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1928 Georgia Tech Golden Tornado football team

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1928 Georgia Tech Golden Tornado football
28GaTech.jpg
National champion (Boand, Helms, Houlgate, et al.)
Co-national champion (Davis)
SoCon champion
Rose Bowl, W 8–7 vs. California
Conference Southern Conference
1928 record 10–0 (7–0 SoCon)
Head coach William Alexander (9th season)
Assistant coach Don Miller
Assistant coach Bill Fincher
Offensive scheme Jump shift
Captain Peter Pund
Home stadium Grant Field
Seasons
← 1927
1929 →
1928 Southern Conference football standings
Conf     Overall
Team W   L   T     W   L   T
Georgia Tech $ 7 0 0     10 0 0
Tennessee 6 0 1     9 0 1
Florida 6 1 0     8 1 0
VPI 4 1 0     7 2 0
Alabama 6 2 0     6 3 0
LSU 3 1 1     6 2 1
Clemson 4 2 0     8 3 0
Vanderbilt 4 2 0     8 2 0
Tulane 3 3 1     6 3 1
Ole Miss 3 3 0     5 4 0
North Carolina 2 2 2     5 3 2
Kentucky 2 2 1     4 3 1
South Carolina 2 2 1     6 2 2
Maryland 2 3 1     6 3 1
VMI 2 3 1     5 3 2
Georgia 2 4 0     4 5 0
NC State 1 3 1     4 5 1
Mississippi A&M 1 4 0     2 4 2
Virginia 1 6 0     2 6 1
Washington and Lee 1 6 0     2 8 0
Sewanee 0 5 0     2 7 0
Auburn 0 7 0     1 8 0
  • $ – Conference champion

The 1928 Georgia Tech Golden Tornado football team[note 1] represented the Georgia Institute of Technology (commonly known as Georgia Tech) during the 1928 Southern Conference football season. The team, which was a member of the Southern Conference (SoCon), was coached by William Alexander in his ninth year as head coach. Alexander compiled a record of 10–0 (7–0 SoCon) and outscored his opponents 213 to 40. Georgia Tech played its home games at Grant Field.

Both USC and Georgia Tech claimed national championships for 1928. Under the Dickinson System, USC was recognized as number 1, but the Rose Bowl was contested between the number 2 and 3 teams, California and Georgia Tech. The game was decided by a safety, which was scored after Cal's Roy "Wrong Way" Riegels ran 65 yards (59 m) in the wrong direction.

Several Georgia Tech players received postseason honors. Captain and center Peter Pund was a consensus All-American. Coach Knute Rockne said of Tech's 13–0 defeat of Notre Dame, "I sat at Grant Field and saw a magnificent Notre Dame team suddenly recoil before the furious pounding of one man–Peter Pund". Tackle Frank Speer was also selected as a first-team All-American by the Associated Press.

Before the season[edit]

After the defeat of the Georgia Bulldogs' 1927 Dream and Wonder team,[3][4] Georgia Tech returned all but one of its key players.[5][6][note 2] Alabama coach Wallace Wade said Georgia Tech, Georgia, and Vanderbilt had the best chances of winning a southern title.[8][9] Georgia Tech head coach William Alexander held daily scrimmages.[10]

The Golden Tornado was led by center and senior captain Peter Pund, who was never penalized,[11] and was a key player on defense.[12] Halfback Warner Mizell headed a powerful backfield that also included Stumpy Thomason and Father Lumpkin.[4][12]

Schedule[edit]

Date Time Opponent Site Result Attendance
October 6 VMI Grant FieldAtlanta, GA W 13–0   18,000
October 13 at Tulane Second Tulane Stadium • New Orleans, LA W 12–0    
October 20 Notre Dame* Grant Field • Atlanta, GA W 13–0   35,000
October 27 3:00 p. m. at North Carolina Kenan Memorial StadiumChapel Hill, NC W 20–7   20,000
November 3 Oglethorpe* Grant Field • Atlanta, GA W 32–7   8,000
November 10 Vanderbilt Grant Field • Atlanta, GA W 19–7   30,000
November 17 Alabama Grant Field • Atlanta, GA W 33–13   26,000
November 29 Auburn Grant Field • Atlanta, GA W 51–0   20,000
December 8 2:00 p. m. Georgia Grant Field • Atlanta, GA (Rivalry) W 20–6   40,000
January 1, 1929 vs. California* Rose BowlPasadena, CA (Rose Bowl) W 8–7   66,604
*Non-conference game.

