.S. expand west, with the Alberta and Saskatchewan provinces and the founding of Las Vegas. 1905 is also the year in which Albert Einstein, at this time resident in Bern, publishes his four Annus Mirabilis papers in Annalen der Physik (Leipzig) (March 18, May 11, June 30 and September 27), laying the foundations for more than a century's study of theoretical physics.

Events[edit]

"Baby New Year", a cartoon by John T. McCutcheon depicting the new year 1905 chasing the old 1904 into the history books
1905: Einstein's "miracle year"

January[edit]

January 22 (9 O.S.): The Bloody Sunday massacre of Russian demonstrators at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg
  • January 1 – In a major defeat in the Russo-Japanese War, General Anatoly Stessel of the Russian Army surrendered Port Arthur, located in mainland China, to the Japanese.[1]
  • January 2 – As terms of surrender were drawn up for Russia, the Russian squadron of five battleships and three cruisers put into anchor at Sainte-Marie Island (now Nosy Boraha) off the coast of Africa and Madagascar.[2]
  • January 3 – Japan took former possession of Port Arthur and renamed it Ryojun, holding it for 40 years. The area would revert in 1945 to China and is now the Lushunkou District.[2]
  • January 4
    • Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino becomes Prime Minister of Romania for the second time, having previously served from 1899 to 1900, and remains in office for more than two years.[3]
    • The city of Bend, Oregon, plotted out in 1900 by Alexander Drake, was incorporated as a town for local logging companies, and would have a population of 536 in 1910. By the year 2020, it would have almost 100,000 residents.[4]
  • January 5 – Baroness Emma Orczy's play The Scarlet Pimpernel, the forerunner of her novel, opened at the New Theatre in London, beginning a run of 122 performances and numerous revivals.[5]
  • January 6
    • The Lick Observatory announced the discovery of a sixth moon of Jupiter, made by their astronomer Charles D. Perrine. Unlike the first five Jovian satellites discovered, the sixth one would be referred to as "Jupiter VI" until 1975, and is now called Himalia.[2]
    • The U.S. Senate confirmed the nomination of William D. Crum, an African-American, to the office of collector of customs at Charleston, South Carolina after Crum's nomination by President Theodore Roosevelt.[2]
    • Danish prime minister Johan Henrik Deuntzer and his cabinet resigned over a disagreement regarding Denmark's military.[2]
  • January 7 – The Colorado State Legislature entered an agreement with Alva Adams to allow him to take office as Governor of Colorado while a challenge by Republican candidate James Peabody was being investigated. Under the arrangement, Adams took office on January 10 on condition that he was to step down voluntarily if the legislature concluded that Peabody had won the popular vote. Adams resigned on March 17 after the investigation concluded that Peabody had won.[2]
  • January 8 – At the excavation site in Egypt near Saqqara, where British archaeologist Howard Carter was an inspector for the Egyptian Antiquities Service, the Egyptian guards of the site were in a fist fight with 15 tourists from France, many of whom were intoxicated. The government of France filed a formal protest with Egyptian authorities, and Carter took the side of his workers. To appease the French in the "Saqqara Affair", Carter was fired from his job and without formal employment for the next three years.[6] In 1923, he would gain worldwide fame in finding the tomb of Tutankhamen.
  • January 9 – U.S. Secretary of the Navy Paul Morton and Admiral of the Navy George Dewey reviewed the largest concentration of American warships up to that time, as 40 ships, "including six of the most powerful battleships afloat", were brought into port at Hampton Roads, Virginia.[7]
  • January 10Chile and Bolivia signed a treaty of peace and amity.[2]
  • January 11 – Under the supervision of five editors, work began on the comprehensive Catholic Encyclopedia, subtitled "An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church" and published by the Robert Appleton Company. The first volume would appear in 1907.
  • January 12 – Marie Walcker, the last victim of German-born American serial killer and bigamist Johann Otto Hoch, died of poisoning in Chicago a month after her their marriage. On January 30, Hoch was arrested in New York City, initially for having married and deserted multiple women (one estimate is 45 women in ten states from 1888 to 1905 [8]), but soon was charged with Marie Walcker's murder, for which he would be convicted. Hoch was suspected of perhaps as many as 50 murders, but only charged with Walcker's death. He would be hanged on February 23, 1906.[9]
  • January 13Alexander, Prince of Lippe, the last sovereign monarch of the German principality of Lippe, died after a nominal reign of 10 years, leaving no children to succeed him and ending the Lippe-Detmold line. Prince Alexander's power had been exercised by regents because of his mental illness, and the question of a successor would not be resolved until October until the last regent, Alexander's cousin Leopold IV, Count of Lippe-Biesterfeld. After World War One, the principality would be abolished and would exist as a "Free State" until the end of World War Two; it is now part of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia.[10]
  • January 14Jens Christian Christensen took office as the new Prime Minister of Denmark.[2]
