1909 in Australia
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|1909 in Australia|
|Governor-General||William Ward, 2nd Earl of Dudley|
|Prime minister||Alfred Deakin|
- Monarch – Edward VII
- Governor-General – William Ward, 2nd Earl of Dudley
- Prime Minister – Andrew Fisher (until 2 June), then Alfred Deakin
- Premier of New South Wales – Charles Wade
- Premier of South Australia – Thomas Price (until 5 June), then Archibald Peake
- Premier of Queensland – William Kidston
- Premier of Tasmania – John Evans (until 19 June), then Sir Elliott Lewis (until 20 October), then John Earle (until 27 October), then Sir Elliott Lewis
- Premier of Western Australia – Sir Newton Moore
- Premier of Victoria – Sir Thomas Bent (until 8 January), then John Murray
- Governor of New South Wales – Admiral Sir Harry Rawson (until 24 March), then Frederic Thesiger, 3rd Baron Chelmsford (from 28 May)
- Governor of South Australia – Sir George Le Hunte (until 2 January), then Sir Day Bosanquet (from 29 March)
- Governor of Queensland – Frederic Thesiger, 3rd Baron Chelmsford (until 26 May), then Sir William MacGregor (from 2 December)
- Governor of Tasmania – Sir Gerald Strickland (until 20 May), then Sir Harry Barron (from 29 September)
- Governor of Western Australia – Admiral Sir Frederick Bedford (until 23 April), then Sir Gerald Strickland (from 31 May)
- Governor of Victoria – Sir Thomas Gibson-Carmichael
- 8 January – Sir Thomas Bent retires as Premier of Victoria, and is replaced by John Murray.
- 9 March – Electric trams begin operation in Adelaide.
- 31 March – Victoria is the last Australian state to grant women's suffrage.
- 30 April – Tasmania begins to use the Hare-Clark single transferable vote method in the 1909 general election.
- 26 May – The Protectionist Party and the Free Trade Party merge to form the Fusion Party), led by Alfred Deakin.
- 2 June – The Labor government of Andrew Fisher is ousted from office by Alfred Deakin's Fusion Party, and Deakin becomes Prime Minister for the third time.
- 5 June – Steam trams begin operation in Rockhampton, Queensland.
- 18 to 21 August – Disastrous floods strike Victoria.
- 6 October – Martha Rendell becomes the last woman to be hanged in Western Australia.
- 9 October – John Earle becomes Premier of Tasmania, leading Tasmania's first Labor government, however Earle's minority government only lasts a week.
- 6 December - the Newcastle–Bolgart Railway was opened.
- 10 December – The University of Queensland is established.
- 14 December – New South Wales passes law ceding land to the Commonwealth for construction of the national capital, Canberra.
- 21 December – British Field Marshal Lord Kitchener arrives in Darwin after an invitation from Alfred Deakin to review Australia's military and defence plans.
- 24 December – Former Prime Minister Sir George Reid resigns from Parliament to become Australia's first High Commissioner to the United Kingdom.
Science and technology
- 16 July – The first powered aeroplane flight in Australia is made.
Arts and literature
Main article: 1909 in Australian literature
- 29 January – New South Wales wins the Sheffield Shield
- 15 June – Representatives from England, Australia and South Africa meet at Lord's and form the Imperial Cricket Conference.
- 21 August – Andrew Wood wins the inaugural men's national marathon title, clocking 2:59:15 in Brisbane. Though billed as the Australasian Championships, the Australian Athletic Union did not consider it to be the official championship.
- 31 August – The first interstate ice hockey competition is held in Melbourne.
- 14 September - The 1909 NSWRFL season culminates in the grand final which was forfeited by Balmain to make South Sydney back-to-back premiers
- 29 October – The South Melbourne Swans defeat the Carlton Blues 4.14 (38) to 4.12 (36) in the 1909 VFL Grand Final.
- 2 November – Prince Foote wins the Melbourne Cup.
- 19 January – Leon Goldsworthy, explosives expert (died 1994)
- 8 February – Elisabeth Murdoch, philanthropist
- 13 February – Reginald Ansett, businessman and aviator (died 1981)
- 2 March – Percival Bazeley, scientist (died 1991)
- 19 March – Nell Hall Hopman, tennis player (died 1968)
- 26 March – Chips Rafferty, actor (died 1971)
- 9 April – Robert Helpmann, dancer and choreographer (died 1986)
- 23 May – William Sidney, 1st Viscount De L'Isle, Governor General of Australia (died 1991)
- 15 June – Cyril Walsh, High Court judge (died 1973)
- 20 June – Errol Flynn, Australian actor (died 1959)
- 23 June – Keith Virtue, aviator (died 1980)
- 6 July – Eric Reece, Premier of Tasmania (died 1999)
- 9 September – Decima Norman, athlete (died 1983)
- 10 September – Dorothy Hill, geologist (died 1998)
- 3 December – Stanley Burbury, Governor of Tasmania (died 1995)
- 9 February – Charles Conder, artist (born 1868)
- 4 March – Max Hirsch, economist (born 1852)
- 14 March – William Charles Kernot, engineer (born 1845)
- 6 April – Sir Julian Salomons, chief justice and politician (born 1836)
- 18 April – William Saumarez Smith, Anglican archbishop (born 1836)
- 28 April – Henry D'Esterre Taylor, banker and Federationist (born 1853)
- 31 May – Thomas Price, Premier of South Australia (born 1852)
- 29 June – Sir George Shenton, first Mayor of Perth (born 1842)
- 23 July – Sir Frederick Holder, Premier of South Australia (born 1850)
- 8 August – Mary MacKillop, Australian nun (born 1842)
- 18 September – Mary Lee, suffragette and social reformer (born 1821)
- 6 October – Martha Rendell, last woman to be hanged in WA (born 1871)
- 10 November – George Essex Evans, poet (born 1863)
- 6 December – Sir William Henry Bundey, judge and politician (born 1838)