1916 United States House of Representatives elections

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1916 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1914 November 7, 1916[a] 1918 →

All 435 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
218 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  James Robert Mann 1909.jpg ChampClark.jpg
Leader James Mann Champ Clark
Party Republican Democratic Progressive
Leader since March 4, 1911 March 4, 1909
Leader's seat Illinois 2nd Missouri 9th
Last election 196 seats 230 seats 6 seats
Seats won 216[b] 214[c] 3
Seat change Increase 19 Decrease 16 Decrease 3

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
 
Party Socialist Prohibition Independent
Last election 1 seat 1 seat 1 seat
Seats won 1 1 0
Seat change Steady Steady Decrease 1

Speaker before election

Champ Clark
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Champ Clark
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1916 were held for members of the 65th Congress, coinciding with the re-election of President Woodrow Wilson.

Wilson eked out a narrow re-election, but his Democratic Party lost seats to the Republican Party. Wilson's hybrid approach, which injected a progressive element into Democratic policies, had proved to be dissatisfying to much of the nation. International affairs also became important in the traditionally non-interventionist United States, as voters attempted to determine which party would be best served to keep the nation from entering The Great War.

Republicans actually won a plurality of seats in the 1916 election. Even so, when the 65th Congress convened in April 1917, the Democrats narrowly maintained control of the House, forming an alliance with third-party (Progressive and Socialist) members. Not since the 34th Congress (1855–57) had the party with the most seats not been part of the ruling government. This Congress is the last example to date of a type of coalition holding power in the House, rather than a single party winning a majority of seats.

Jeannette Rankin, a Republican from Montana, became the first woman ever elected to congress.

Election summaries[edit]

214 3 1 1 216
Democratic P Pn S Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Progressive Republican Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District[d] 10 10 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Arizona At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas District 7 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District 11 4 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1 5 Increase 1 1[e] Decrease 1
Colorado District 4 3 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District 5 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 4 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Florida District 4 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District 12 12 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Idaho At-large 2 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District
+2 at-large
27 6 Decrease 4 0 Decrease 1 21 Increase 5 0 Steady
Indiana District 13 4 Decrease 7 0 Steady 9 Increase 7 0 Steady
Iowa District 11 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 11 Increase 1 0 Steady
Kansas District 8 5 Decrease 1 0 Steady 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 9 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana District 8 7 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine[f] District 4 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 4 Increase 1 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 4 Decrease 1 0 Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 16 4 Steady 0 Steady 12 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 13 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady 12 Increase 1 0 Steady
Minnesota District 10 1 Steady 0 Steady 9 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi District 8 8 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 16 14 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Montana At-large 2 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Nebraska District 6 3 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
New Jersey District 12 3 Decrease 1 0 Steady 9 Increase 1 0 Steady
New Mexico At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
New York District 43 16 Decrease 3 0 Decrease 1 26 Increase 4 1[g] Steady
North Carolina District 10 10 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
North Dakota District 3 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District 22 13 Increase 4 0 Steady 9 Decrease 4 0 Steady
Oklahoma District 8 6 Decrease 1 0 Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Oregon District 3 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District
+4 at-large
36 6 Steady 1 Increase 1 29 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Rhode Island District 3 1 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Dakota District 3 1 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 8 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Texas District
+2 at-large
18 18 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Utah District 2 2 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Vermont District 2 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District 10 9 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Washington District 5 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 2 4 Increase 1 0 Steady
West Virginia District[d] 6 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 4 Increase 1 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 11 0 Decrease 3 0 Steady 11 Increase 3 0 Steady
Wyoming At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Total 435 214
49.2%
Decrease 16 3
0.7%
Decrease 2 216[b]
49.7%
Increase 19 2[h]
0.5%
Decrease 1
House seats
Democratic
49.20%
Progressive
0.69%
Prohibition
0.23%
Republican
49.66%
Socialist
0.23%

The Democrats retained control of the House by forming a coalition with the three Progressive members and the single Socialist member, combining to form a razor-thin majority of 218 Representatives.

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80.1-100% Democratic
  80.1-100% Republican
  60.1-80% Democratic
  60.1-80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
 
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Progressive gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election date[edit]

Maine held its election early, on September 11, 1916. There had previously been multiple states with earlier elections, but between 1914 and 1958, Maine was alone in holding early elections.

A slash between two labels indicates a fusion ticket

Special elections[edit]

There were special elections in 1916 to the 64th United States Congress.

Special elections are sorted by date then district.

District Incumbent This election
Member Party First elected Results Candidates


California 10 William Stephens Progressive 1910 Incumbent resigned July 22, 1916 to become Lieutenant Governor of California.
New member elected November 7, 1916.
Progressive hold.
Successor was not elected to the next term, see below.

