1935 in science
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Opening of the Hayden Planetarium in New York City.
- Opening of the Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles, California.
- February 28–March 1 – Working with polyamides to develop a viable new fiber for chemical company DuPont, American chemist Gérard Berchet working under the direction of Wallace Carothers first synthesizes the synthetic polymer nylon at Wilmington, Delaware.
- Vitamin E is first isolated in a pure form by Gladys Anderson Emerson at the University of California, Berkeley.
- Eastman Kodak first market Kodachrome subtractive color reversal film as 16 mm movie film. It was invented by two professional musicians, Leopold Godowsky, Jr. and Leopold Mannes.
History of science and technology
- American virologist Hans Zisser publishes Rats, lice and history: being a study in biography, which... deals with the life history of typhus fever.
- Cornish Engines Preservation Committee formed to conserve the Levant Mine beam engine in Cornwall, England.
- April 19 – Alonzo Church presents his paper "An unsolvable problem of elementary number theory", introducing his theorem on the Entscheidungsproblem, to the American Mathematical Society.
- George Pólya develops counting techniques for graphs as algebra.
- George K. Zipf proposes Zipf's law on probability distribution.
- January 28 – Iceland becomes the first country to legalize abortion on medical grounds.
- Ladislas J. Meduna discovers metrazol shock therapy
- First vaccine for Yellow Fever
- January 2 – IG Farben are granted a patent in Germany for the medical application of the first sulfonamide prodrug, Sulfonamidochrysoidine (KI-730; marketed as Prontosil). In February, Gerhard Domagk and others publish (in Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift) the first clinical results on its properties as an antibiotic, the first commercially available; and in November a team directed by Ernest Fourneau at the Pasteur Institute identify sulfanilamide as the active component.
- January 8 – A.C. Hardy patents the spectrophotometer.
- February 26 – Robert Watson-Watt and Arnold Wilkins first demonstrate the reflection of radio waves from an aircraft, near Daventry in England; on June 17, the first radio detection of an aircraft by ground-based radar is made at Orford Ness.
- Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen publish a paper arguing that quantum mechanics is not a complete physical theory (the EPR paradox). Discussion of this introduces the 'Schrödinger's cat' thought experiment.
- Jacques Yvon introduces S-particle distribution functions in classical statistical mechanics; they will later be included in the BBGKY hierarchy.
- January 24 – The first beer can is sold in Richmond, Virginia, United States, by the Gottfried Krueger Brewing Company.
- July 16 – The world's first parking meter is installed in Oklahoma City to a design by Holger George Thuesen and Gerald A. Hale patented by Carl Magee.
- November 6
- Callender-Hamilton bridge patented by A. M. Hamilton.
- Nobel Prizes
- January 29 - Roger Payne, American biologist and zoologist
- February 15 – Roger B. Chaffee (died in accident 1967), American astronaut.
- June 25 – Charles Sheffield (died 2002), English-born science fiction author and physicist.
- August 3 – Georgy Shonin (died 1997), Ukrainian cosmonaut.
- September 11 – Gherman Titov (died 2000), Soviet cosmonaut.
- November 11 – Magdi Yacoub, Egyptian-born cardiothoracic surgeon.
- Michael F. Ashby, English materials engineer.
- March 12 – Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin (born 1858), physicist.
- July 3 – André Citroën (born 1878), automobile manufacturer.
- December 4 – Charles Richet (born 1850), winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine.
- November 6 – Henry Fairfield Osborn (born 1857), paleontologist.
- Agnes Pockels (born 1862), chemist.
- Trossarelli, L. (2010). "the history of nylon". Club Alpino Italiano, Centro Studi Materiali e Tecniche. Archived from the original on 2012-03-01. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
- Oakes, Elizabeth H. (2007), "Emerson, Gladys Anderson", Encyclopedia of World Scientists, p. 211, ISBN 1438118821
- "Color Movies Easy To Make With Aid Of New Film". Popular Mechanics. June 1935. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- Wadley, Carma (1999-06-25). "Range of Color: Kodachrome Basin Lives up to Name it Got by Accident". Deseret News. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Tomsho, Robert (2009-06-23). "Kodak to Take Kodachrome Away". The Wall Street Journal. p. B6. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- "Leopold Godowsky, Jr.". Invent.org. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- "Leopold Mannes". Invent.org. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Tansley, A. G. (1935). "The use and abuse of vegetational terms and concepts". Ecology 16 (3): 284–307. doi:10.2307/1930070. JSTOR 1930070.
- The term ecosystem was coined by Arthur Roy Clapham at Tansley's request. Willis, A. J. (1997). "The Ecosystem: An Evolving Concept Viewed Historically". Functional Ecology 11 (2): 268–271. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2435.1997.00081.x. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- Helmenstine, Anne Marie (2011-09-03). "This Day in Science History – September 4 – Hans Zinsser". About.com. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- American Journal of Mathematics 58 (1935) pp. 345–363.
- Crilly, Tony (2007). 50 Mathematical Ideas you really need to know. London: Quercus. p. 117. ISBN 978-1-84724-008-8.
- Zipf, George K. (1935). The Psychobiology of Language. Houghton-Mifflin.
- Lesch, J. E. (2007). The first miracle drugs: how the sulfa drugs transformed medicine. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 82–86. ISBN 978-0-19-518775-5.
- "Passive Covert Radar – Watson-Watt's Daventry Experiment Revisited". IET. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?"
- Schrödinger, Erwin (November 1935). "Die gegenwärtige Situation in der Quantenmechanik" [The present situation in quantum mechanics]. Naturwissenschaften 23 (49): 807–812. Bibcode:1935NW.....23..807S. doi:10.1007/BF01491891.
- Yvon, J. (1935). Theorie Statistique des Fluides et l'Equation et l'Equation d'Etat. Actes scientifique et industrie, 203. Paris: Hermann.
- Maxwell, D. B. S. (1993). "Beer Cans: A Guide for the Archaeologist". Historical Archaeology 27 (1). doi:10.2307/25616219. Retrieved 2013-12-12.
- United States patent #2,118,318 for a "coin controlled parking meter" filed 13 May 1935.
- "Inglewood Did Not Invent The Parking Meter". Inglewood, California. Archived from the original on 2012-02-19. Retrieved 2012-02-17.
- "POM Parking Meters". Retrieved 2012-02-17.
- "Coin-in-Slot Parking Meter Brings Revenue to City". Popular Mechanics: 519. October 1935. Retrieved 2012-02-17.
- "70 Years Ago – Tick Tick Tick". Smithsonian: 18. May 2008.
- Crossen, Cynthia (2007-07-30). "When Parallel Parking Was New and Meters Seemed Un-American". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2012-02-17.
- The History Channel. History's Lost and Found.
- Chan, Sewell (2006-12-20). "New York Retires Last Mechanical Parking Meter". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-02-17.