  • January 15 – A series of three 133 feet (41 m) high tsunamis killed 61 people in the Norway in the villages of Ytre Nesdal and Bødal, after a rockslide swept down Mount Ramnefjell and crashed into Lake Lovatnet.[11]
  • January 16 – The Ottawa Hockey Club retained the Stanley Cup, winning the best-2-of-3 series in the second and deciding game against the Dawson City Nuggets, who had traveled 4,000 miles (6,400 km) from Canada's Yukon Territory by dog sled, ship, and train over more than three weeks to challenge Ottawa for the Cup.[12] After prevailing in the first game, 9 to 2 over the Nuggets on January 13, the day after the exhausted Nugget players arrived in the capital, the champions easily won Game 2, with a final score of Ottawa Hockey Club 23, Dawson City Nuggets 2.[13]
  • January 17 – In France, Prime Minister Émile Combes and his cabinet announced their resignations after being implicated in the Affair of the Cards (L'Affaire des Fiches), a system set up by the War Ministry to purge the French Army officers corps of Jesuits.[14]
  • January 18 – U.S. District Judge Charles Swayne of Florida was impeached by the U.S. House of Representatives.[2]
  • January 19Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire narrowly escaped injury during the "blessing of the waters" of the Neva River near Saint Petersburg. One of the guns firing a salute malfunctioned and sent grapeshot down into the crowd of dignitaries, narrowly missing the Tsar.[2]
  • January 20
    • An arbitration treaty was signed at Washington between the United States, Sweden, and Norway.[2]
    • Lobbyists from the U.S. territory of New Mexico presented their arguments against being consolidated with the Arizona Territory for admission as a single state.[2]
  • January 21 – The Dominican Republic signed an agreement with the United States to allow the U.S. to administer the collection of customs taxes for Santo Domingo for 50 years, with the U.S. to assume responsibility for payment of the Republic's debts to foreign nations from Dominican income. The agreement was done as an exercise of the "Roosevelt Corollary" to the Monroe Doctrine.[15]
  • January 22 (January 9 O.S.) – The Bloody Sunday massacre of peaceful Russian demonstrators at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg took place, leading to an unsuccessful uprising.
  • January 23 – U.S. Senator Reed Smoot of Utah, who also served at the time as one of the Quorum of the Twelve in the governing body of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, refused to testify before a Senate committee about the secret endowment ceremony of church members.[15]
  • January 24Maurice Rouvier formed a government as the new List of Prime Ministers of France#French Third Republic (1870–1940)|Prime Minister of France.[15]
  • January 25 – Tsar Nicholas II appointed General Dmitri Trepov to be the Governor-General of Saint Petersburg, with absolute power to issue regulations to keep order.[15]
  • January 26 – (January 13 O.S. in Russia)
  • January 27 – The Alaska Equal Rights Act of 1945#Nelson Act was passed into law in the United States, providing for racial segregation of schools in the Alaska Territory. While providing for establishment of a school district in any unincorporated community with a population of at least 20 "white children and children of mixed blood who lead a civilized life", the Act also required that "the education of Eskimos and Indians in Alaska shall remain under the direction and control of the Secretary of the Interior, and school for and among the Eskimos and Indians of Alaska shall have the same right to be admitted to any Indian boarding school as the Indian children in the States or Territories of the United States."[16]
  • January 28 – Two disasters in the Russo-Japanese War took place in different battles. In Manchuria, near Linchinpu, a group of 200 Japanese soldiers armed only with rifles was thrown into battle against Russian Army defenders who had two machine guns available. When the Japanese got within 900 feet (270 m) of the Russians, the firing of 1,000 cartridges began with most of the soldiers killed or wounded within two minutes.[17] At the village of Sandepu, 36 miles (58 km) south of Mukden, General Oskar Gripenberg ordered the Russian Army to attack, but the Japanese repelled the attackers with a bayonet charge. Most of the Russian soldiers were killed or wounded, and those who didn't die immediately were left behind in the retreat and froze to death overnight.[18]
  • January 29Rioting broke out in Warsaw, at the time under Russian Imperial rule with a Russian Governor-General.[15]
  • January 30
    • The U.S. Supreme Court rendered its unanimous decision in the landmark case of Swift & Co. v. United States, upholding as constitutional the right of the federal government to use antitrust laws to regulate monopolies based on the Commerce Clause of Article I, Section 8, of the U.S. Constitution ("Congress... shall have power to regulate Commerce... among the several States") [15]
  • January 31 – What has been called "the greatest ball of the Gilded Age" [19] was held by James Hazen Hyde, the 28-year-old heir to the fortune of the founder of the Equitable Life Assurance Association" at New York City's Sherry Hotel, who spent $200,000 for a "Louis XV costume ball" for invited guests.[20] Based on purchasing power at the time, the cost of the party would have been equivalent to more than 6.7 million dollars in 2022.[21]