[13]

Season summary[edit]

V. M. I.[edit]

V. M. I. at Georgia Tech
1 234Total
V. M. I. 0 000 0
Ga. Tech 0 676 19

Georgia Tech opened the season on October 6 with a 13–0 defeat of the VMI Keydets, in a game marred by fumbles in every quarter.[14] Tech gained 307 yards and VMI 159.[15] The Georgia Tech line "tore the V. M. I. line to shreds" and all members of the backfield played well.[14] W. R. Tichenor was umpire.[14] Georgia Tech's starting lineup was Holland (left end), Thrash (left tackle), Westbrook (left guard), Pund (center), Drennon (right guard), Speer (right tackle), Waddey (right end), Durant (quarterback), Mizell (left halfback), Thomason (right halfback), and Randolph (fullback).[14]

Tulane[edit]

Georgia Tech at Tulane
1 234Total
Ga. Tech 0 606 12
Tulane 0 000 0

In the second week of play, Georgia Tech scored twice on forward passes to beat the Tulane Green Wave 12–0. The first one came in the second quarter; Warner Mizell threw a 25-yard (23 m) pass to Tom Jones. The second came in the fourth quarter on a pass from Dunlap to Stumpy Thomason.[16] Georgia Tech started the second half of the game with a fierce drive down to the 1-yard (0.91 m) line when Randolph fumbled the ball away.[16]

Notre Dame[edit]

Notre Dame at Georgia Tech
1 234Total
Notre Dame 0 000 0
Ga. Tech 7 006 13
  • Date: October 20
  • Location: Grant Field
    Atlanta, GA
  • Game attendance: 35,000

Georgia Tech next defeated coach Knute Rockne's Notre Dame Fighting Irish 13–0.[17] Father Lumpkin intercepted two Irish passes, setting up the winning score by running the second interception down to the 3-yard (2.7 m) line.[18] After the game, coach Rockne said, "I sat at Grant Field and saw a magnificent Notre Dame team suddenly recoil before the furious pounding of one man–Peter Pund ... Nobody could stop him. I counted 20 scoring plays that this man ruined".[19][20] Rockne later also wrote of an attack on his coaching in the Atlanta Journal, "I am surprised that a paper of such fine, high standing [as yours] would allow a zipper to write in his particular vein ... the article by Fuzzy Woodruff was not called for".[21]

Tech's backfield coach Don Miller was a former player of Rockne's, one of the "Four Horsemen". As coach Alexander explained, "Coach Miller knows the Notre Dame offense of Knute Rockne as well as any man alive. It's virtually the same offense that Kid Woodruff has at Georgia."[22]

Georgia Tech's starting lineup was Holland (left end), Maree (left tackle), Westbrook (left guard), Pund (center), Drennon (right guard), Speer (right tackle), Waddey (right end), Durant (quarterback), Mizell (left halfback), Thomason (right halfback), and Randolph (fullback).[17]

North Carolina[edit]

Georgia Tech at North Carolina
1 234Total
Ga. Tech 6 1400 20
UNC 0 007 7

The Golden Tornado then invaded North Carolina for the first time and beat the Tar Heels 20–7.[24] Georgia Tech started the game with its second stringers, which seemed to perform sufficiently.[23]

Four minutes into the game, Earl Dunlap hit Tom Jones with a 55-yard (50 m) touchdown pass.[23] The next score came when Fitzgerald cut back on a 37-yard (34 m) touchdown run. The third was a short run Dunlap set up by a pass to Holland.[25] In the second half, Tech made two first downs to ten for North Carolina.[25] Georgia Tech's starting lineup was Jones (left end), Watkins (left tackle), Westbrook (left guard), Pund (center), Drennon (right guard), Speer (right tackle), Waddey (right end), Durant (quarterback), Mizell (left halfback), Thomason (right halfback), and Randolph (fullback).[26]

Oglethorpe[edit]

Oglethorpe at Georgia Tech
1 234Total
Oglethorpe 0 700 7
Ga. Tech 0 7610 23
  • Date: November 3
  • Location: Grant Field
    Atlanta, GA
  • Game attendance: 8,000
  • Game weather: Rain
  • Referee: Buck Cheves

