1940 Croatian local elections

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1940 Croatian local elections

← 1936 19 May, 26 May, 2 June 1940
  First party Second party
  Vladko Maček crop.jpg Blank1x1.svg
Leader Vladko Maček
Party HSS-SDS Serb independent lists
Municipalities 588 34
Municipalities +/- Increase34

  Third party Fourth party
  Dragiša Cvetković (1).jpg Rade Končar.jpg
Leader Dragiša Cvetković Rade Končar
Party JRZ Communists
Municipalities 22 4
Municipalities +/- Decrease86 Increase4

Lokalni izbori u Banovini Hrvatskoj 1940, koalicije.svg
  HSS-SDS Coalition   Serb independent lists   JRZ   Communists   German lists   Minority lists   Farmers   Muslim lists   Davidović group   Elections not held

The 1940 Croatian local elections were held in 625 municipalities of the Banovina of Croatia on 19 May 1940, and in 33 municipalities on 26 May and 2 June. These were the first elections following the Cvetković–Maček Agreement and the establishment of the autonomous Croatian Banate within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The elections were not held in cities and some Adriatic counties bordering, or adjacent to, Italy. Only men older than 24 were allowed to vote. Voting was public and conducted by voice.

The elections were a landslide victory for the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) and the Independent Democratic Party (SDS), the ruling parties of the Banovina of Croatia, which together won a majority in 90% of municipalities. Serb independent lists, supported by organizations opposing the Cvetković–Maček Agreement, won around 5% of municipalities. The Yugoslav Radical Union (JRZ), the ruling party of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, suffered a heavy defeat and lost control in 80% of its previously held municipalities.

Due to the outbreak of World War II, the 1941 invasion of Yugoslavia, and the subsequent period of communist rule, these were to be the last multi-party elections in Croatia until the 1990 parliamentary election, almost exactly fifty years later.

Background[edit]

On 26 August 1939, the autonomous Banovina of Croatia was established within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It was formed under the Cvetković–Maček Agreement, signed by Dragiša Cvetković, in the name of the Yugoslav Government, and Vladko Maček, the leader of the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS). The Banovina of Croatia included the entire Sava Banovina and Littoral Banovina, as well as parts of the Drina, Zeta, and Danube Banovinas.[1] Its capital was Zagreb and Ivan Šubašić of the HSS was appointed as Ban of Croatia.

After the HSS achieved its main goal, Croatian autonomy in Yugoslavia, it had to face many new and difficult challenges in taking political responsibility in Croatia and addressing the hopes and expectations of the electorate. Due to the outbreak of the World War II, political leaders in Yugoslavia wanted to appease Germany and align the country with the Third Reich, tying their exports in vital war materials (aluminium, grain etc.) to Germany. Dire economic situation that resulted from the war heavily struck the impoverished peasants and workers in Croatia, still recovering from the Great Depression of the 1930s. The price of food in Croatia rose by between 50% (beef) and 100% (flour, potatoes, beans) between August 1939 and the summer of 1940.[2] Gaping social inequality and the disappointment with the lack of profound political and social change that many expected to occur after Croatia gained its autonomy soon resulted in the rise of support for the Communists and right-wing extremists. Protests and demonstrations against the rising living costs, food and fuel shortages, high unemployment and inequality, as well as the approaching of the war, became ever more often. HSS authorities responded by persecuting trade unions, communists, underground Ustashe, as well as Yugoslav and Serb nationalists, increasingly relying on its paramilitary, Zaštita.[3] During a communist protest in Split on December 17, 1939, the police fired at the crowd, injuring many and killing young shipyard worker and communist party member, football player Vicko Buljanović. His funeral the next day drew a crowd of 25,000 while 12,000 participated in a mass strike in Split and the surrounding region.[4]

After terrorist attacks that included planting explosives in public locations in Zagreb, in February 1940 the Croatian Government banned the fascist Ustashe periodicals (among which Hrvatski narod) and interned 50 Ustashe members in Lepoglava prison, among whom was Mile Budak.[5] Maček viewed the Greater Serbian organizations, the Communists, and the Frankists (Frankovci), a name he used for far-right extremists, as a danger to the existence of the common state. For him, the Communists were a "fifth column" of the Soviet Union, and he described the actions of the Frankists as "directed by Pavelić's emigrants from Italy". The Croatian Government also used the Lepoglava prison for the imprisonment of Communists, and the newly built Kruščica camp near Travnik as a detention site for the Frankists.[6]

Maček addressing Croatian audience from Banski dvori in a newsreel explaining the importance of Croatian autonomy, January 1940

Under the Cvetković–Maček Agreement that established the Croatian autonomy, it was envisaged that the Croatian Parliament (Hrvatski Sabor) would be elected. Since August 1939, in absence of a Croatian legislature, Ban Šubašić governed through decrees and executive orders. Finally, on January 14, Regent Paul visited Croatia's capital, Zagreb, and co-signed the electoral law for Sabor elections. In preparation of these elections to elect the first Croatian legislature since Sabor of Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was elected in 1913, the local elections in municipalities were about to take place. The last local elections of 1936 and the most recent parliamentary elections of 1938, despite being marred by regime violence, police obstruction and occasional casualties, showed strong support for the HSS-led opposition to the ruling parties and the King of Yugoslavia.