February[edit]

March[edit]

  • March 1
  • March 2 – Russia's Committee of Ministers voted to grant religious freedom to the residents of the Russian Empire.[28]
  • March 3 – Tsar Nicholas II of Russia announced his decision to create an elected assembly, the Duma, to represent the people of the Russian Empire in an advisory capacity, although the real power to make laws remained with the Tsar and the cabinet of ministers.
  • March 4
    • The second inauguration of Theodore Roosevelt took place as the incumbent U.S. president, who had taken office in 1901 to fill the remainder of the term of President William McKinley, was sworn in for a full term as 26th President of the United States.[28]
    • Newly inaugurated vice president Charles W. Fairbanks called the Fifty-ninth Congress of the United States of America into session.[28]
  • March 5Russo-Japanese War: the Russian Imperial Army began to retreat from Mukden, after losing 100,000 troops in three days.
  • March 6
  • March 7
    • The UK House of Commons declined to approve remedial measures for evicted Irish tenants in Britain, the legislation receiving 182 votes in favor and 220 against.[28]
    • Tsar Nicholas II dissolved a proposed commission to investigate labor disputes in the Russian Empire, after workers organizations refused to send delegates.[28]
  • March 8 – The U.S. Senate voted to confirm all of the diplomatic and consular appointments made by President Roosevelt.[28]
  • March 9 – U.S. Senator William B. Bate of Tennessee died suddenly from pneumonia, five days after attending the inauguration of the president and the beginning of his fourth term at the opening of the 59th Congress. Bate, who served had three full terms as Senator, had first taken office 18 years and five days earlier, on March 4, 1887. A funeral was held for him the next day in the Senate Chamber of the U.S. Capitol, after which his body was sent back to Nashville.[28]
  • March 10
  • March 11Christian Michelsen became the new Prime Minister of Norway, at the time that Norway was part of the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway (Förenade Konungarikena Sverige och Norge), with the title of Prime Minister in Christiania. Appointed by King Oscar II of Sweden to succeed Francis Hagerup, Michelsen would become the first Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Norway after the dissolution of the United Kingdoms on October 26.
  • March 12 – Italy's Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti and his cabinet stepped down, after their resignations and had been announced on March 4 because of Giolitti's illness.[28]
  • March 13Mata Hari introduced her exotic dance act in the Musée Guimet, Paris.[34]
  • March 14
  • March 15
  • March 16James Hamilton Peabody was installed as the Governor of the U.S. state Colorado by the Colorado Legislature while the election dispute between himself and Alva Adams was being investigated, on the condition that Peabody resign in favor of Lieutenant Governor J. F. McDonald.[28] Peabody resigned the next day and McDonald became acting governor of Colorado.
  • March 17
  • March 18Albert Einstein submitted for publication his paper "On a heuristic viewpoint concerning the production and transformation of light", in which he explained the photoelectric effect using the notion of light quanta. The paper would be published on June 9.
  • March 19 – Twin explosions killed 24 miners at the Rush Run and Red Ash coal mines near Thurmond, West Virginia.[28]
  • March 20 – The Grover Shoe Factory disaster killed 58 employees in Brockton, Massachusetts, when a boiler exploded, the factory building collapsed.
  • March 21 – "The Treaty of Peace and Friendship" (El tratado de Paz y Amistad) between Chile and Bolivia, signed on October 20, 1904, went into effect, settling the question of the border between the two South American nations. Bolivia ceded the territory of Antofagasta to Chile in return for Chile extending a railroad from the Pacific port of Arica to the Bolivian capital at La Paz.
  • March 22 – Russia's Committee of Ministers voted to abolish the compulsory use of the Russian language in schools in "Congress Poland" (Tsarstvo Polskoye).[38]