Georgia Tech defeated the local Oglethorpe Stormy Petrels 32–7. Light rain kept the attendance at 8,000.[28] After a 7–7 tie in the first half, the Petrels were smothered "under an avalanche of off tackle plays" in the second;[27][29] their touchdown drive having used up all of their energy.[28] Cy Bell was Oglethorpe's star.[27]

Stumpy Thomason had multiple long gains.[27] Tech gained 320 yards (290 m) to Oglethorpe's 62 yards (57 m).[28] W. R. Tichenor was umpire. Georgia Tech's starting lineup was Jones (left end), Thrash (left tackle), Edwards (left guard), Pund (center), Brooke (right guard), Speer (right tackle), Waddey (right end), Durant (quarterback), Wilson (left halfback), Thomason (right halfback), and Randolph (fullback).[27]

Vanderbilt[edit]

Vanderbilt at Georgia Tech
1 234Total
Vanderbilt 0 007 7
Ga. Tech 0 766 19
  • Date: November 10
  • Location: Grant Field
    Atlanta, GA
  • Game attendance: 30,000
  • Referee: Gardner (Illinois)

Georgia Tech ended the Jimmy Armistead-led Vanderbilt Commodores' hopes of a southern title with a 19–7 victory.[31] The ground-gaining of Thomason, Lumpkin, and Mizell carried Georgia Tech.[31]

Georgia Tech's first touchdown came on a 45-yard (41 m) pass from Tom Jones to Warner Mizell on a triple pass play.[30] Georgia Tech's next score came on an end run from Mizell. Vanderbilt's lone score came on an 85-yard (78 m) run by lineman Bull Brown after picking up a Stumpy Thomason fumble.[32] The last score was a short run by Lumpkin.[30] W. R. Tichenor was field judge. Georgia Tech's starting lineup was Jones (left end), Maree (left tackle), Westbrook (left guard), Pund (center), Drennon (right guard), Speer (right tackle), Waddey (right end), Schulman (quarterback), Mizell (left halfback), Lumpkin (right halfback), and Randolph (fullback).[30]

Alabama[edit]

Alabama at Georgia Tech
1 234Total
Alabama 0 1300 13
Ga. Tech 6 7020 33
  • Date: November 17
  • Location: Grant Field
    Atlanta, GA
  • Game attendance: 26,000

Tech defeated coach Wallace Wade's Alabama Crimson Tide 33–13, scoring three times in the final period to break a 13–13 tie at the half.[33] Coach Alexander gave his team a fiery halftime speech, drawing up defensive plays.[22]

Warner Mizell scored first when he went back to punt, but fumbled the snap, and picked it up and ran it 75 yards (69 m).[33] In the fourth quarter, Alabama drove to Tech's 32-yard (29 m) line when Tony Holm, who had been playing his greatest game, suffered a fractured rib.[33] Georgia Tech took over and the deadlock was eventually broken when Stumpy Thomason ran 46 yards (42 m). Later, Mizell passed to Thomason for another touchdown. The final score came on an interception from Bob Durant returned 55 yards (50 m).[33]

Georgia Tech's starting lineup was Jones (left end), Maree (left tackle), Westbrook (left guard), Pund (center), Drennon (right guard), Speer (right tackle), Waddey (right end), Durant (quarterback), Mizell (left halfback), Thomason (right halfback), and Randolph (fullback).[34]

Auburn[edit]

Prior to the rivalry game with Auburn, Mizell was stricken with the flu.[35] Tech still won 51–0. Georgia Tech's starting lineup was Jones (left end), Maree (left tackle), Westbrook (left guard), Pund (center), Drennon (right guard), Watkins (right tackle), Waddey (right end), Schulman (quarterback), Fiasst (left halfback), Lumpkin (right halfback), and Randolph (fullback).[35]

Georgia[edit]

Georgia at Georgia Tech
1 234Total
Georgia 6 000 6
Ga. Tech 0 7130 20
  • Date: December 8
  • Location: Grant Field
    Atlanta, GA
  • Game start: 2:00 p. m.
  • Game attendance: 40,000
  • Referee: Gardner (Cornell)

