1910 Tour de France
Route of the 1910 Tour de France followed clockwise, starting in Paris
|Distance||4,734 km (2,942 mi)|
|Winning time||63 points|
The 1910 Tour de France was the eighth edition of the Tour de France, taking place 3 to 31 July. It consisted of 15 stages over 4,734 kilometres (2,942 mi), ridden at an average speed of 28.680 km/h. It was the first Tour to enter the Pyrenees mountains. Two main candidates for the victory were 1909 winner François Faber, a sprinter, and Octave Lapize, a climber, both members of the powerful Alcyon team. Because of the points system, their chances for the overall victory were approximately equal. The race was not decided until the final stage, after which Lapize had won by a difference of only four points.
Innovations and changes
The courses of the Tour de France in 1907, 1908 and 1909 had been nearly identical. In 1910, the Pyrenees were included, an initiative from Adolphe Steinès, who had drawn the course for the Tour de France since the first Tour in 1903. Compared to the 1907, 1908 and 1909 Tours, the stages Nîmes-Toulouse and Toulouse-Bayonne were replaced by three stages, Nîmes–Perpignan, Perpignan–Luchon and Luchon–Bayonne.
Tour organiser Henri Desgrange at first refused the inclusion of the Pyrenees, but later gave in and sent Steinès to the Pyrenees to see if it was possible to send cyclists up the mountains. Steinès encountered many difficulties. He went there at 27 January 1910, and asked an innkeeper for directions over the Tourmalet. The innkeeper replied that it is barely crossable in July, so practically impossible in January. Steinès hired a car anyway and rode up the mountain. Close to the top, there was so much snow that the car could not go further, and he continued on foot. Steinès walked during the night, and fell down a ravine. At 3 a.m. he was found by a search party. He quickly got some food and a hot bath. The next morning, he sent a positive telegram to Desgrange: "Have crossed the Tourmalet on foot STOP Road passable to vehicles STOP No snow STOP".
When it was announced that the Pyrenees were included in the race, 136 cyclists had entered the race. After the news, 26 cyclists removed themselves from the starting list. Other newspapers reacted to the Tour's route as "dangerous" and "bizarre".
Also new in 1910 was the broom wagon, to pick up the cyclists that abandoned during the race. This was a reaction of the Tour organisers to the criticism of the cyclists, many cycling independently with no team support, on the difficult mountains. It was designed to prevent riders from cheating, by using other forms of transport. In the tenth stage, over the four mountains in the Pyrenees, cyclists were allowed to finish the stage in the broom wagon and still start the next stage.
What had not changed was the points system. A cyclist received points, based on their rankings. As in 1909, the points system was "cleaned up" two times: after the 9th stage and after the 14th stage. Cyclists who had abandoned the race were removed from the rankings of the previous stages, and the classification was recalculated.
Although cyclist were in 1909 able to register for the Tour with a sponsor, they were still considered to be riding as individuals; in 1910 they competed for the first time in teams.
The cyclists were not so enthusiastic about the inclusion of the Pyrenées, and there were fewer participants: 110 instead of 150 in 1909. There were three teams with 10 cyclists each, including all the favourites for the overall victory: Alcyon, Le Globe and Legnano. The French team "La Française" decided not to join, but allowed their cyclists to ride for the Italian Legnano team. The other 80 cyclists rode as individuals, this was called the "isolés" category.
On the rest day between the sixth and seventh stage in Nice, cyclist Adolphe Hélière died whilst swimming. He was the first victim of the Tour de France. In the ninth stage, four mountains were climbed, and Desgrange saw how much trouble the cyclists had on these mountains. The tenth stage would include the Pyrenees mountains, so Desgrange left the race and made Victor Breyer the director of the stage. In that tenth stage, the Tourmalet was climbed, the highest point of the 1910 Tour de France. Octave Lapize reached the top first, followed by Gustave Garrigou. Garrigou was the only cyclist who reached the top without dismounting, and received an extra prize of 100 francs for that. The next climb was the Aubisque. Lapize struggled there, and regional rider François Lafourcade lead the race. The organisers had a car standing in top, and when Lafourcade passed them, they did not recognize him, and when they found out it was Lafourcade, they were surprised that such an unknown rider had been able to pass all the 'cracks'. When Lapize passed the organiser's car (15 minutes later), he screamed "Assassins!", and announced that he would give up during the descent. Downhill, he refound his strength and was able to catch up to Lafourcade, and even win the stage. By the end of the stage, ten riders had officially completed the stage on bike.
In the 14th stage, Faber sped away almost from the start in what could be his last chance to win the Tour de France. It seemed that he had a chance, until a flat tyre caused him to lose time, and Lapize could get back to him, again aided by Garrigou. Lapize improved his lead by winning the stage, and had a six-point margin before the last stage. In that last stage, it was Lapize who suffered from a flat tyre, shortly after the start. Faber raced away, but could not pull off the stunt: he had a flat tyre. He still finished ahead of Lapize, but won back only two points, so the 1910 Tour de France was won by Lapize.
|1||3 July||Paris to Roubaix||269 km (167 mi)||Plain stage||Charles Crupelandt (FRA)||Charles Crupelandt (FRA)|
|2||5 July||Roubaix to Metz||398 km (247 mi)||Plain stage||François Faber (LUX)||François Faber (LUX)|
|3||7 July||Metz to Belfort||259 km (161 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Emile Georget (FRA)||François Faber (LUX)|
|4||9 July||Belfort to Lyon||309 km (192 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||François Faber (LUX)||François Faber (LUX)|
|5||11 July||Lyon to Grenoble||311 km (193 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Octave Lapize (FRA)||François Faber (LUX)|
|6||13 July||Grenoble to Nice||345 km (214 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Julien Maitron (FRA)||François Faber (LUX)|
|7||15 July||Nice to Nîmes||345 km (214 mi)||Plain stage||François Faber (LUX)||François Faber (LUX)|
|8||17 July||Nîmes to Perpignan||216 km (134 mi)||Plain stage||Georges Paulmier (FRA)||François Faber (LUX)|
|9||19 July||Perpignan to Luchon||289 km (180 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Octave Lapize (FRA)||François Faber (LUX)|
|10||21 July||Luchon to Bayonne||326 km (203 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Octave Lapize (FRA)||François Faber (LUX)|
|11||23 July||Bayonne to Bordeaux||269 km (167 mi)||Plain stage||Ernest Paul (FRA)||François Faber (LUX)|
|12||25 July||Bordeaux to Nantes||391 km (243 mi)||Plain stage||Louis Trousselier (FRA)||François Faber (LUX)|
|13||27 July||Nantes to Brest||321 km (199 mi)||Plain stage||Gustave Garrigou (FRA)||Octave Lapize (FRA)|
|14||29 July||Brest to Caen||424 km (263 mi)||Plain stage||Octave Lapize (FRA)||Octave Lapize (FRA)|
|15||31 July||Caen to Paris||262 km (163 mi)||Plain stage||Ernesto Azzini (ITA)||Octave Lapize (FRA)|
|Total||4,734 km (2,942 mi)|
Of the 110 starting cyclists, 41 finished. The winner, Octave Lapize, received 5000 francs for his victory. In total, he earned 7525 francs during the race; the average daily wages were around 5 to 7 francs.
|1||Octave Lapize (FRA)||Alcyon||63|
|2||François Faber (LUX)||Alcyon||67|
|3||Gustave Garrigou (FRA)||Alcyon||86|
|4||Cyrille van Hauwaert (BEL)||Alcyon||97|
|5||Charles Cruchon (FRA)||–||119|
|6||Charles Crupelandt (FRA)||Le Globe||148|
|7||Ernest Paul (FRA)||–||154|
|8||André Blaise (BEL)||Alcyon||166|
|9||Julien Maitron (FRA)||Le Globe||171|
|10||Aldo Bettini (ITA)||Alcyon||175|
Fifth-placed Charles Cruchon became the winner of the "isolés" category. The organising newspaper l'Auto named Octave Lapize the meilleur grimpeur. This unofficial title is the precursor to the mountains classification.
- In 1910, there was no distinction in the rules between plain stages and mountain stages; the icons shown here indicate which stages included mountains.
- Augendre 2016, p. 108.
- Amels 1984, pp. 15–16.
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- Cossins et al. 2013, pp. 48–49.
- Thompson 2006, p. 36.
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- Augendre 2016, p. 12.
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- Thompson 2006, p. 152.
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- Cleijne 2014, p. 156.
- Amels, Wim (1984). De geschiedenis van de Tour de France 1903–1984 (in Dutch). Valkenswaard, Netherlands: Sport-Express. ISBN 978-90-70763-05-3.
- Augendre, Jacques (2016). Guide historique [Historical guide] (PDF). Tour de France (in French). Paris: Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- Cleijne, Jan (2014). Legends of the Tour. London: Head of Zeus. ISBN 978-1-78185-998-8.
- Cossins, Peter; Best, Isabel; Sidwells, Chris; Griffith, Clare (2013). Le Tour 100: The Definitive History of the World's Greatest Race. London: Hachette UK. ISBN 978-1-84403-759-9.
- McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol (2006). The Story of the Tour de France: 1903–1964. 1. Indianapolis, IN: Dog Ear Publishing. ISBN 978-1-59858-180-5.
- Mulholland, Owen (2003). Cycling's Great Climbers. Boulder, CO: VeloPress. ISBN 978-1-931382-12-0.
- Thompson, Christopher S. (2006). The Tour de France: A Cultural History. Oakland, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24760-4.
Media related to 1910 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons