1938 Tour de France
|Route of the 1938 Tour de France
Followed counterclockwise, starting in Paris
|Dates||5–31 July 1938|
|Stages||21 (29 including split stages)|
|Distance||4,694 km (2,917 mi)|
|Winning time||148h 29' 12" (31.565 km/h or 19.614 mph)|
|Winner||Gino Bartali (Italy)||(Italy)|
|Second||Félicien Vervaecke (Belgium)||(Belgium)|
|Third||Victor Cosson (France)||(France)|
|Mountains||Gino Bartali (Italy)||(Italy)|
The 1938 Tour de France was the 32nd Tour de France, taking place July 5 to July 31, 1938. It was composed of 21 stages over 4694 km, ridden at an average speed of 31.565 km/h. The race was won by Italian cyclist Gino Bartali, who also won the mountains classification.
Changes from the 1937 Tour de France
The bonification system was reduced compared to 1937: the winner of a stage now only received one minute bonification time, added by the margin to the second arriving cyclist, with a maximum of 75 seconds. The cyclists who reached a mountain top that counted towards the mountains classification first, now received only one minute bonification time.
The team trial stages, where the teams departed 15 minutes separately, were removed from the race. They would later return in the 1954 Tour de France, in a different form. Instead, the 1938 Tour de France featured two individual time trials.
In previous years, some cyclists were in teams and other rode individually. In 1937, there had been problems with individual cyclists being accused of helping other cyclists, culminating in the Belgian cyclists leaving the Tour. To avoid these problems, the categories for individual cyclists were removed removed for the 1938 Tour de France, and the race was contested by national teams. But because there were many French cyclists that did not fit into the national team, there were two extra French teams, the Bleuets and Cadets. The Bleuets was a kind of French "B"-team, while the Cadets consisted of young French promises.
The big cycling nations in 1938, Belgium, Italy, Germany and France, each sent a team of 12 cyclists. Other countries, Spain, Luxembourg, Switzerland and the Netherlands, sent smaller teams of six cyclists each. The French had two extra teams of 12 cyclists, the Cadets and Bleuets.
The three most powerful teams were the Belgian, the French and the Italian national team. The Italian team was led by Bartali, who had was close to winning the Tour de France in 1937 until he crashed. The Italian cycling federation had requested him to skip the 1938 Giro d'Italia so he could focus on the Tour de France.
Before the Pyrénées, all the favourites remained calm. André Leducq did not lose much time in the first stages, and when he got in a breakaway in the second part of the sixth stage, he took over the lead from Jean Majerus. In the eighth stage, Gino Bartali attacked, and dropped everybody. On the descent of the Col d'Aspin, his wheel collapsed, and Félicien Vervaecke and Ward Vissers overtook him. Bartali came back to finish in third place, but Vervaecke took the lead in the general classification. In that stage, former winner Georges Speicher was caught holding on to a car, and was removed from the race.
After that stage, Bartali was in second place in the general classification. He won some time on Vervaecke because of bonifications for reaching the tops of the Portet d'Aspet and the Braus first and winning the 11th stage, but lost some time in the individual time trial in stage 10B.
In the fourteenth stage, Bartali attacked again, and gained 17 minutes on Vervaecke and 20 on Vissers. Bartali was now leader of the race. Before the next stage, Bartali felt poorly. His team director, Costante Girardengo, told him not to force himself. Bartali let the others get away on the first mountains, but during the descent of the Iseran, Bartali went as fast as he could, and reach his concurrents. During that stage, Mathias Clemens, who started the stage in second place, lost a lot of time, so Vervaecke was back in second place, 20 minutes behind Bartali.
In the rest of the race, Bartali defended his lead with ease. Vervaecke won back some time in the last individual time trial, but that was not enough to endanger Bartali's lead.
In the last stage, Antonin Magne (winner of the Tour de France in 1931 and 1934) and André Leducq (winner of the Tour de France in 1930 and 1932) escaped together, and crossed the finish line together. The Tour jury declared them both winner. This was Leducq's 25th and final stage victory; only Eddy Merckx and Bernard Hinault would later win more stages. For both cyclists it was also the last stage they ever rode in the Tour de France.
|1||5 July||Paris-Caen||Plain stage||215 km (134 mi)||Willi Oberbeck (GER)|
|2||6 July||Caen-Saint-Brieuc||Plain stage||237 km (147 mi)||Jean Majerus (LUX)|
|3||7 July||Saint-Brieuc – Nantes||Plain stage||238 km (148 mi)||Gerrit Schulte (NED)|
|4A||8 July||Nantes – La Roche-sur-Yon||Plain stage||62 km (39 mi)||Éloi Meulenberg (BEL)|
|4B||La Roche-sur-Yon – La Rochelle||Plain stage||83 km (52 mi)||Éloi Meulenberg (BEL)|
|4C||La Rochelle – Royan||Plain stage||83 km (52 mi)||Félicien Vervaecke (BEL)|
|5||10 July||Royan – Bordeaux||Plain stage||198 km (123 mi)||Éloi Meulenberg (BEL)|
|6A||11 July||Bordeaux – Arcachon||Plain stage||53 km (33 mi)||Jules Rossi (ITA)|
|6B||Arcachon – Bayonne||Plain stage||171 km (106 mi)||Glauco Servadei (ITA)|
|7||12 July||Bayonne – Pau||Plain stage||115 km (71 mi)||Theo Middelkamp (NED)|
|8||14 July||Pau – Luchon||Stage with mountain(s)||193 km (120 mi)||Félicien Vervaecke (BEL)|
|9||16 July||Luchon – Perpignan||Stage with mountain(s)||260 km (160 mi)||Jean Fréchaut (FRA)|
|10A||17 July||Perpignan – Narbonne||Plain stage||63 km (39 mi)||Antoon van Schendel (NED)|
|10B||Narbonne – Béziers||Individual time trial||27 km (17 mi)||Félicien Vervaecke (BEL)|
|10C||Béziers – Montpellier||Plain stage||73 km (45 mi)||Antonin Magne (FRA)|
|11||18 July||Montpellier – Marseille||Plain stage||223 km (139 mi)||Gino Bartali (ITA)|
|12||19 July||Marseille – Cannes||Plain stage||199 km (124 mi)||Jean Fréchaut (FRA)|
|13||21 July||Cannes – Digne||Stage with mountain(s)||284 km (176 mi)||Dante Gianello (FRA)|
|14||22 July||Digne – Briançon||Stage with mountain(s)||219 km (136 mi)||Gino Bartali (ITA)|
|15||23 July||Briançon – Aix-les-Bains||Stage with mountain(s)||311 km (193 mi)||Marcel Kint (BEL)|
|16||25 July||Aix-les-Bains – Besançon||Stage with mountain(s)||284 km (176 mi)||Marcel Kint (BEL)|
|17A||26 July||Besançon – Belfort||Plain stage||89 km (55 mi)||Émile Masson Jr. (BEL)|
|17B||Belfort – Strasbourg||Plain stage||143 km (89 mi)||Jean Fréchaut (FRA)|
|18||27 July||Strasbourg – Metz||Plain stage||186 km (116 mi)||Marcel Kint (BEL)|
|19||28 July||Metz – Reims||Plain stage||196 km (122 mi)||Fabien Galateau (FRA)|
|20A||30 July||Reims – Laon||Plain stage||48 km (30 mi)||Glauco Servadei (ITA)|
|20B||Laon – Saint-Quentin||Individual time trial||42 km (26 mi)||Félicien Vervaecke (BEL)|
|20C||Saint-Quentin – Lille||Plain stage||107 km (66 mi)||François Neuville (BEL)|
|21||31 July||Lille – Paris||Plain stage||279 km (173 mi)|| Antonin Magne (FRA)
André Leducq (FRA)[Notes 2]
||Mountains classification||Team classification|
|1||Willi Oberbeck (GER)||no award||Germany|
|2||Jean Majerus (LUX)||France|
|6b||André Leducq (FRA)|
|8||Félicien Vervaecke (BEL)||Gino Bartali (ITA)||Belgium|
|14||Gino Bartali (ITA)|
|Final||Gino Bartali (ITA)||Gino Bartali (ITA)||Belgium|
Final general classification
The time that each cyclist required to finish each stage was recorded, and these times were added together for the general classification. If a cyclist had received a time bonus, it was subtracted from this total; all time penalties were added to this total. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey.