In the final game of the regular season, Georgia Tech defeated the rival Georgia Bulldogs 20–6.[36] In the third period, Stumpy Thomason twisted for a 42-yard (38 m) run after an exchange of punts. Lumpkin ran through the line for 15 yards (14 m) and the ensuing touchdown to lead 14–6.[36]

The same week, the Tennessee Volunteers upset the high-scoring Florida Gators to give Georgia Tech the only claim to the southern championship.[36] Georgia Tech's starting lineup was Jones (left end), Watkins (left tackle), Westbrook (left guard), Pund (center), Drennon (right guard), Thrash (right tackle), Waddey (right end), Durant (quarterback), Mizell (left halfback), Thomason (right halfback), and Lumpkin (fullback).[36]

Post-season[edit]

California[edit]

Rose Bowl
1 234Total
Ga. Tech 0 260 8
Cal 0 007 7

Under the Dickinson System, USC was recognized as #1 but the 1929 Rose Bowl was contested between the #2 and #3 teams, California and Georgia Tech. The game was decided by a safety scored after California center Roy "Wrong Way" Riegels ran 65 yards (59 m) in the wrong direction, having picked up a fumble by Stumpy Thomason.[37]

Roy Riegels' wrong-way run.

Thirty yards (27 m) from Tech's end zone, Riegels was turned around and ran many yards in the wrong direction.[3] Riegels told the Associated Press, "I was running toward the sidelines when I picked up the ball ... I started to turn to my left toward Tech's goal. Somebody shoved me and I bounded right off into a tackler. In pivoting to get away from him, I completely lost my bearings."[38] Teammate and quarterback Benny Lom chased Riegels, screaming at him to stop. Known for his speed, Lom finally caught up with Riegels at California's 3-yard (2.7 m) line and tried to turn him around, but he was immediately rushed by a wave of Georgia Tech players, and tackled by Frank Waddey and Vance Maree at the 1-yard (0.91 m) line.[39] The Bears chose to punt rather than risk a play so close to their own end zone, but Maree blocked Lom's punt for a safety, giving Tech a 2–0 lead.[40][41]

External video
Riegels' wrong way run, YouTube video.

During Roy's wrong-way run, coach Alexander told his excited players, who were jumping near the team's bench; "Sit down. Sit down. He's just running the wrong way. Every step he takes is to our advantage".[42] Broadcaster Graham McNamee, who was commentating the game on radio, said during Riegels' run; "What am I seeing? What's wrong with me? Am I crazy? Am I crazy? Am I crazy?"[43]

After the play, Riegels was so distraught he had to be persuaded to return to the game for the second half by his head coach Nibs Price. Riegels said, "Coach, I can't do it. I've ruined you, I've ruined myself, I've ruined the University of California. I couldn't face that crowd to save my life." Coach Price responded by saying "Roy, get up and go back out there—the game is only half over".[44] Riegels did play on; he turned in a strong second-half performance, including blocking a Georgia Tech punt.[45] Lom passed for a touchdown and kicked the extra point, but that was not enough.[46] Georgia Tech won the game and its second national championship 8–7. Its starting lineup was Waddey (left end), Speer (left tackle), Drennon (left guard), Pund (center), Westbrook (right guard), Maree (right tackle), Jones (right end), Durant (quarterback), Thomason (left halfback), Mizell (right halfback), and Lumpkin (fullback).[47]

Awards and honors[edit]

Individual[edit]

Several Georgia Tech players received post-season honors. Tackle Frank Speer was selected as a first-team All-American by the Associated Press.[48] Center Peter Pund was recognized as a consensus All-American.[49] Halfback Warner Mizell was a second-team All-American and first-team All-Southern. Ends Tom Jones and Frank Waddey, tackle Vance Maree, and guard Raleigh Drennon were also placed on All-Southern teams.[50] Coach Alexander called Drennon "the best all around guard that ever put a cleat into Grant Field."[12]

National champions[edit]

Both USC and Georgia Tech claimed national championships for 1928.[51] Georgia Tech was retroactively selected as the national champion by the Berryman QPRS system, Billingsley Report, Boand System, College Football Researchers Association, Helms Athletic Foundation, Houlgate System, National Championship Foundation, Poling System, and Jeff Sagarin's ELO-Chess methodology system, and as a co-national champion by Parke H. Davis.[52] In honor of the Rose Bowl victory, Stumpy Thomason was given a bear cub by a local businessman. He grew attached to it, would drive it around town, and feed it Coca-Cola.[53]

Personnel[edit]

Depth chart[edit]

The following chart depicts Tech's lineup during the 1928 season with games started at the position shown in parenthesis.[26] The chart mimics the offense after the jump shift has taken place.