In April, Ban Ivan Šubašić issued an executive order detailing the rules for the local elections. The list that gains relative majority was to be assigned a third of the seats in the council, while the remaining two thirds were to be divided among the lists relative to their votes under the proportional d'Hondt method. Under the old rules, the party with relative majority was immediately assigned two-thirds of the seats.[7] The council president (mayor) was to be elected on a secret ballot in the council, but does not necessarily have to be a councilman. Municipal clerks (notaries, treasuries) became Banovina's employees, not local ones. Ban of Croatia also had the right to regroup the municipalities, dissolve them, and change their borders. Šubašić used this right to regroup municipalities in Posavina, in Derventa, Brčko and Gradačac districts.

On April 22, Šubašić called the elections for May 19. Due to the WWII engulfing most of Europe and the Royal Yugoslav Army being placed at the higher level of alertness, many men were called to serve with the reserve troops or to take part in the army maneuvers. HSS decided not to call the elections in cities, but just municipalities. In cities, HSS-led Croatian government appointed HSS members as mayors or commissioners. In April, after the increased Serb nationalist activities refuting the Cvetković-Maček agreement, the government also dissolved the municipalities in Serb-majority Kistanje and Obrovac. Smilčić and Skradin municipalities were also dissolved.[8]

On May 10, German army attacked the Low Countries and France, intensifying the war. Netherlands surrendered on 15 May. By 17 May, Germans occupied Brussels and overran most of Belgium, reaching the French channel. These events had a deep impact on public opinion in Yugoslavia.

Political situation in Europe in May 1940

Women's vote[edit]

Yugoslav magazine Žena danas ("Woman Today") started campaigning in October 1939 to extend the suffrage to women. Socialist trade unions and communists in Croatia supported the action. However, the women's organisation of HSS opposed it, declaring that the party leadership will decide when the best moment to introduce women's suffrage in Croatia is.[9]

Campaign[edit]

Croatian Ban Ivan Šubašić (with the Panama hat), HSS chairman Vladko Maček (middle) and Zagreb Archbishop Alojzije Stepinac opening the Sava Bridge in Zagreb, December 1939
Religious map of the Banovina Croatia by municipality, according to the 1931 census. Orthodox (Serb)-majority municipalities were especially hotly contested among pro-HSS Serb party SDS (IDP), Yugoslav nationalist and anti-HSS JRZ (YRU), Communists, as well as various independent Serb lists opposing the Croatian autonomy.

Ban Šubašić visited less developed regions in Lika and Dalmatia in late 1939, promising public works on infrastructure. Secretary-general of the Croatian Peasant Party, Juraj Krnjević, toured Croatia, visiting municipal and district party organizations, trying to settle some disputes, unite fractions and revert splits in the party. For instance, the differences in opinion on certain appointments and on the issue of supporting the metal workers' strike in Slavonski Brod alienated the district party organisation from the national HSS leadership; as Brod HSS refused to toe the party line and split into many factions, the entire district organisation was dissolved in March 1940, despite the 37-6 vote of confidence in the Brod party chairman.[10] In general, Krnjević tried to assuage dissidents and remind the party cadre of the importance of the elections. While he had some success in Dubrovnik, still, according to historian G. Jakovčev, there were as many as 70 lists by HSS dissidents in Dalmatia alone[11] (e.g. Ston,[12] Šipan,[12] Makarska, etc.). Krnjević also tried to address the economic concerns, declaring at a rally in Split that Croatia has to be more equal and that HSS will not allow some to be millionaires while others are hungry.[13] Maček tried to downplay the importance of the elections, going as far as saying that he does not attach "any political importance" to it, as many local and even personal particularities play a role in them. In a circular note to HSS organisations he reminded them to consider economic interests first when choosing candidates for councilmen and mayors.[13] However, it was still important to eliminate anti-agreement forces (JRZ in particular) from positions of power in Croatia and show HSS and SDS' strength.

External image
HSS secretary-general Krnjevic at a speech in 1939

Due to the royal Yugoslav regime's ban and persecution since 1921, Croatian communists had to run in the elections as the Party of the working people (Croatian Stranka radnog naroda, SRN). According to historian Sibe Kvesić, the gendarmerie and the local authorities frequently harassed the communists and their supporters, spreading rumours and threatening voters who intended to vote for the communists.[14] In some places, the judicial or administrative authorities pressed hard to bar the SRN putting the candidates due to any petty mistakes.[15][14]

Political opponents of Cvetković-Maček agreement and the establishment of Banovina of Croatia had different strategies for contesting the elections. Yugoslav people's party (JNS) in Croatia, chaired by Grga Andjelinović, chose not to contest the elections, while it advised party cadre and fractions under senator Petar Zec to still put up lists in some municipalities together with the Yugoslav radicals (JRZ) and other Serb parties.[16][17] These were usually named "nonpartisan Serb lists." Serb nationalists claimed that the Banovina of Croatia was Maček's dictatorship and that only a unitary and centralised Kingdom of Yugoslavia could bring prosperity to Croatian Serbs. Some of them openly advocated secession of Serb-majority municipalities and counties from Banovina of Croatia and joining neighbouring, Serb-majority Vrbas Banovina. JRZ chairman, Yugoslav prime minister Cvetković, called Serbs of Croatia to cast their votes for JRZ as a show of support for unitary Yugoslavia.

On May 1, Croatian communists organised a mass strike in Zagreb to commemorate the International Workers' Day, claiming strike participation rate close to 90%. Communist activists and protests, predominantly students, blocked the tram depot and thus prevented the trams in Zagreb from operating the entire day. Tram workers' trade union joined them as well. Protesting workers clashed with the police and HSS paramilitary (Zaštita), resulting in numerous wounded and injured.[18] This was the first time in Kingdom of Yugoslavia the workers decided to organize mass strikes and protests on May 1.[19]

On May 17, just two days ahead of the elections, Ban Šubašić postponed indefinitely the elections in municipalities in Kastav, Čabar, Delnice, Sušak, Benkovac and Šibenik district. The Croatian government officially stated that it exempted them due to their proximity to the Adriatic military area surrounding important naval harbors. Namely, this operational zone was put under alert after the begin of the WWII due to its bordering Italy or being adjacent to Italian coast, as Yugoslavia was wary of an Italian attack. However, others suspected that the elections were not held there due to some of these municipalities being communist strongholds (such as Tisno, Zlarin and Vodice, where communists won in 1936) as an expected communist victory there would make HSS weaknesses very visible.[20] At the same time, Ban Šubašić postponed the elections in Brčko and Gradačac district and Konavle municipality for May 26, and in Derventa district as well as Pazarište, Brestovsko, Kloštar Ivanić, Bosiljevo, Šamac and Cvetlin municipalities for 2 June.[21]

Voting[edit]

Only men older than 24 were allowed to vote. Voting was public; a voter had to loudly declare his name and the list he wanted to vote for. In many municipalities, the only list contesting the elections was the HSS one.[12] In some municipalities (Andrijaševci, Retkovci, Opuzen, Gunja and Farkaševac), clashes between the voters and incidents occurred so the elections had to be repeated or postponed for a week.[22] Elections were held in 620 municipalities on May 19, while some counties voted a week later or in June.[23] After Šubašić's reshuffling prior to the local elections,[24] the Banovina of Croatia had altogether 693 municipalities and 25 cities within 99 districts at the end of 1940. Two of those municipalities were created after the local elections were held.[25]

Due to gerrymandering of municipal borders just before the elections, most notably in attaching JRZ-leaning Cavtat to HSS-leaning Gruda to form a new municipality (Konavle)[26] south of Dubrovnik or Independent Democratic Party (SDS)-advocated border changes in Bosanska Posavina around Odžak, some Bosniaks and Serbs boycotted the elections there.[27]

Election results[edit]

The HSS-SDS coalition won a majority of municipalities and established full political control over the territory of the Banovina of Croatia.[21] Preliminary results of the 19 May elections showed that the HSS alone won a majority in 425 municipalities, the SDK in 106, the SDS in 27, the HSS and the Muslim Organization of the HSS in 4, the HSS and Germans in 1, the Muslim Organization of the HSS in 2, the SDK with other groups in 1, and the SDS with other Serb parties in 1. The JRZ won a majority in 20 municipalities, the JRZ and Farmers in 1, joint Serb lists in 8, Serb non-partisan lists in 18, non-partisan city lists in 2, independent lists in 2, Farmers in 1, leftists in 1, Germans in 3, and ethnic minority lists in 2.[28]

The election showed some weakening of support for the major political parties.[29] After the local elections in 1936, HSS won majority in 512 out of 612 municipalities in Sava and Littoral banovina, roughly corresponding with the later-established Banovina of Croatia.[30] In littoral banovina, in 1936 HSS won 75 out of 94 municipalities (80%).[31]

The results were especially poor showing for Yugoslav radical union (JRZ), which won majority in 21 municipalities, compared to 108 they held power in before the elections. In 195 municipalities with absolute or relative Serb majority, out of 121,429 voters JRZ and independent Serb lists won 36,502 votes, SDS alone 15,183 while HSS-SDS coalition (SDK) won 44.262 votes.[32] The JRZ lost most of its previously held municipalities to the SDK and the SDS.[33]

The Communists won the majority in the councils of Sinj,[34] Trogir, Komiža, and Vrboska (2/3 majority),[35] a third of votes in Omiš,[14] and a quarter in Makarska[36] in Dalmatia. In Vrgorac, communists came second and won 8 seats in the council, while in Smiljan they lost by 4 votes in repeated elections, also winning 8 seats in the council.

Independent German ethnic lists won majority in 5 municipalities. Ethnic Germans ran on other lists, too, mostly on HSS tickets. Joint HSS-German list won in one municipality. Altogether, ethnic Croatian Germans won 177 mandates in 45 municipalities.[37]

Elections in 20 municipalities were held on 26 May,[38] and in 13 municipalities on 2 June.[39] On 5 June, the Government published the corrected results for some municipalities.[40]

Turnout[edit]

As the 1936 local elections were used by the HSS-led Croatian opposition to wrestle some self-government from the central Yugoslav authorities, the turnout stood at around 80%.[31] The turnout in 1940 was significantly lower in many areas, partially reflecting the dissatisfaction and the lack of interest of the population. In Osijek district as a whole, the turnout was 50.89% (4,708 voted out of 9,250),[41] in Drniš it was 52.11%, while In Daruvar district the turnout was 48% (4,076 voted). At some parts of Daruvar area it was as low as 21%. As the communists were administratively barred from contesting the elections in Vis, many chose to abstain in protest, bringing the turnout to 50%. On the other hand, Royal Yugoslav Armed forces mobilized many men fit for military service in its 1939/40 mobilization.

