1920 Haiyuan earthquake

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1920 Haiyuan earthquake
1920 Gansu earthquake.svg
UTC time1920-12-16 12:05:55
ISC event912687
Local dateDecember 16, 1920 (1920-12-16)
(Gansu-Sichuan Time)
Local time19:05
Magnitude8.25 Mw[1]
7.8 ML[2]
Epicenter36°30′N 105°42′E / 36.50°N 105.70°E / 36.50; 105.70
FaultHaiyuan Fault
Max. intensityXII (Extreme) [3]
Casualties258,707~273,407 [4]

The 1920 Haiyuan earthquake (Chinese: 海原大地震; pinyin: Hǎiyuán dà dìzhèn) occurred on December 16 in Haiyuan County, Ningxia Province, Republic of China at 19:05:53. It was also called the 1920 Gansu earthquake[2] because Ningxia was a part of Gansu Province when the earthquake occurred. It caused destruction in the Lijunbu-Haiyuan-Ganyanchi area and was assigned the maximum intensity on the Mercalli intensity scale (XII Extreme). About 258,707~273,407 died,[4] making it one of the most fatal earthquakes in China, in turn making it one of the worst disasters in China by death toll.


The earthquake hit at 19:05:53 Gansu-Sichuan time (12:05:53 UTC),[5] reportedly 8.25 Mw[1] or 7.8 ML, and was followed by a series of aftershocks for three years.


Over 73,000 people were killed in Haiyuan County. A landslide buried the village of Sujiahe in Xiji County. More than 30,000 people were killed in Guyuan County.[3] Nearly all the houses collapsed in the cities of Longde and Huining. Damage (VI–X) occurred in seven provinces and regions, including the major cities of Lanzhou, Taiyuan, Xi'an, Xining and Yinchuan. It was felt from the Yellow Sea to Qinghai (Tsinghai) Province and from Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia) south to central Sichuan Province.


Since 2003,[6] Chinese seismologists has calculated 258,707~273,407 to be the empirical verifiable range of death toll.[4] Older sources put the deaths to be 234,117[7] or 235,502.[8] Either way, it is one of the most fatal earthquakes in China, in turn making it one of the worst disasters in China by death toll.

Many more perished because of cold: frequent aftershocks caused the survivors to fear building anything other than temporary shelters, and a severe winter killed many who had lived through the original earthquake.[9]

The Sufi Jahriyya Muslim Hui leader Ma Yuanzhang and his son died in the earthquake when the roof of the Mosque they were in collapsed in Zhangjiachuan.[10][11]

Ground effects[edit]

About 230 km (140 mi) of surface faulting was seen from Lijunbu through Ganyanchi to Jingtai. There were over 50,000 landslides in the epicentral area and ground cracking was widespread. Some rivers were dammed; others changed course.[12] Seiches from this earthquake were observed in two lakes and three fjords in western Norway.[2]


The Muslim General Ma Fuxiang was involved in relief efforts in Lanzhou during the earthquake.[13][14][15]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "海原断裂带强震发生概率的评估方" (PDF). 地震学报: 1048,1050. 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-05-24. Retrieved 2021-05-24. 本文直接采用1920年海原地震的矩震级W8.25
  2. ^ a b c "Most Destructive Known Earthquakes on Record in the World". Earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-09-01. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
  3. ^ a b c Xu, Y.; Liu–Zeng, J.; Allen, M.B.; Zhang, W.; Du, P. (2020). "Landslides of the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake, northern China". Landslides. 18 (3): 935–953. doi:10.1007/s10346-020-01512-5. S2CID 221568806.
  4. ^ a b c 张思源 (2013). "1920年海原大地震死亡人数考析". 西夏研究 (1): 119.
  5. ^ "Significant earthquake". The Significant Earthquake Database. National Geophysical Data Center. Retrieved 2013-06-15.
  6. ^ 刘百篪,张俊玲,吴建华,郭华,《1920年12月16日海原8.5级大地震的伤亡人口再评估》,《中国地震》.
  7. ^ 国家地震局兰州地震研究所,宁夏回族自治区地震队.一九二O年海原大地震.北京:地震出版社,1980. As cited in 张思源 (2013). "1920年海原大地震死亡人数考析". 西夏研究 (1): 119.
  8. ^ 楼宝棠,主编.中国古今地震灾情总汇[M].北京:地震出版社,1996. As cited in 张思源 (2013). "1920年海原大地震死亡人数考析". 西夏研究 (1): 119.
  9. ^ Close, Upton, and Elsie McCormick. "Where the Mountains Walked". National Geographic 41.5 (1922): 445–464: 451.
  10. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (1997). Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-295-97644-0.
  11. ^ University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Center for Asian Studies (1979). Chinese Republican studies newsletter, Volumes 5-7. p. 34.
  12. ^ Liu-Zeng, J.; Shao, Y.; Klinger, Y.; Xie, K.; Yuan, D.; Lei, Z. (2015). "Variability in magnitude of paleo-earthquakes revealed by trenching and historical records, along the Haiyuan fault". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 120: 8301–8333. doi:10.1002/2015JB012163.
  13. ^ "马福祥--"戎马书生" – 新华网甘肃频道". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2014-10-30.
  14. ^ "缅怀中国近代史上的回族将领马福祥将军戎马一生". Archived from the original on 2014-10-30. Retrieved 2014-10-30.
  15. ^ "清末民国间爱国将领马福祥__中国甘肃网". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2014-10-30.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Geological Survey.