LE
Tom Jones (7)
Glenn Holland (2)
Frank Waddey (1)
Slick Keener (0)
LT LG C RG RT
Vance Maree (4) Joe Westbrook (7) Peter Pund (9) Raleigh Drennon (7) Frank Speer (6)
Ken Thrash (2) Raleigh Drennon (1) Fatty Cain (0) Jim Brooks (1) Vance Maree (1)
Coot Watkins (2) Hudson Edwards (1) Hobby Law (0) Joe Westbrook (1) Ken Thrash (1)
Frank Speer (1) Jack Holt (0) Geo. Muse (0) Joe Kent (0) Coot Watkins (1)
RE
Frank Waddey (8)
Tom Jones (1)
Ed Herron (0)
Phil Von Weller (0)
QB
Bob Durant (7)
Izzy Schulman (2)
RHB
Stumpy Thomason (6)
Father Lumpkin (2)
Warner Mizell (1)
Shorty Smith (0)
Fite Fitzgerald (0)
FB
Bob Randolph (7)
Father Lumpkin (2)
LHB
Warner Mizell (7)
Sleepy Faisst (1)
Stumpy Thomason (1)
Wilson (1)
Earl Dunlap (0)
Russ Russell (0)

Lettermen[edit]

Line[edit]

Number Player Position Games
started
Hometown Prep school Height Weight Age
72 Jim Brooke Guard 1 Columbus, Georgia 5'11" 180 18
10 Raleigh Drennon Guard 8 Atlanta, Georgia 5'10" 187 21
42 Hudson Edwards Guard 1 Atlanta, Georgia 6'0" 181 18
4 Ed Herron End Chattanooga, Tennessee 5'10" 170 19
2 Glenn Holland End 2 Atlanta, Georgia 5'11" 170 20
5 Tom Jones End 8 Clarkesville, Georgia 5'11" 175 19
61 Slick Keener End Gadsden, Alabama 5'10" 181 21
38 Vance Maree Tackle 4 Savannah, Georgia 6'1" 191 19
15 Peter Pund Center 9 Augusta, Georgia Richmond Academy 6'0" 182 21
78 Seedy Rusk Center Atlanta, Georgia 6'0" 179 21
48 Frank Speer Tackle 7 Atlanta, Georgia 6'0" 204 20
80 Ken Thrash Tackle 3 Orlando, Florida 5'10" 190 22
22 Phil Von Weller End Albany, Georgia 6'0" 178 20
26 Coot Watkins Tackle 3 Atlanta, Georgia 6'0" 199 20
70 Frank Waddey End 9 Memphis, Tennessee 5'10" 184 23
6 Joe Westbrook Guard 8 Moultrie, Georgia 5'11" 180 23

Source:[26]

Backfield[edit]

Number Player Position Games
started
Hometown Prep school Height Weight Age
84 Earl Dunlap Halfback Sumter, South Carolina 5'10" 177 18
22 Bob Durant Quarterback 7 Bluefield, West Virginia 5'9" 161 20
7 Sleepy Faisst Halfback 1 Little Rock, Arkansas 5'10" 160 20
18 Fite Fitzgerald Halfback Jackson, Tennessee 5'10" 164 20
59 Father Lumpkin Fullback 4 Dallas, Texas Oak Cliff High 6'1" 176 19
67 Warner Mizell Halfback 8 Atlanta, Georgia Miami Senior High 5'10" 170 20
63 Bob Parham Halfback Atlanta, Georgia 6'1" 176 21
24 Bob Randolph Fullback 8 Atlanta, Georgia 5'10" 176 21
28 Izzy Shulman Quarterback, halfback 2 Jackson, Tennessee 5'8" 155 20
37 Shorty Smith Halfback Cartersville, Georgia 5'7" 153 21
71 Stumpy Thomason Halfback 7 Atlanta, Georgia 5'8" 174 20

Source:[26]

Substitutes[edit]

Line[edit]

Number Player Position Hometown Prep school Height Weight Age
62 Fatty Cain Center Savannah, Georgia 5'9" 183 18
65 Jack Holt Tackle Little Rock, Arkansas 6'1" 188 20
Joe Kent Guard Moultrie, Georgia 5'10" 181 21
1 Hobby Law Center Chattanooga, Tennessee 5'9" 173 19
81 Geo Muse Center Covington, Kentucky 5'10" 178 19

Source:[26]

Backfield[edit]

Number Player Position Hometown Prep school Height Weight Age
53 Jimmie Frink Halfback Miami, Florida 5'10" 162 19
Bob Horn Halfback Norfolk, Virginia 5'10" 178 21
54 Sol Luna Halfback Pittsburg, Tennessee 5'8" 163 20
8 Russ Russell Halfback New York, New York 5'10" 160 19
Bob Strickland Halfback Sumter, South Carolina 5'10" 174 19

Source:[26]

Coaching staff[edit]

[3]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Although Georgia Tech's teams are officially known as the "Yellow Jackets", northern writers called the team the "Golden Tornado" in 1917; the name was commonly used until 1928 and for many years afterwards as an alternate nickname.[1] It may have been coined by Morgan Blake.[2]
  2. ^ 1927's captain Ed Crowley graduated and played baseball with the Washington Senators in 1928.[7]

Endnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Van Brimmer & Rice 2011, p. 147
  2. ^ "Golden Tornadoes". gatech.edu. Retrieved January 28, 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c Garrett 2011, pp. 843–844
  4. ^ a b "Tech Ruins Georgia's Grid Title Hopes". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. December 4, 1927. Retrieved August 20, 2016. 
  5. ^ Van Brimmer 2006, p. 26
  6. ^ "Return Of Tech Stars To Brighten Chances For Victory Over Rockne Eleven Next Fall". The Evening Independent. December 9, 1927. Retrieved August 20, 2016. 
  7. ^ "Ed Crowley Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved August 22, 2016. 
  8. ^ Wade, Wallace (September 15, 1928). "Georgia Tech, Georgia, and Vandy Loom Strong In South, Wade Believes". The Anniston Star. p. 6. Retrieved March 1, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  9. ^ "Tech, Vandy, and Georgia Lead Conference Teams". The Evening Independent. September 24, 1928. Retrieved August 20, 2016. 
  10. ^ "Georgia Tech's Gridmen Ready". St. Petersburg Times. September 24, 1928. 
  11. ^ "Henry R. "Peter" Pund". Georgia Sports Hall of Fame. Retrieved February 9, 2015. 
  12. ^ a b c "Meet the Georgia Tech Varsity highlights About Players Noted". Berkeley Daily Gazette. December 26, 1928. 
  13. ^ "1928 Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets Schedule and Results". 
  14. ^ a b c d e "Golden Tornado Outclasses V. M. I. In 13–0 Victory" (PDF). The Technique. October 12, 1928. p. 4. 
  15. ^ "Georgia Tech Defeats V.M.I. Cadets, 13 to 0". The Anniston Star. October 7, 1928. p. 12. Retrieved March 1, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  16. ^ a b c "Georgia Tech Passes Beat Tulane". Oakland Tribune. October 14, 1928. p. 25. Retrieved March 1, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  17. ^ a b c Edward W. Lewis (October 21, 1928). "Georgia Tech Beats Notre Dame,13–0". Oakland Tribune. p. 96. Retrieved March 1, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  18. ^ Michael R. Steele (October 16, 2012). "The Notre Dame Football Encyclopedia". Skyhorse Publishing Inc. p. 60. 
  19. ^ Van Brimmer 2011, p. 199
  20. ^ "Henry R. "Peter" Pund". Inductees. Georgia Sports Hall of Fame and Museum. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved August 11, 2007. 
  21. ^ Murray A. Spencer (1993). Shake Down the Thunder: The Creation of Notre Dame Football. Indiana University Press. p. 278. ISBN 0253215684. 
  22. ^ a b Pope, pp. 9–11
  23. ^ a b c H. C. Renegar (October 28, 1928). "Georgia Tech's Golden Tornado Sweeps North Carolina 20 To 7". Kingsport Times. p. 2. Retrieved April 30, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  24. ^ "Georgia Plays First Time In North Carolina". The Daily Tar Heel. October 27, 1928. p. 5. Retrieved March 1, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  25. ^ a b "Georgia Tech Springs Aerial Attack To Win". The Anniston Star. October 28, 1928. p. 10. Retrieved May 1, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  26. ^ a b c d e f "Georgia Tech Football Statistics". The Daily Tar Heel. October 27, 1928. p. 5. Retrieved March 18, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  27. ^ a b c d e "Tornado Wins Over Petrels In Last Half". The Anniston Star. November 4, 1928. p. 12. Retrieved March 1, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  28. ^ a b c "Petrels Hold Tornado To a Tie at the End of the Half". Technique. November 9, 1928. p. 4. 
  29. ^ "Tech-Oglethorpe Detail". The Atlanta Journal. November 4, 1928. 
  30. ^ a b c d "Tornado Takes Places As Grid King of South". The Anniston Star. November 11, 1928. p. 11. Retrieved May 1, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  31. ^ a b "Hopes of Vandy in South Circuit Wrecked Today". The Waco News-Tribune. November 11, 1928. p. 6. Retrieved March 1, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  32. ^ "Georgia Tech 11 Whips Vanderbilt". The Oregon Statesman. November 11, 1928. p. 9. Retrieved March 1, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  33. ^ a b c d e "1928 Season Recap" (PDF). University of Alabama. Retrieved August 20, 2016. 
  34. ^ "Mizell Leads Yellow Jackets To Seventh Win". The Anniston Star. November 18, 1928. p. 8. Retrieved May 1, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  35. ^ a b "Tornado, Tiger Await Whistle For Annual Go". The Anniston Star. November 29, 1928. p. 12. Retrieved March 2, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  36. ^ a b c d e "Tornado Ends Season With 20–6 Victory". San Bernardino County Sun. December 9, 1928. p. 20. Retrieved March 1, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  37. ^ a b "Roy Riegels, 84, Who Took Off In Wrong Direction in Rose Bowl", The New York Times, March 28, 1993. Accessed January 28, 2008.
  38. ^ Goldstein, Richard (December 25, 2003). "Revisiting Wrong Way Riegels". The New York Times. Retrieved June 5, 2013. 
  39. ^ Olderman, Murray (September 8, 1964). "Man Who Tackled Roy Riegels Gives Vivid Account of Game". The Progress-Index. p. 14. Retrieved August 21, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  40. ^ Greenspan, Bud (January 1, 1999). "Misdirection Misconception". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 2, 2013. 
  41. ^ "Great Run: Wrong Way". sportsillustrated.com. January 3, 1955. Archived from the original on December 30, 2013. Retrieved August 13, 2013. 
  42. ^ "Tech Tradition" (PDF). Georgia Institute of Technology. Retrieved June 10, 2013. 
  43. ^ Rosenbaum, Art (March 29, 1993). "Even Riegels had to laugh at 'wrong way' play". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Retrieved August 3, 2013. 
  44. ^ Lowitt, Bruce (September 26, 1999). "'Wrong Way' Riegels takes off into history". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved August 3, 2013. 
  45. ^ Glick, Shav (August 9, 1991). "Wrong-Way Run Finally Turns Out Right : College football: Despite his mistake that cost Cal in 1929, Roy Riegels is inducted into Rose Bowl Hall of Fame". LA Times. Retrieved August 20, 2016. 
  46. ^ "Benjamin A. Lom". jewsinsports.org. Retrieved August 20, 2016. 
  47. ^ "Probable Lineups For U. C. vs. Georgia Tech". Oakland Tribune. December 20, 1928. p. 25. Retrieved March 2, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  48. ^ Alan J. Gould (December 8, 1928). "Associated Press Gives Views on America's Best Gridders". The Salt Lake Tribune. 
  49. ^ "2014 NCAA Football Records: Consensus All-America Selections" (PDF). National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). 2014. p. 5. Retrieved August 16, 2014. 
  50. ^ "All Southern Selections". The Kingsport Times. December 7, 1928. Retrieved August 17, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  51. ^ "Early Georgia Tech Football" (PDF). College Football Historical Society. 14 (1): 13. 
  52. ^ National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) (2015). "National Poll Rankings" (PDF). NCAA Division I Football Records. NCAA. p. 109. Retrieved January 8, 2016. 
  53. ^ Van Brimmer 2006, p. 25

References[edit]