Summary[edit]

Results of the election based on the majority of mandates in each municipality.
Coat of arms
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Croatia
Mandates (19 May)[42]
Political party Abbr. Mandates %
Croatian Peasant Party HSS 9,385 71.77%
Peasant-Democratic Coalition SDK 1,708 13.06%
Independent Democratic Party SDS 767 5.87%
Croatian Peasant Party and Muslims 149 1.14%
Yugoslav Radical Union JRZ 489 3.74%
Serb independent lists 262 2%
Other lists 262 2%
Workers' lists (communists) 54 0.41%
Total 13,076
Overal municipalities[43][38][39][40][44]
Political parties and coalitions Abbr. Municipalities %
Croatian Peasant Party and
Independent Democratic Party
Croatian Peasant Party HSS 446 67.78%
Peasant-Democratic Coalition SDK 104 15.81%
Independent Democratic Party SDS 26 3.95%
Croatian Peasant Party and Muslims 6 0.91%
Other coalitions 6 0.91%
Serb independent lists Non-partisan Serb lists 25 3.80%
United Serb lists 8 1.22%
United Muslim and Serb list 1 0.15%
Yugoslav Radical Union Yugoslav Radical Union JRZ 21 3.19%
Yugoslav Radical Union and Farmers 1 0.15%
Workers' lists (communists) Party of the Working People SRN 3 0.46%
Union of Workers and Peasants LSRS 1 0.15%
German ethnic lists 4 0.61%
Other lists 6 0.91%
Total 658
Municipality totals
HSS-SDS Coalition
89.4%
Serb independent lists
5.2%
JRZ
3.3%
Communists
0.6%
German lists
0.6%
Other
0.9%

Municipalities[edit]