|1||Gino Bartali (ITA)||Italy||148h 29' 12"|
|2||Félicien Vervaecke (BEL)||Belgium||+18' 27"|
|3||Victor Cosson (FRA)||France||+29' 26"|
|4||Ward Vissers (BEL)||Belgium||+35' 08"|
|5||Matt Clemens (LUX)||Luxembourg||+42' 08"|
|6||Mario Vicini (ITA)||Italy||+44' 59"|
|7||Jules Lowie (BEL)||Belgium||+48' 56"|
|8||Antonin Magne (FRA)||France||+49' 00"|
|9||Marcel Kint (BEL)||Belgium||+59' 49"|
|10||Dante Gianello (FRA)||Bleuets||+1h 06' 47"|
|Final general classification (11–55)|
|11||Jean-Marie Goasmat (FRA)||France||+1h 07' 34"|
|12||Albertin Disseaux (BEL)||Belgium||+1h 12' 16"|
|13||Robert Tanneveau (FRA)||Cadets||+1h 13' 54"|
|14||Sylvère Maes (BEL)||Belgium||+1h 21' 11"|
|15||Pierre Gallien (FRA)||France||+1h 24' 34"|
|16||Mariano Cañardo (ESP)||Spain||+1h 26' 48"|
|17||François Neuville (BEL)||Belgium||+1h 35' 43"|
|18||Jean Fréchaut (FRA)||France||+1h 37' 24"|
|19||Rafael Ramos (ESP)||Spain||+1h 37' 40"|
|20||Glauco Servadei (ITA)||Italy||+1h 41' 38"|
|21||Otto Weckerling (GER)||Germany||+1h 42' 27"|
|22||Raymond Passat (FRA)||Cadets||+1h 47' 19"|
|23||Yvan Marie (FRA)||Cadets||+1h 49' 49"|
|24||Jean Fontenay (FRA)||Cadets||+1h 50' 04"|
|25||Giordano Cottur (ITA)||Italy||+1h 50' 08"|
|26||Raymond Louviot (FRA)||Cadets||+1h 50' 21"|
|27||Giuseppe Martano (ITA)||Italy||+1h 52' 31"|
|28||Fabien Galateau (FRA)||Cadets||+1h 52' 43"|
|29||Julián Berrendero (ESP)||Spain||+1h 53' 31"|
|30||André Leducq (FRA)||Cadets||+1h 53' 42"|
|31||Paul Egli (SUI)||Switzerland||+2h 00' 06"|
|32||Arsène Mersch (LUX)||Luxembourg||+2h 03' 16"|
|33||Vasco Bergamaschi (ITA)||Italy||+2h 07' 07"|
|34||Émile Masson jr (BEL)||Belgium||+2h 13' 39"|
|35||Albert Bourlon (FRA)||Bleuets||+2h 18' 00"|
|36||Lucien Le Guével (FRA)||Bleuets||+2h 22' 33"|
|37||François Neuens (LUX)||Luxembourg||+2h 23' 10"|
|38||Enrico Mollo (ITA)||Italy||+2h 24' 35"|
|39||Constant Lauwers (BEL)||Belgium||+2h 26' 28"|
|40||Oreste Bernardoni (FRA)||Bleuets||+2h 29' 34"|
|41||Robert Oubron (FRA)||Cadets||+2h 43' 41"|
|42||Camille Leroy 2 (FRA)||Bleuets||+3h 02' 15"|
|43||Theo Middelkamp (NED)||Netherlands||+3h 02' 45"|
|44||Pierre Jaminet (FRA)||France||+3h 05' 40"|
|45||Josef Arents (GER)||Germany||+3h 15' 14"|
|46||Augusto Introzzi (ITA)||Italy||+3h 18' 59"|
|47||Bruno Carini (FRA)||Cadets||+3h 20' 52"|
|48||Aldo Bini (ITA)||Italy||+3h 20' 55"|
|49||Jean Majerus (LUX)||Luxembourg||+3h 22' 02"|
|50||Antoon Van Schendel (NED)||Netherlands||+3h 32' 24"|
|51||René Walschot (BEL)||Belgium||+3h 40' 43"|
|52||Herbert Hauswald (GER)||Germany||+3h 50' 46"|
|53||Reinhold Wendel (GER)||Germany||+3h 52' 57"|
|54||Nello Troggi (ITA)||Italy||+4h 18' 17"|
|55||Janus Hellemons (NED)||Netherlands||+5h 02' 34"|
Final team classification
The team classification was calculated in 1938 by adding up the times of the best three cyclists of a team; the team with the least time was the winner. In 1938, there were eight teams of twelve cyclists. Belgium, Italy, Germany and France had a team, Luxembourg and Switzerland both supplied six cyclists for a combined team, as did Spain and the Netherlands, and there were two extra French teams, the bleuets and the cadets. The bleuets were also described as "France B", and the cadets as "France C".