  • March 23
    • The Theriso revolt began in Crete as about 1,500 men, led by Eleftherios Venizelos, met at the village of Theriso to challenge the island's authoritarian government and press for its unification with Greece.
    • In the U.S. state of Maryland, the state Supreme Court ordered Governor Edwin Warfield to submit a proposed constitutional amendment for disenfranchisement of non-whites to a referendum vote.[38]
    • Lord Midleton, Britain's Secretary of State for India, presented a report to the House of Commons that over 346,000 people had died of bubonic plague in India in a single year.[38]
    • Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany signed legislation authorizing the construction of a railway across its colony of Kamerun (now Cameroon) from Jaunde (now Yaounde) to Lake Chad.[38]
  • March 24
  • March 25Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology both announced a proposal for unification of the two universities.[38] The Harvard-MIT merger would never take place.
  • March 26 – General Min Young-hwan was appointed as the Prime Minister of the Korean Empire by Emperor Gojong, but was removed 12 days later on April 4. General Min was one of the last premiers of an independent Korea before the Eulsa Treaty of November 17, 1905, made Korea a protectorate of the Japanese Empire, and would commit suicide after the treaty was signed by his successor.
  • March 27 – The Battle of Tabanovce was fought between the 27 guerrillas of the Serbian Chetnik Organization and much larger battalion of 112 members of the Ottoman Army at the village of Tabanovce, now part of the Republic of North Macedonia. The Chetniks, led by Vladimir Kovačević. The Ottomans and their Albanian allies lost more than half of their men, but Kovačević was killed in battle.
  • March 28 – A federal grand jury returned a criminal indictment against the government of the U.S. city of Louisville, Kentucky for alleged violations of federal laws against forced labor.
  • March 29
    • U.S. President Roosevelt fired all seven members of the Isthmian Canal Commission, including the U.S. Governor of the Panama Canal Zone, Major General George W. Davis.
    • Boxer Jimmy Walsh knocked out Monte Attell, in a controversial six-round bout at the National Athletic Club in Philadelphia to win recognition of the World Bantamweight Championship by the National Boxing Association, despite being disqualified by the referee.
  • March 30 – U.S. Navy Rear Admiral Charles J. Train was appointed as the new commander-in-chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet, but his career would be marred in November when he accidentally shot and injured a Chinese woman while hunting pheasants near Nanjing. Admiral Train would die of uremia 16 months later while in China.[40]
  • March 31
    • Wilhelm II, German Emperor asserted German equality with France in Morocco, triggering the First Moroccan Crisis, also known as the Tangier Crisis.
    • Pennsylvania Governor Samuel W. Pennypacker vetoed the first attempt to pass a compulsory sterilization law in the United States as part of a program of eugenics, "An act for the prevention of idiocy", authorizing mental institutions the perform surgery "for the prevention of procreation.".[41] Pennypacker was severe in his criticism of the bill, stating in his veto message, "It is plain that the safest and most effective method of preventing procreation would be to cut the heads off the inmates, and such authority is given by the bill to this staff of scientific experts. It is not probable that they would resort to this means for the prevention of procreation, but it is probable that they would endeavor to destroy some part of the human organism. He added that "Men of high scientific attainments are prone in their love for technique to lose sight of broad principles outside of their domain of thought," and that the bill bill "violates the principles of ethics."[42] The veto was not overridden. The U.S. state of Indiana would pass the first sterilization bill in 1907.[41]