District Municipality Party
Benkovac Benkovac Elections not held
Kistanje Elections not held
Novigrad Elections not held
Obrovac Elections not held
Ravni Kotari Elections not held
Stankovci Elections not held
Biograd Biograd HSS
Nin HSS
Zemunik HSS
Bjelovar Bjelovar SDK
Farkaševac SDK
Gudovac SDK
Ivanska HSS
Kapela HSS
Nova Rača SDK
Predavac SDK
Prespa SDK
Severin HSS
Trojstvo SDK
Velika Pisanica HSS
Zrinski Topolovac Elections not held
Brač Bol HSS
Milna HSS
Nerežišća HSS
Postira HSS
Pučišća HSS
Selca HSS
Supetar HSS
Sutivan SDK
Brčko Bosanski Šamac HSS and Farmers
Brčko HSS
Brezovo Polje Davidović group
Bukvik HSS
Čelić HSS and Muslims
Donja Mahala HSS
Gornji Rahić HSS
Obudovac Non-partisan Serb list
Tramošnjica HSS and Farmers
Brinje Brinje SDK
Jezerane HSS
Brod Andrijevci HSS
Bebrina HSS
Beravci HSS
Brodski Drenovac HSS
Brodski Stupnik HSS
Brodski Varoš HSS
Garčin HSS
Kaniža HSS
Klakar HSS
Kobaš SDK
Lužani SDK
Oriovac HSS
Podcrkavlje HSS
Podvinj HSS
Sibinj HSS
Slavonski Brod Elections not held
Svilaj HSS
Trnjani SDK
Velika Kopanica HSS
Bugojno Bugojno SDK
Gornji Vakuf SDK
Kupres Non-partisan Serb list
Crikvenica Crikvenica HSS
Drivenik HSS
Grižane-Belgrad HSS
Selce HSS
Sveti Jakov Šiljevica HSS
Čabar Čabar Elections not held
Draga Elections not held
Gerovo Elections not held
Osilnica Elections not held
Plešce Elections not held
Prezid Elections not held
Čakovec Belica HSS
Čakovec Elections not held
Čakovec-Okolica HSS
Gornji Mihaljevec HSS
Macinec HSS
Mursko Središće HSS
Nedelišće HSS
Podturen HSS
Strahoninec HSS
Sveti Juraj na Bregu HSS
Sveti Martin na Muri HSS
Vratišinec HSS
Čazma Čazma HSS
Dubrava HSS
Ivanić-Grad HSS
Kloštar Ivanić HSS
Križ HSS
Štefanje HSS
Daruvar Bijela Non-partisan Serb list
Daruvar HSS
Daruvarski Brestovac HSS
Dežanovac SDK
Đulaves (Miokovićevo) SDK
Končanica HSS
Sirač HSS
Uljanik HSS
Vanjski Daruvar United Serb list
Veliki Bastaji United Serb list
Delnice Brod na Kupi Elections not held
Brod-Moravice Elections not held
Crni Lug Elections not held
Delnice Elections not held
Fužine Elections not held
Lič Elections not held
Lokve Elections not held
Mrkopalj Elections not held
Skrad Elections not held
Derventa Bosanski Brod HSS
Bosanski Kobaš United Muslim and Serb list
Derventa HSS
Derventa-selo HSS
Lužani Mulabegovi HSS
Osinja Farmers
Plehan HSS
Podnovlje Non-partisan Serb list
Donja Stubica Bistra HSS
Donja Stubica HSS
Gornja Stubica HSS
Marija Bistrica HSS
Oroslavje HSS
Donji Lapac Donji Lapac SDK
Srb Non-partisan Serb list
Donji Miholjac Čađavica HSS
Donji Miholjac HSS
Marijanci HSS
Podravska Moslavina HSS
Podravski Podgajci HSS
Šljivoševci SDK
Viljevo SDK
Dubrovnik Cavtat (Konavlje) HSS
Dubrovnik Elections not held
Janjina HSS
Kuna HSS
Lopud HSS
Mljet HSS
Pelješac (Orebić) HSS
Slano HSS
Ston HSS
Šipan HSS
Trpanj HSS
Zaton (Orašac) HSS
Dugo Selo Brckovljani HSS
Dugo Selo HSS
Lupoglav HSS
Oborovo HSS
Posavski Bregi HSS
Duvno Grabovica HSS
Tomislavgrad HSS
Vir HSS
Đakovo Bračevci SDK
Budrovci HSS
Drenje HSS
Đakovo HSS
Gašinci HSS
Gorjani HSS
Krndija German ethnic list
Levanjska Varoš SDK
Piškorevci HSS
Punitovci HSS
Satnica Đakovačka HSS
Selci Đakovački HSS
Semeljci HSS
Striživojna HSS
Trnava HSS
Viškovci HSS
Vrbica HSS
Vrpolje HSS
Vuka HSS
Đurđevac Đurđevac HSS
Ferdinandovac (Jelačićevo) HSS
Kalinovac HSS
Kloštar HSS
Molve HSS
Pitomača HSS
Podravske Sesvete HSS
Šemovci HSS
Virje HSS
Fojnica Brestovsko HSS and Muslims
Busovača HSS
Fojnica HSS
Kiseljak HSS
Kreševo HSS
Garešnica Berek SDK
Garešnica SDK
Hercegovac HSS
Hrastovac German ethnic list
Veliki Zdenci SDK
Vukovje SDK
Glina Banski Grabovac JRZ
Bučica HSS
Glina SDK
Jukinac SDK
Klasnić JRZ
Kraljevčani United Serb list
Maja JRZ
Mali Gradac JRZ
Stankovac HSS
Gospić Gospić SDK
Karlobag HSS
Lički Osik HSS
Medak Non-partisan Serb list
Smiljan HSS
Gračac Bruvno SDK
Gračac SDK
Lovinac HSS
Mazin Non-partisan Serb list
Zrmanja JRZ
Gradačac Gradačac HSS
Modriča HSS
Odžak HSS
Srnice Muslims and SDS
Vranjak Non-partisan Serb list
Grubišno Polje Grubišno Polje SDK
Ivanovo Selo SDK
Veliki Grđevac SDK
Hvar Bogomolje HSS
Hvar HSS
Jelsa HSS
Komiža SRN
Stari Grad HSS
Sućuraj HSS
Vis HSS
