1936 in science
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- December 23 – The first nerve agent, Tabun, is discovered (accidentally) by a research team headed by Dr Gerhard Schrader of IG Farben in Germany.
- May 28 – Alan Turing's paper "On Computable Numbers" is received by the London Mathematical Society for publication, introducing the concept of the theoretical "a[utomatic]-machine" or Turing machine. Its formal publication is on November 12.
- Rózsa Péter presents a paper entitled "Über rekursive Funktionen der zweite Stufe" to the International Congress of Mathematicians in Oslo. These papers helped to found the modern field of recursive function theory.
- March – Alonzo Church's "A Note on the Entscheidungsproblem" is published.
- Dutch mathematician Cornelis Simon Meijer introduces the Meijer G-function.
- António Egas Moniz publishes his first report of performing a prefrontal leukotomy on a human patient.
- Guido Fanconi describes a connection between celiac disease, cystic fibrosis of the pancreas and bronchiectasis.
- June 26 – Focke-Wulf Fw 61, the first fully controllable helicopter, makes its first flight.
- November 2 – The world's first regular daily high-definition (at this time defined as at least 200 lines) television broadcast service is begun by the British Broadcasting Corporation from Alexandra Palace in London (following test transmissions since August). The service initially alternates on a weekly basis between John Logie Baird's 240-line electromechanical system and the Marconi-EMI all-electronic 405-line television system.
- September 7 – Death of the last recorded thylacine, in Hobart Zoo.
- American explorer Ruth Harkness brings the first live giant panda, a cub named Su Lin, out of China.
- Fields Prize in Mathematics (first award): Lars Ahlfors and Jesse Douglas
- Nobel Prizes
- January 8 – Robert May, Australian-born Government Chief Scientific Adviser (United Kingdom).
- January 10
- January 27 – Barry Barish, American gravitational physicist, Nobel Prize winner.
- March 24 – David Suzuki, Canadian geneticist and populariser of science.
- April 17 – Meemann Chang, Chinese paleontologist.
- August 1 – W. D. Hamilton (died 2000), English evolutionary biologist, widely recognised as one of the greatest evolutionary theorists of the 20th century.
- August 17 – Margaret Hamilton, American computer scientist, Presidential Medal of Freedom laureate.
- September 17 – Gerald Guralnik (died 2014), American physicist most famous for his co-discovery of the Higgs mechanism and Higgs boson.
- November 25 – John Taylor, English inventor.
- December 22 – James Burke, British historian and populariser of science.
- February 27 – Ivan Pavlov (born 1849), Russian physiologist.
- April 8 – Róbert Bárány (born 1876), Austro-Hungarian-born otologist, Nobel Prize winner in medicine.
- April 9 – John Uri Lloyd (born 1849), American pharmacist and science fiction author.
- April 27 – Karl Pearson (born 1857), English mathematician.
- August 25 – Maria von Linden (born 1869), German bacteriologist and zoologist.
- "A Short History of the Development of Nerve Gases". Noblis.org. Archived from the original on 2009-02-03. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
- "Nerve Agent: GA". Cbwinfo.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
- Turing, A. M. (January 1937). "On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem". Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. Series 2. 42: 230–265. doi:10.1112/plms/s2-42.1.230. Retrieved 2017-12-24.
- MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive. "Rózsa Péter". School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
- Albers, Donald J.; Alexanderson, Gerald L.; Reid, Constance, eds. (1990), "Rozsa Peter 1905–1977", More Mathematical People, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, p. 149
- Andrásfai, Béla (1986), "Rózsa (Rosa) Péter", Periodica Polytechnica Electrical Engineering, 30 (2–3): 139–145
- Lehmann, Inge (1936). "P'". Publications du Bureau Central Séismologique International. A14 (3): S.87–115.
- Bolt, Bruce A. (1987). "50 years of studies on the inner core". Eos. 68 (6): 73, 80–81.
- Church, Alonzo (1936). "A Note on the Entscheidungsproblem". Journal of Symbolic Logic. 1: 40–41. Submitted April 15 [sic.]
- Meijer, C. S. (1936). "Über Whittakersche bzw. Besselsche Funktionen und deren Produkte". Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde (2) (in German). 18 (4): 10–39. JFM 62.0421.02.
- "Biography". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
- Fanconi, G.; Uehlinger, E.; Knauer, C. (1936). "Das coeliakiesyndrom bei angeborener zysticher pankreasfibromatose und bronchiektasien". Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift. 86: 753–756.
- Hogg, Michael A.; Vaughan, Graham M. (2005). Social Psychology (4th ed.). Harlow: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0273686992.
- Paddle, Robert (2000). The Last Tasmanian Tiger: the History and Extinction of the Thylacine. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53154-3.
- Watson, D. A. "The Panda Lady: Ruth Harkness (Part 1)". Female explorers. Archived from the original on 15 December 2006. Retrieved 2007-02-01.