April[edit]

May[edit]

  • May 1 – As uprisings in Poland continued, Imperial Russian Army soldiers fired into a crowd a crowd of protesters in Warsaw and in Lodz.[52]
May 15: Las Vegas is founded with auction of 110 acres (0.45 km2)

June[edit]

  • June 1
    • The Lewis and Clark Exposition, celebrating the centennial of the two explorers' arrival at the northwest United States, opened in Portland, Oregon.[69]
    • The Sultan of Morocco rejected France's demands for a scheme of reforms.[69]
  • June 2
    • The palace of Spain's Governor-General of Catalonia in Barcelona was seriously damaged by a bomb.[69]
    • Board chairman H. C. Frick and several other directors of the Equitable Life Insurance resigned after a Congressional investigation of the company's scandal was made public. Former U.S. Secretary of the Navy Paul Morton was elected the new chairman of the board on June 9.[69]
  • June 3 – Russia's three surviving cruisers from the Battle of Tsushima-- Oleg, Aurora and Jemchug—limped into Manila Harbor with serious damages.[69]
  • June 4 – Morocco's Foreign Minister asked the major powers for an international conference on France's demands. Germany joined in the proposal on June 8.[69]
  • June 5
    • U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt informed Russia that it would have to remove three Imperial Navy cruisers that had fled to Manila Bay to repair damages sustained at the Battle of Tsushima. On June 10, Admiral Enquist of Russia replied that the cruisers would remain anyway.[69]
    • The Russian Navy cruiser Terck sank the British steamer Ikhona.[80]
    • Venezuela and Colombia resumed diplomatic relations.
  • June 6 – In Germany's last royal wedding, Crown Prince Wilhelm, son of Kaiser Wilhelm II and heir to the throne, was married to Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin at Berlin.
  • June 7 – The Norwegian Parliament, the Storting, declared dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden, giving Norway full independence. While King Oscar protested the action, there was no disturbance in either nation.[69]
  • June 8 – The sinking of a Royal Navy torpedo boat during maneuvers killed 14 officers and men.[69]
  • June 9
    • King Oscar of Sweden declined a request from the Storting to nominate a king for Norway.[69]
    • Charlton Athletic F.C. was founded in London, England.
  • June 10
    • Russia and Japan both accepted U.S. President Roosevelt's invitation to have a peace conference to end the Russo-Japanese War. On June 15, the event was tentatively scheduled for Washington, D.C.[69] to begin by August 10.[80]
    • Norway's government lowered the flag of the Union of Sweden and Norway from all offices, and substituted the Norse tricolor flag.[69]
  • June 11
    • The Pennsylvania Railroad inaugurated express service that allowed travel between New York City and Chicago in only 18 hours.[69]
    • Sweden's government said that it would not recognize the secession of Norway from the Union of Sweden and Norway. The Storting replied on June 19 that it inended to proceed with secession anyway.[69]
  • June 12
    • The Servants of India Society was founded by Gopal Krishna Gokhale, pledging "to train men for the work of political education and agitation, and to promote by all constitutional means the natural interests of the Indian people."[81]
    • The fastest speed ever set for a steam powered locomotive, 127.1 miles per hour (204.5 km/h) by the Pennsylvania Railroad's 4-4-2 7002.[82]
  • June 13Theodoros Diligiannis, Prime Minister of Greece since December 29, was stabbed to death by a professional gambler, Antony Gherakaris, as he was entering the Hellenic Parliament house. Diligiannis had recently led the government in outlawing gambling houses in Greece.