Vrboska SRN
Ilok Banoštar SDS
Beočin JRZ
Bingula SDS
Čerević SDK
Erdevik SDK and other parties
Ilok HSS
Mohovo SDS
Molovin SDS
Neštin SDK
Sot HSS
Susek SDS
Šarengrad HSS
Imotski Imotski HSS
Ivanec Bednja HSS
Cvetlin HSS
Ivanec HSS
Lepoglava HSS
Maruševec HSS
Višnjica HSS
Jastrebarsko Cvetković HSS
Gornji Desinec HSS
Jastrebarsko HSS
Kalje HSS
Klinča Sela HSS
Krašić HSS
Petrovina HSS
Sošice HSS
Sveta Jana HSS
Vivodina HSS
Karlovac Barilović SDK
Draganići HSS
Duga Resa HSS
Jaškovo HSS
Karlovac Elections not held
Netretić HSS
Ozalj HSS
Rečica HSS
Ribnik HSS
Šišljavić HSS
Kastav Kastav Elections not held
Klanjec Dubravica HSS
Klanjec HSS
Kraljevec HSS
Luka HSS
Tuhelj HSS
Veliko Trgovišće HSS
Zagorska Sela HSS
Knin Drniš HSS
Knin Non-partisan Serb list
Promina HSS
Konjic Konjic JRZ
Ostrožac JRZ
Koprivnica Drnje HSS
Đelekovec HSS
Gola HSS
Hlebine HSS
Koprivnica Elections not held
Koprivnički Ivanec HSS
Legrad HSS
Novigrad Podravski SDK
Peteranec HSS
Sokolovac HSS
Ždala HSS
Korčula Blato HSS
Korčula HSS
Vela Luka HSS
Korenica Bunić SDK
Korenica Non-partisan Serb list
Plitvička Jezera SDK
Kostajnica Bobovac HSS
Crkveni Bok SDS
Dubica United Serb list
Kostajnica SDK
Majur SDK
Mečenčani Non-partisan Serb list
Staza SDK
Krapina Đurmanec HSS
Krapina HSS
Petrovsko HSS
Radoboj HSS
Zabok HSS
Začretje HSS
Križevci Gradec HSS
Križevci Elections not held
Raven HSS
Sveti Ivan Žabno SDK
Sveti Petar Čvrstec HSS
Sveti Petar Orehovec HSS
Vojakovac SDK
Vrbovec HSS
Krk Aleksandrovo (Punat) HSS
Baška HSS
Dobrinj HSS
Dubašnica HSS
Krk HSS
Omišalj HSS
Vrbnik HSS
Kutina Kutina HSS
Ludina HSS
Popovača HSS
Livno Donje Polje Non-partisan Serb list
Gornje Polje HSS
Livno Elections not held
Priluka HSS
Šujica HSS
Ludbreg Ludbreg SDK
Mali Bukovec HSS
Martijanec HSS
Rasinja HSS
Vanjski Ludbreg HSS
Ljubuški Drinovci HSS
Humac HSS
Ljubuški Muslim list
Posušje HSS
Vitina HSS
Zvirovići HSS
Makarska Gornje Primorje (Gradac) HSS
Makarska SDK
Vrgorac HSS
Metković Metković HSS
Opuzen HSS
Mostar Bijelo Polje HSS and Muslims
Blagaj HSS and Muslims
Donje Brotnjo HSS
Drežnica HSS
Gornje Brotnjo HSS
Kočerin HSS
Mostar HSS
Mostar, grad Elections not held
Mostarsko Blato HSS
Široki Brijeg HSS
Žitomislić HSS
Našice Budimci JRZ and Farmers
Čačinci HSS
Đurđenovac SDK
Feričanci SDK
Klokočevci SDK
Koška HSS
Našice SDK
Obradovci (Slavonske Bare) SDK
Orahovica SDK
Podgorač SDK
Vanjske Našice SDK
Zdenci HSS
Nova Gradiška Cernik SDK
Davor HSS
Nova Gradiška Elections not held
Nova Kapela HSS
Orubica HSS
Rešetari HSS
Staro Petrovo Selo HSS
Štivica HSS
Vanjska Nova Gradiška HSS
Novi Bribir HSS
Ledenice HSS
Novi HSS
Novi Marof Breznički Hum HSS
Gornja Rijeka HSS
Ljubešćica HSS
Novi Marof HSS
Vanjske Varaždinske Toplice HSS
Varaždinske Toplice HSS
Novska Banova Jaruga HSS
Jasenovac SDK
Krapje HSS
Lipovljani HSS
Lonja HSS
Međurić HSS
Novska SDK
Vanjska Novska SDK
Ogulin Drežnica SDS
Generalski Stol HSS
Gomirje Non-partisan Serb list
Gornje Dubrave SDS
Josipdol SDK
Modruš HSS
Ogulin SDK
Oštarije SDK
Plaški SDS
Tounj HSS
Okučani Dragalić HSS
Mašić (Medari) SDK
Okučani United Serb list
Rajić SDK
Stara Gradiška HSS
Osijek Aljmaš HSS
Bijelo Brdo SDS
Čepin HSS
Dalj SDK
Erdut HSS
Ernestinovo HSS
Hrastin SDK
Jovanovac HSS
Laslovo HSS
Osijek Elections not held
Retfala HSS
Sarvaš HSS
Tenja JRZ
Otočac Brlog HSS
Dabar SDK
Otočac HSS
Sinac HSS
Škare Non-partisan Serb list
Vrhovine Non-partisan Serb list
Pakrac Antunovac HSS
Badljevina SDK
Bučje SDS
Čaglić JRZ
Dragović Non-partisan Serb list
Gaj SDK
Kukunjevac SDK
Lipik HSS
Pakrac SDK
Poljana HSS
Perušić Kosinj SDK
Pazarište HSS
Perušić SDK
Petrinja Blinja SDK
Gora SDK
Gradusa SDS
Hrastovica HSS
Jabukovac SDK
Mošćenica HSS
Petrinja Elections not held
Sunja SDK
Pisarovina Donja Kupčina HSS
Kupinec HSS
Lasinja SDS and other Serb parties
Pisarovina HSS
Pokupsko HSS
Požega Bekteže SDK
Jakšić SDK
Kaptol HSS
Kutjevo HSS
Mihaljevci HSS
Pleternica HSS
Požega Elections not held
Požeški Brestovac SDK
Ruševo SDK
Stražeman SDK
Vanjska Požega SDK
Velika HSS
Vilić-Selo SDK
Pregrada Desinić HSS
Hum na Sutli HSS
Krapinske Toplice HSS
Pregrada HSS
Preko Božava HSS
Preko HSS
Sali HSS
Silba HSS
Veli Iž HSS
Prelog Dekanovec HSS
Donja Dubrava HSS
Donji Kraljevec HSS
Donji Vidovec HSS
Draškovec HSS
Goričan HSS
Hodošan HSS
Kotoriba HSS
Mala Subotica HSS
Prelog HSS
Sveta Marija na Muri HSS
Sveti Juraj u Trnju HSS
Prozor Gornja Rama HSS
Prozor HSS
Rab Novalja HSS
Pag HSS
Rab HSS
Samobor Podvrh HSS
Samobor HSS
Sveta Nedelja HSS
Sveti Martin pod Okićem HSS
Senj Jablanac HSS
Krivi Put HSS
Senj Elections not held
Sveti Juraj HSS
Sinj Sinj SRN
Trilj HSS
Vrlika SDK
Sisak Gušće HSS
Kratečko HSS
Lekenik HSS
Letovanić HSS
Martinska Ves HSS
Palanjek HSS
Sela HSS
Sisak Elections not held
Topolovac HSS
Slatina Čeralije SDK
Gornji Miholjac SDK
Nova Bukovica SDK
Podravska Slatina SDK
Slatinski Drenovac SDS
Sopje SDK
Voćin SDK
Slunj Cetingrad SDK
Drežnik SDK
Primišlje SDS
Rakovica Non-partisan Serb list
Slunj HSS
Veljun Non-partisan Serb list
Split Donja Kaštela HSS
Kaštel Lukšić HSS
Kaštel Sućurac HSS
Klis HSS
Krajina (Šestanovac) HSS
Lećevica HSS
Muć HSS
Omiš HSS
Poljica HSS
Split Elections not held
Šolta HSS
Trogir LSRS
Stolac Aladinići HSS and Muslims
Berkovići Non-partisan Serb list
Burmazi HSS
Čapljina HSS
Hutovo HSS
Stolac HSS and Muslims
Sušak Bakar Elections not held
Cernik-Čavle Elections not held
Dol-Bakarac Elections not held
Grobnik Elections not held
Hreljin Elections not held
Jelenje Elections not held
Kraljevica Elections not held
Krasica Elections not held
Sušak Elections not held
Sveti Ivan Zelina Donja Zelina HSS
Kašina HSS
Moravče Belovar HSS
Sveti Ivan Zelina HSS
Vanjski Sveti Ivan Zelina HSS
Šibenik Skradin Elections not held
Šibenik Elections not held
Tijesno Elections not held
Vodice Elections not held
Zlarin Elections not held
Šid Adaševci JRZ
Bačinci SDK
Bapska Novak HSS
Batrovci JRZ
Berkasovo JRZ
Gibarac HSS
Ilača HSS
Ilinci JRZ
Jamena JRZ
Kukujevci HSS
Lipovac HSS
Mala Vašica JRZ
Morović JRZ
Strošinci HSS
Šid United Serb list
Šidski Banovci German ethnic list
Tovarnik HSS
Travnik Bila HSS
Bučići HSS
Travnik Elections not held
Turbe HSS
Vitez HSS
Udbina Podlapac SDK
Udbina Non-partisan Serb list
Valpovo Belišće HSS
Bizovac HSS
Brođanci HSS
Ladimirevci HSS
Petrijevci HSS
Valpovo HSS
Vanjsko Valpovo HSS
Varaždin Bartolovec HSS
Biškupec HSS
Jalžabet HSS
Križovljan Cestica HSS
Petrijanec HSS
Varaždin Elections not held
Vidovec HSS
Vinica HSS
Velika Gorica Dubranec HSS
Kravarsko HSS
Novo Čiče HSS
Odra HSS
Orle HSS
Velika Gorica HSS
Vukovina HSS
Vinkovci Andrijaševci HSS
Cerna HSS
Donje Novo Selo HSS
Ivankovo HSS
Jarmina List of ethnic minorities
Komletinci HSS
Laze Farmers
Mirkovci Non-partisan Serb list
Nijemci HSS
Novi Jankovci Non-partisan Serb list
Novo Selo German ethnic list
Orolik HSS and Germans
Otok HSS
Privlaka HSS
Retkovci HSS
Slakovci HSS
Stari Jankovci List of ethnic minorities
Stari Mikanovci HSS
Vinkovci Elections not held
Vođinci HSS
Virovitica Cabuna SDK
Gradina SDK
Lukač SDK
Pivnica SDK
Suhopolje SDK
Špišić Bukovica HSS
Virovitica Elections not held
Vojnić Krnjak JRZ
Krstinja SDS
Perjasica SDS
Tušilović JRZ
Vojnić SDS
Vukmanić SDK
Vrbovsko Bosiljevo HSS
Ravna Gora HSS
Severin na Kupi HSS
Srpske Moravice SDS
Vrbovsko HSS
Vrginmost Bović Non-partisan Serb list
Čemernica SDS
Topusko SDK
Vrginmost JRZ
Vukovar Antin HSS
Berak HSS
Bobota SDS
Bogdanovci HSS
Borovo Non-partisan Serb list
Bršadin JRZ
Cerić HSS
Čakovci SDK
Gaboš United Serb list
Korog SDK
Lovas HSS
Marinci United Serb list
Markušica SDS
Mikluševci SDK
Negoslavci SDS
Nuštar HSS
Opatovac HSS
Ostrovo Non-partisan Serb list
Pačetin SDS
Petrovci SDS
Sotin HSS
Svinjarevci HSS
Tompojevci HSS
Tordinci HSS
Trpinja SDS
Vera SDS
Vukovar Elections not held
Zagreb Brdovec HSS
Brezovica HSS
Gračani (Remete) HSS
Kustošija HSS
Markuševec HSS
Pušća HSS
Sesvete HSS
Stenjevec HSS
Stupnik HSS
Sveta Klara HSS
Šestine HSS
Vrapče HSS
Zagreb Elections not held
Zaprešić HSS
Zlatar Bedekovčina HSS
Budinšćina HSS
Hrašćina Trgovišće HSS
Lobor HSS
Mače HSS
Mihovljan HSS
Zlatar HSS
Županja Babina Greda HSS
Bošnjaci HSS
Drenovci HSS
Gradište HSS
Gundinci HSS
Gunja HSS
Posavski Podgajci HSS
Račinovci HSS
Rajevo Selo HSS
Sikirevci HSS
Soljani HSS
Šamac HSS
Štitar HSS
Vrbanja HSS
Županja HSS