California[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 William Kent Independent 1910 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Green tickY Clarence F. Lea (Democratic) 48.8%
Edward H. Hart (Republican) 42.8%
Mary M. Morgan (Socialist) 5.5%
Jay Scott Ryder (Prohibition) 2.9%
California 2 John E. Raker Democratic 1910 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY John E. Raker (Democratic) 71%
James T. Matlock (Republican) 29%
California 3 Charles F. Curry Republican 1912 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Charles F. Curry (Republican) 66.7%
O. W. Kennedy (Democratic) 23.4%
Ben Cooper (Socialist) 6.2%
Edwin F. Van Vlear (Prohibition) 3.7%
California 4 Julius Kahn Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Julius Kahn (Republican) 77.2%
J. M. Fernald (Democratic) 15.7%
Allen K. Gifford (Socialist) 5.6%
Henry W. Hutchinson (Prohibition) 1.5%
California 5 John I. Nolan Republican 1912 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY John I. Nolan (Republican) 84.7%
Charles A. Preston (Socialist) 9.6%
Frederick Head (Prohibition) 5.8%
California 6 John A. Elston Progressive 1912 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY John A. Elston (Progressive) 64.6%
H. Avery Whitney (Democratic) 22.6%
Luella Twining (Socialist) 8.7%
Harlow E. Wolcott (Prohibition) 4.1%
California 7 Denver S. Church Democratic 1912 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Denver S. Church (Democratic) 51%
W. W. Phillips (Republican) 36.4%
Harry M. McKee (Socialist) 7.2%
J. F. Butler (Prohibition) 5.3%
California 8 Everis A. Hayes Republican 1904 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Everis A. Hayes (Republican) 68.6%
George S. Walker (Prog/D) 23.8%
Cora Pattleton Wilson (Socialist) 7.5%
California 9 Charles H. Randall Prohibition 1914 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Charles H. Randall (Proh.) 57.8%
Charles W. Bell (Independent) 32.7%
Ralph L. Criswell (Socialist) 9.5%
California 10 Vacant William Stephens (Progressive) had resigned July 22, 1916 to become Lieutenant Governor of California.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Successor was not elected to finish the term.
Green tickY Henry Z. Osborne (Republican) 49.5%
Rufus V. Bowden (Democratic) 25.7%
Henry S. Benedict (Progressive) 11.1%
James H. Ryckman (Socialist) 7%
Henry Clay Needham (Prohibition) 6.8%
California 11 William Kettner Democratic 1912 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY William Kettner (Democratic) 44.5%
Robert C. Harbison (Republican) 35.7%
James S. Edwards (Prohibition) 15.6%
Marcus W. Robbins (Socialist) 4.1%

Montana[edit]

This was the last time Montana used an at-large district until its representation was reduced to one in 1992. This was also the first time a woman was elected to Congress.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Montana at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
John M. Evans Democratic 1912 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John M. Evans (Democratic) 26.7%
  • Green tickY Jeannette Rankin (Republican) 24.3%
  • Harry B. Mitchell (Democratic) 22.3%
  • George W. Farr (Republican) 21.2%
  • John McGuffey (Socialist) 2.8%
  • Albert F. Meissner (Socialist) 2.7%
Tom Stout Democratic 1912 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

North Dakota[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
North Dakota 1 Henry Thomas Helgesen Republican 1910 Incumbent re-elected.
North Dakota 2 George M. Young Republican 1912 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY George M. Young (Republican) 71.7%
  • Hugh McDonald (Democratic) 24.6%
  • Samuel O. Olson (Socialist) 3.7%
North Dakota 3 Patrick Daniel Norton Republican 1912 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Patrick Daniel Norton (Republican) 65.2%
  • Charles Simon (Democratic) 26.5%
  • Anton Klemmens (Socialist) 8.3%

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 Richard S. Whaley Democratic 1913 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 2 James F. Byrnes Democratic 1910 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 3 Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1902 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
South Carolina 4 Samuel J. Nicholls Democratic 1915 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 5 David E. Finley Democratic 1898 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 6 J. Willard Ragsdale Democratic 1912 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 7 Asbury F. Lever Democratic 1901 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.

South Dakota[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Dakota 1 Charles H. Dillon Republican 1912 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Charles H. Dillon (Republican) 58.1%
  • O.D. Anderson (Democratic) 40.2%
  • H.W. Fenner (Socialist) 1.7%
South Dakota 2 Royal C. Johnson Republican 1914 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Royal C. Johnson (Republican) 60.1%
  • J.J. Batterton (Democratic) 34.7%
  • E. Francis Atwood (Socialist) 3.4%
  • R. Clendening (Prohibition) 1.8%
South Dakota 3 Harry L. Gandy Democratic 1914 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Harry L. Gandy (Democratic) 55.6%
  • John G. Bartine (Republican) 40.9%
  • B.M. Mulcahy (Socialist) 3.4%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Maine held early elections on September 11, 1916.
  2. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Republican.
  3. ^ Democrats maintained control of the U.S. House after the 1916 elections by forming a 218-member coalition with the three Progressive members and the one Socialist member.
  4. ^ a b At-large seat eliminated in redistricting.
  5. ^ Prohibition
  6. ^ Elections held early.
  7. ^ Socialist
  8. ^ 1 Socialist and 1 Prohibition.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.

External links[edit]