  • June 14 – A gun explosion on the British battleship HMS Magnificent killed 18 sailors.
  • June 15Princess Margaret of Connaught married Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden, Duke of Skåne, the future King Gustaf VI Adolf.
  • June 16 – As the Russo-Japanese War continued, Japan's Field Marshal Oyama routed 3,000 Russian troops led by General Mistchenko in a battle at Liaoyang in Manchuria.[69]
  • June 17
    • The crash of a Western Maryland Railroad train at Ransen, Maryland, killed 23 people.[69]
    • France's premier and Germany's ambassador in Paris began conferences on the Moroccan situation.[69]
  • June 18
    • A coal mine explosion in Russia killed 500 employees at the Ivan Colliery at Kharsisk.[69]
    • Géza Fejérváry took office as the new Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Hungary, after being appointed by Austro-Hungarian Emperor Franz Joseph (King Ferenc József). The Hungarian parliament voted to declare the Fejérváry ministry unconstitutional.
  • June 19 – The U.S. signed postal treaties with Australia and Panama.
  • June 20 – Dr. Ernest Henry Starling introduced the word "hormone" into the English language by coining the term in his paper "The Chemical Correlation of the Functions of the Body" in a lecture to the Royal College of Physicians in London.[83]
  • June 21
    • The New York Central Railroad's flagship passenger train, the 20th Century Limited, was derailed in an apparent act of sabotage, leaving open of a switch in Mentor, Ohio, killing 21 people.[80]
    • King Oscar of Sweden opened the Riksdag's new session and endorsed the recommendation of the Swedish government to negotiate with Norway's Storting for a peaceful dissolution of the union of the two nations.[80]
  • June 22 – Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia was appointed by the Tsar Nicholas II to be the new President of the Council of National Defense.[80]
  • June 23
    • Eighteen months after their first powered flight, the Wright Brothers tested their new Wright Flyer III airplane.
    • Russian troops killed 50 Polish independence demonstrators and wounded another 200 in the city of Lodz.[80]
    • Montero Rios was sworn in as the new Prime Minister of Spain.[80]
  • June 24 – Prime Minister Ralli formed a new cabinet of ministers.[80]
  • June 26 – The House of Commons rejected a motion of no confidence in the government of British Prime Minister Arthur Balfour, after revelations of corruption in the British Army.[80]
  • June 27 – (June 14 O.S.): Mutiny broke out on the Russian ironclad Potemkin. The principal officers were killed as the mutineers seized the ship on the Black Sea and steered it into the harbor of Odessa, where a riot had broken out. The Russian Navy's Black Sea squadron was dispatched from Sevastopol to either capture or sink the rebel battleship. By June 29, over 1,000 people had been killed in street fighting and the Potemkin began shelling of the city.
  • June 28 – A portion of the "Pomp And Circumstance March No. 1 In D", subtitled "Land of Hope and Glory", composed by Sir Edward Elgar and simply referred to in North America as "Pomp and Circumstance", was first played as a graduation march, after Yale University music professor Samuel Sanford invited Elgar to receive an honorary degree.
  • June 29
  • June 30Albert Einstein submitted for publication his paper "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies", establishing his theory of special relativity. It would be published on September 26.[80]

July[edit]

  • July 1
    • Hundreds of people died in the flooding of Guanajunto in Mexico.
    • A federal grand jury in Chicago indicted five corporations and 17 people for violations of the Sherman Act after charges were brought by the U.S. Department of Justice in an antitrust prosecution.[80]
    • China's government ordered all provincial governors and viceroys to put a stop to anti-American protests.
    • U.S. Secretary of State John Hay died suddenly. Funeral services were conducted on July 5 with President Roosevelt and Vice President Fairbanks attending. Roosevelt appointed Elihu Root to succeed ay, and Root was confirmed and took office on July 19.[80]
    • Charles J. Bonaparte became the new U.S. Secretary of the Navy.[80]
  • July 2
    • The Russian Imperial Navy's Black Sea squadron returned to Sevastopol after having been unable to capture or sink the battleship Potemkin, and the ships were disabled.[80]
    • Philadelphia police arrested almost 2,000 people in a raid on gambling houses and "disorderly resorts".
  • July 3 – France's Chamber of Deputies passed the bill for separation of church and state, 341 to 233.[80]
  • July 4
    • The lower house of Austria's parliament voted down a motion to prepare for a separation of Hungary from the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[80]
    • The U.S. Department of Agriculture announced more than 1,200 civil lawsuits against American railroad companies for violation of federal laws regarding transportation of livestock.[80]
  • July 5Alfred Deakin took office as the new Prime Minister of Australia.[80]
  • July 6 – The remains of John Paul Jones were turned over to U.S. Navy officials in Paris, and a special squadron departed from Cherbourg on July 8 to send the remains to the U.S.
  • July 7 – U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt delivered a speech to 60,000 people at the National Educational Association convention at Asbury Park, New Jersey.
  • July 8
    • U.S. President Roosevelt sent his 21-year-old daughter, Alice Roosevelt Longworth, and her party on a diplomatic journey to Japan, the Philippines, Hong Kong, China and Korea.[84]
    • France accepted Germany's terms for a conference at Tangier to resolve their dispute in Morocco
  • July 9 – Romania returned the battleship Potemkin to the Russian Imperial Navy the day after the mutineering crew had been granted asylum at the Black Sea port of Kustenji.
  • July 10
    • A Japanese expedition took control of the Russian island of Sakhalin after a short battle. Before retreating, the Russian Navy commander burned the government buildings and destroyed the coast defense guns, as well as destroying much of the capital at Korsakorsk.
    • Field Marshal Lord Roberts declared in a speech at the House of Lords that the British Army was totally unfit for war and called for conscription of additional young men into the service.
    • Portsmouth, New Hampshire was agreed upon by the U.S., Japan and Russia to negotiate the terms of the treaty to end the Russo-Japanese War.
  • July 11
    • Major General Count Shuvalov, chief of police operations in Moscow, was assassinated.
    • More than 100 coal miners were killed in an explosion at the United National Colliers Company at Wattstown in Wales.
  • July 12
    • The University of Sheffield, an amalgamation of Firth College, the Medical Institution and the Technical School, was officially opened by King Edward VII in England. [85]
    • The first World Congress of the Baptist Church ended with all attending stood up and voluntarily recited the Apostles' Creed. [86]
  • July 13 – Britain's Prime Minister Balfour declared that he was opposed to using the draft to increase the strength of the British Army.
  • July 14
    • The government of France instituted its first government assistance program for elderly and disabled persons.
    • Orville Wright suffered minor injuries in a test-flight of the Wright Brothers' new Wright Flyer III airplane, prompting them to begin a major redesign of the aircraft.
    • The first known suicide attack by a civilian (as opposed to sacrifices made in military combat) took place when a New Zealand farmer, Joseph Sewell, walked into a courtroom in Murchison (where he was the defendant in a civil lawsuit) and announced that he intended to detonate dynamite sticks strapped to his body. Sewell was ushered from the courtroom to the street and set off the dynamite after a police officer (who survived the blast) attempted to arrest him.[87]
  • July 15 – The popular fictional character Arsène Lupin, the gentleman thief, was introduced in France. Created by French writer Maurice Leblanc, the first Lupin story appeared in the magazine Je sais tout, with the publication of the story ""The Arrest of Arsène Lupin" ("L'Arrestation d'Arsène Lupin"). Lupin went on to be featured in 17 novels and 39 short novels, and has been featured in plays, films and several television series.