|1||Belgium||447h 10' 07"|
|4||Luxembourg/ Switzerland||+3h 02' 29"|
|5||Cadets||+3h 11' 31"|
|6||Spain/ Netherlands||+3h 15' 29"|
|7||Bleuets||+4h 04' 49"|
|8||Germany||+7h 05' 57"|
|8||Aubisque||1,709 metres (5,607 ft)||Pyrénées||Gino Bartali|
|8||Tourmalet||2,115 metres (6,939 ft)||Pyrénées||Gino Bartali|
|8||Aspin||1,489 metres (4,885 ft)||Pyrénées||Gino Bartali|
|8||Peyresourde||1,569 metres (5,148 ft)||Pyrénées||Félicien Vervaecke|
|9||Portet d'Aspet||1,069 metres (3,507 ft)||Pyrénées||Gino Bartali|
|13||Braus||1,002 metres (3,287 ft)||Alps-Maritimes||Gino Bartali|
|14||Allos||2,250 metres (7,380 ft)||Alps||Gino Bartali|
|14||Vars||2,110 metres (6,920 ft)||Alps||Gino Bartali|
|14||Izoard||2,361 metres (7,746 ft)||Alps||Gino Bartali|
|15||Galibier||2,556 metres (8,386 ft)||Alps||Mario Vicini|
|15||Iseran||2,770 metres (9,090 ft)||Alps||Félicien Vervaecke|
|16||Faucille||1,320 metres (4,330 ft)||Alps||Gino Bartali|
On the top of these mountains, ten points were given for the first cyclist to pass, nine points to the second cyclist, and so on, until the tenth cyclist who got one point. The mountains classification in 1938 was won by Gino Bartali. Bartali was the first cyclist to win the general classification and the mountains classification of the Tour de France in the same year.
|1||Gino Bartali (ITA)||Italy||107|
|2||Félicien Vervaecke (BEL)||Belgium||79|
|3||Edward Vissers (BEL)||Belgium||76|
|4||Dante Gianello (FRA)||Bleuets||57|
|5||Victor Cosson (FRA)||France||55|
Because of the political tensions in Europe before the Second World War, Italy did not send a team to the 1939 Tour de France, so Bartali was unable to defend his title. After that, the only resumed in 1947. In 1948, Bartali won his second Tour de France, becoming the first and so far only cyclist to win editions of the Tour de France ten years apart.
- The icons shown here indicate whether the stage was run as a time trial, the stage was flat or the stage included mountains for the mountains classification.
- Magne and Leducq were both declared winners of stage 21.
- Augendre, Jacques (2009). "Guide Historique, Part 6" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 2009-10-03. Retrieved 1 October 2009.
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- McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol (2006). The Story of the Tour De France. dog ear publishing. pp. 139–144. ISBN 978-1-59858-180-5. Retrieved 2010-01-22.
- "De Ronde van Frankrijk". De Halle (in Dutch). 2 January 1938. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Tom James (15 August 2003). "1938: A final fling for les Bleus". VeloArchive. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
- "Gino "the Pious" Climbs to Victory". Cycling revealed. 2004. Retrieved 22 January 2010.
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- "The Tour - Antonin Magne". Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
- Arian Zwegers. "Tour de France GC Top Ten". CVCC. Archived from the original on 2009-05-04. Retrieved 2009-04-20.
- Augendre, Jacques (2009). "Guide Historique, part 3" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- "La clasificacion international" (in Spanish). El mundo deportivo. 1 August 1938. p. 2. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
- "De Ronde van Frankrijk door Bartali gewonnen" (in Dutch). Leeuwarder Courant. 1 August 1938. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
- Augendre, Jacques (2009). "Guide Historique, part 8" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- Moliterno, Gino (2000). Encyclopedia of contemporary Italian culture. CRC Press. p. 73. ISBN 0-415-14584-8.
- "Tour-Giro-Vuelta". Retrieved 13 October 2009.
- "33ème Tour de France 1938" (in French). Memoire du cyclisme. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
Media related to 1938 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons