1936 Lugano

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1936 Lugano
Discovery [1]
Discovered by P. Wild
Discovery site Zimmerwald Obs.
Discovery date 24 November 1973
Designations
MPC designation (1936) Lugano
Named after
Lugano (Swiss city)[2]
1973 WD · 1936 LC
1949 KE1 · 1951 WX
1964 VA1 · 1970 AG1
1970 AL1 · 1970 CD
main-belt · (middle)[3]
Adeona[4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 61.33 yr (22,399 days)
Aphelion|Aphelion 3.0395 AU
Perihelion|Perihelion 2.3131 AU
2.6763 AU
Eccentricity 0.1357
4.38 yr (1,599 days)
291.44°
0° 13m 30.36s / day
Inclination 10.254°
265.17°
255.13°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 23.48±8.63 km[5]
24.56 km (derived)[3]
24.81±0.8 km[6]
27.95±0.87 km[7]
31.037±0.137 km[8]
31.43±8.87 km[9]
33.704±0.067 km[10]
19.594±0.007 h[11]
19.651±0.015 h[12]
0.028±0.011[8]
0.0294±0.0024[10]
0.04±0.02[9]
0.04±0.03[5]
0.0558 (derived)[3]
0.093±0.007[7]
0.1042±0.008[6]
SMASS = Ch[1] · P[10]
11.10[7][6][10] · 11.70[5] · 11.78[9] · 11.8[1][3] · 12.45±0.41[13]

1936 Lugano, provisional designation 1973 WD, is a carbonaceous Adeonian asteroid from the middle region of the asteroid belt, approximately 26 kilometers in diameter.

It was discovered on 24 November 1973, by Swiss astronomer Paul Wild at Zimmerwald Observatory near Bern, Switzerland.[14] It was later named for the Swiss city of Lugano.[2]

Classification and orbit[edit]

Lugano is a member of the Adeona family (505), a large family of carbonaceous asteroids.[4]

It orbits the Sun in the central main-belt at a distance of 2.3–3.0 AU once every 4 years and 5 months (1,599 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.14 and an inclination of 10° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] It was first identified as 1936 LC at Johannesburg Observatory in 1936. The body's observation arc begins 22 years prior to its official discovery observation at Zimmerwald, when it was identified as 1951 WX at McDonald Observatory in 1951.[14]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Spectral type[edit]

In the SMASS classification, Lugano is a Ch-subtype, a hydrated C-type asteroid,[1] while the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) rates it as a very dark and featureless reddish P-type asteroid.[10]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the space-based surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's WISE telescope, Lugano measures between 23.48 and 33.7 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo in the range of 0.028 to 0.1042.[5][6][7][8][9][10]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.056 and a diameter of 24.6 kilometers, based on an absolute magnitude of 11.8.[3]

Lightcurves[edit]

Two rotational lightcurves of Lugano were obtained from photometric observations made in February 2005. The first lightcurve by French astronomer Raymond Poncy gave a rotation period of 19.594±0.007 hours with a brightness variation of 0.25 magnitude (U=2).[11] The second lightcurve from the U.S. Carbuncle Hill Observatory (912), Rhode Island, rendered a well-defined period of 19.651±0.015 with an amplitude of 0.31 in magnitude (U=3).[12]

Naming[edit]

The minor planet is named after the Swiss-Italian city of Lugano, located south of the Alps and known for its mild climate. During the winter half-year of 1973/74, Paul Wild discovered three more asteroids, 1935 Lucerna, 1937 Locarno and 1938 Lausanna, which he named after the Swiss cities Lucerne, Locarno and Lausanne, respectively, composing a quartet of sequentially numbered, thematically named asteroids.[2] The approved naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 4358).[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1936 Lugano (1973 WD)" (2017-02-04 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2 July 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1936) Lugano. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 155. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "LCDB Data for (1936) Lugano". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; et al. (November 2011). "Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary Albedos and Diameters". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 20. arXiv:1109.4096Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...68M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/68. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  9. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  11. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1936) Lugano". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  12. ^ a b Pray, Donald P. (September 2005). "Lightcurve analysis of asteroids 106, 752, 847, 1057, 1630, 1670, 1927 1936, 2426, 2612, 2647, 4087, 5635, 5692, and 6235". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 32 (3): 48–51. Bibcode:2005MPBu...32...48P. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  13. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  14. ^ a b "1936 Lugano (1973 WD)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  15. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 

External links[edit]