  • July 16
  • Ottoman Empire forces, led by General Ahmad Faydi Pasha, began a three-pronged attack on Yemen, capturing the Sana'a on August 30.[88]
  • At the age of 14, Julius Henry Marx made his show business debut, appearing as a boy singer with the Gene Leroy Trio at the Ramona Theatre in Grand Rapids, Michigan as part of a vaudeville act. He would later become famous as comedian Groucho Marx. [89].
  • July 17Ali Pasha ibn Abd Allah became the new Emir of the Hejaz in what is now Saudi Arabia, upon the death of his uncle, Sharif Awn ar-Rafiq. Ali Pasha would be appointed Sharif of Mecca on October 31, 1905. William Ochsenwald, Religion, Society, and the State in Arabia: The Hijaz under Ottoman Control, 1840-1908 (Ohio State University Press, 1984).
  • July 18 – The opposition party in Hungary's parliament voted to issue a manifesto urging Hungarians to refuse to obey orders of the incumbent government.
  • July 19 – The Congress of Russian Zemstvos opened at Moscow, to make plans for setting the form of the Duma, Russia's first national assembly.[90]
  • July 20 – The British House of Commons narrowly voted a resolution of no confidence in the government of Prime Minister Balfour, by a majority of three votes. Balfour announced on July 24 that he would not resign.[90]
  • July 21
    • Sixty members of the crew of the USS Bennington were killed in an explosion of the U.S. Navy gunboat in the harbor at San Diego.[90]
    • An attempt to assassinate the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire was unsuccessful after a bomb was thrown at him and he escaped, uninjured.[90]
    • The Russian chief of police forces in Russian Finland was assassinated in Helsingfors.[90]
  • July 22
  • Florence Kelly delivered her landmark speech about child labor before the convention of the National American Woman Suffrage Association in Philadelphia.
  • July 23
  • July 24 – An 8.4 magnitude earthquake struck Mongolia, the second-largest on record there.
  • July 25 – The Prime Minister of Sweden and his cabinet of ministers resigned after the rejection of a bill to negotiate the terms of dissolution of the Union of Sweden and Norway.[90]
  • July 26 – The British House of Commons rejected a bill that would have limited the length of parliament to no more than five years.[90]
  • July 27
  • The Taft–Katsura agreement was reached in Tokyo between U.S. Secretary of State (and future U.S. president) William Howard Taft, and Japan's Prime Minister, Count Katsura Tarō, to discuss their respective positions regarding Korea and the Philippines. Though no formal agreement was signed, the U.S. agreed to Korea becoming a protectorate of Japan, in return for Japan's recognition of U.S. jurisdiction over the Philippines.
    • Japan's new ambassador to the U.S., Baron Komura, along with Foreign Minister Takahira, met with President Roosevelt at his home in Oyster Bay in New York.[90]
    • Russian security police seized all documents relating to the recently ended Congress of Zemstvos.[90]
    • Twenty people were killed in the derailment of a Lancashire & York Railway train near Liverpool.[90]
  • July 28Frankie Neil became the new world bantamweight boxing champion by defeating title holder Harry Tenny in a 25-round bout at Colma, California.
  • July 29 – In California, the government of the City of Los Angeles announced plans to build an aqueduct to bring water from the Owens River to adequately supply the city's residents. The Los Angeles Aqueduct would become operational in 1913 and transform the city into the second largest metropolis into the United States within less than a century.
  • July 30 – At Basel in Switzerland, the International Zionist Conference delegates voted to reject the British officer of land in Uganda for a Jewish homeland.[90]
  • July 31
    • Japan completed its conquest of Russia's island of Sakhalin with the surrender of the remaining Russian garrison of 3,200 men and 70 officers commanded by Governor Mikhail Lyapunov. [90]
    • Japan secured a commitment from the Korean Empire to open the three Korean ports to international trade. [90]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

October 2: HMS Dreadnought

November[edit]

December[edit]

Date unknown[edit]

Births[edit]

January – March[edit]

April – June[edit]

July – September[edit]

October – December[edit]

Date unknown[edit]

Deaths[edit]

January–February[edit]

March–April[edit]

May–June[edit]

July–August[edit]

September–October[edit]

November–December[edit]

Date unknown[edit]

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Nobel medal.png

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Gilbert, Martin (1997). A History of the Twentieth Century: Volume 1 1900–1933. pp 105–22.