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Events from the year 1908 in the United Kingdom.
- 1 January
- 22 January - Arthur Henderson becomes the second leader of the Labour Party following the resignation of Keir Hardie.
- 24 January - Start of publication of Robert Baden-Powell's Scouting for Boys in London. The book will over time sell over 100 million copies and effectively begin the worldwide Boy Scout movement.
- March - The Children's Encyclopedia begins publication in London.
- 1 April - The Territorial Force of the British Army is established by merger of the civilian-organised Volunteer Force with the Yeomanry; and remaining units of the militia are transferred into the regular Special Reserve.
- 7 April - Campbell-Bannerman resigns as Prime Minister, on the grounds of health; replaced by Asquith.
- 8 April - David Lloyd George becomes Chancellor of the Exchequer, while Winston Churchill enters the Cabinet for the first time, as President of the Board of Trade.
- 18 April - Manchester United secure the Football League First Division title - the first major trophy of their history.
- 27 April–31 October - Olympics held in London. The Great Britain and Ireland team win 56 gold, 51 silver and 39 bronze medals.
- 11 May - Foundation stone of the Royal Liver Building in Liverpool is laid.
- 24 May (Empire Day) - Formation of the 1st Arundel (Earl of Arundel's Own) Scout Group (traditionally accepted date although Scouting was probably active in Arundel prior to this).
- 21 June - First large suffragette rally, in London.
- July - Allied Artists' Association holds its first exhibition, at the Royal Albert Hall.
- 31 July - Irish Universities Act receives Royal Assent in Parliament. This provides for establishment of the federal National University of Ireland based in Dublin and the Queen's University of Belfast.
- 10 September - The first Minas Geraes-class Dreadnought battleship for Brazil, Minas Geraes is launched at Armstrong Whitworth's yard on the River Tyne.
- 16 October - American-born Samuel F. Cody makes the first powered fixed-wing aircraft flight in Britain, taking off at the School of Ballooning, Farnborough, Hampshire, in British Army Aeroplane No 1.
- 14 November - Elizabeth Garrett Anderson is the first woman in England to be elected as a mayor (of Aldeburgh).
- 3 December - The first performance of Edward Elgar's Symphony No. 1 is given by The Hallé in Manchester's Free Trade Hall.
- 10 December - The National Farmers Union is founded.
- 21 December - Royal Assent given to the following Acts of Parliament:
- 8 January - William Hartnell, actor (died 1975)
- 5 February - Daisy and Violet Hilton, conjoined twin actresses (died 1969)
- 11 February - Vivian Ernest Fuchs, geologist and explorer (died 1999)
- 22 February - John Mills, actor (died 2005)
- 5 March - Rex Harrison, actor (died 1990)
- 12 March - Ida Crowe Pollock, writer (died 2013)
- 19 March - George Rodger, photojournalist (died 1995)
- 20 March - Michael Redgrave, actor (died 1985)
- 25 March
- 27 March - Semprini, musician (died 1990)
- 14 May - Amy Jagger, gymnast (died 1993)
- 28 May - Ian Fleming, writer (died 1964)
- 30 June - Winston Graham, writer (died 2003)
- 25 July - Bill Bowes, cricketer (died 1987)
- 4 August - Osbert Lancaster, cartoonist (died 1986)
- 21 August - M. M. Kaye, writer (died 2004)
- 23 August - Hannah Frank, artist and sculptor (died 2008)
- 31 August - Kenneth Gandar-Dower, sportsman, aviator, explorer and author (died 1944)
- 6 September - Louis Essen, physicist (died 1997)
- 12 September - Reginald C. Fuller, Roman Catholic priest and writer (died 2011)
- 19 October - Sydney MacEwan, singer (died 1990)
- 2 November - Fred Bakewell, cricketer (died 1983)
- 20 November - Alistair Cooke, journalist (died 2004)
- 26 November - Charles Forte, businessman (died 2007)
- 18 December - Celia Johnson, actress (died 1982)
- 25 January - Ouida, writer (born 1839)
- 22 March - John William Crombie, Scottish woollen manufacturer and politician (born 1858)
- 20 April - Henry Chadwick, baseball writer and historian (born 1824)
- 22 April - Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Prime Minister (born 1836)
- 31 May - Sir John Evans, archaeologist (born 1823)
- 2 June - William Napier, recipient of the Victoria Cross (born 1828)
- 22 July - William Randal Cremer, politician and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (born 1828)
- 16 October - Joseph Leycester Lyne (Father Ignatius of Jesus), Anglican Benedictine abbot (born 1837)
- 1 December - Howell Jones, Welsh rugby union player (born 1882)