Sources: [43][38][39][40][45][46][47][48][49]

Aftermath[edit]

Elected municipal council members met after the elections to constitute the council and elect the municipality mayor among themselves. Communist council members in Trogir and Vis refused to take an oath of loyalty to the king and consequently had their mandates made void.[50] According to Jakovčev, 60 municipalities in Dalmatia alone protested due to forgeries and irregularities.[11] In Vrboska, one of the few municipalities that were won by communists, elections were declared void by the government and then repeated on July 28.[35] Busing in voters from Dol and elsewhere and intimidating the communists, HSS managed to secure the majority.[22] Workers' list with Pero Nagulic on the ticket lost to the HSS list headed by Mihovil Stojsic.[51]

In Knin, where the Serb nationalist non-partisan list under dr. Niko Novaković got 27 out of 36 councilmen, Croatian government dissolved the Knin town council and appointed secretary of the local HSS, Vice Musić, as the mayor.[52]

In Bobota, all municipal councilmen elected on non-partisan Serb list decided to join SDS, disappointed by the election results in eastern Slavonia.[23]

Maček declared the elections as a "90% victory for the pro-agreement parties", emphasizing that "the SDS won the majority among Croatian Serbs". He touted the results as a "lesson" for anti-agreement parties.[42] Shortly after the elections, having in mind the incidents that occurred, ban Šubašić indefinitely banned all public gatherings, rallies or protests except for religious events.[48]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Dugački 2017, p. 130.
  2. ^ Dejan Djokić. National Mobilisation in the 1930s: The Emergence of the ‘Serb Question’ in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
  3. ^ Regan, Krešimir (2005-11-03). Ujedinjavanje teritorija Banovine Hrvatske/Teritorijalno ujedinjenje Savske i Primorske banovine s osam novodobivenih kotara (Thesis).
  4. ^ "Politička situacija u Splitu prije Drugog svjetskog rata", in Antifašistički Split - Ratna kronika 1941-1945
  5. ^ Jelić-Butić, F. (1970). "Prilog proučavanju djelatnosti ustaša do 1941." Časopis za suvremenu povijest, 1(1-2), 55-91.
  6. ^ Perić 2003, p. 236.
  7. ^ "Uredba o izmjenama i dopunama Zakona o opcinama" (PDF). Katolik (16). Sibenik. 18 April 1940. p. 4.
  8. ^ "RASPUŠTENE OPCINSKE UPRAVE U SMTLČIĆU I SKRADINU", Katolik (1940), 19, p. 4, Sibenik.
  9. ^ Božinović, N. (1996). Žensko pitanje u Srbiji u XIX i XX veku. Beograd: Pinkpress, p.124.
  10. ^ Lakic, pp. 24-5
  11. ^ a b G. Jakovčev (1966). "Politička zbivanja u sjevernoj Dalmaciji pred aprilski rat 1941. godine (prikaz)" (PDF). Zadarska revija (in Croatian). Matica hrvatska Zadar. XV (1): 428–440. ISSN 0044-1589.
  12. ^ a b c Mirošević, Franko. "Političko opredjeljivanje birača kotara Dubrovnik 1931.–1940." Časopis za suvremenu povijest 43.1 (2011): 155-182., p. 179
  13. ^ a b Dugački, p. 135
  14. ^ a b c Kvesić, pp. 33-5
  15. ^ Livada, Svetozar. Kordunski rekvijem, pp. 56-7
  16. ^ "JNS NE SUDJELUJE U OPĆINSKIM IZBORIMA", Katolik (1940), 19, p. 4, Sibenik.
  17. ^ Regan, Krešimir "Djelovanje Jugoslavenske nacionalne stranke u Banovini Hrvatskoj 1939–1941.", Kolo 4 (2007)
  18. ^ Korov, Goran. "Rad KPJ u Zagrebu od 1931. do 1941. godine", Viewpoints from Southeastern Europe, Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung. pp. 25-6
  19. ^ "Ustajte prezreni na svijetu!". Regionalexpress.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  20. ^ Kvesić, Sibe (1979). Dalmacija u narodnooslobodilačkoj borbi (PDF). Split: Institut za historiju radničkog pokreta Dalmacije. pp. 33–5.
  21. ^ a b Dugački 2017, p. 136.
  22. ^ a b Ivica Moškatelo. "Odakle naziv Marokanci", Tartajun 4
  23. ^ a b Regan, p. 399
  24. ^ "Pred općinske izbore", Katolik (1940), 20, p. 3, Sibenik.
  25. ^ Banska vlast 1940, p. 297.
  26. ^ Mirosevic (2016), p. 38, p. 36
  27. ^ Regan, p. 399 f5
  28. ^ Hrvatski branik & 25 May 1940.
  29. ^ Mažuran 1996, p. 325.
  30. ^ Leček 2014, p. 34.
  31. ^ a b Leček 2008, p. 1002.
  32. ^ Regan 2007, pp. 232-233.
  33. ^ Regan 2007, p. 236.
  34. ^ Gunjaca, Drazan (2015-12-07). Nebo iznad Dalmacije (in Croatian). ISBN 9788685831546.
  35. ^ a b M. Kolumbić (1982) "Spomenici otoka Hvara", str. 44
  36. ^ Hrstić, p. 86
  37. ^ Barić, Nikica (2002). "Njemačka manjina u dokumentima banskih vlasti Banovine Hrvatske, 1939. -1941". Časopis za suvremenu povijest (in Croatian). 34 (2): 125. ISSN 0590-9597.
  38. ^ a b c Vreme & 28 May 1940.
  39. ^ a b c Vreme & 4 June 1940.
  40. ^ a b c Vreme & 6 June 1940.
  41. ^ Dizdar (2006), p. 381
  42. ^ a b Hrvatsko jedinstvo & 25 May 1940.
  43. ^ a b Vreme & 22 May 1940.
  44. ^ Regan 2007, pp. 207-212.
  45. ^ Regan 2007b, pp. 207-212.
  46. ^ Regan 2007, pp. 235-6, f56.
  47. ^ Lička sloga, 1940, number 11, p. 2
  48. ^ a b Katolik, 1940, number 21, p. 3
  49. ^ Hrvatski Branik & 1 June 1940.
  50. ^ Plenča, Dušan (1957). "Pripreme komunističke partije za oružani ustanak u Dalmaciji" (PDF). Historijski zbornik. X (1-4).
  51. ^ Vreme. Na opstinskim izborima u Vrboskoj pobedila HSS, 30.07.1940, p. 5
  52. ^ Dizdar, Zdravko. "Fra Pavao Silov, prominski zupnik 1941.-1942.", p. 17, f66

References[edit]

Books and journals
News articles

Literature[edit]

  • Konjević, Mile (1973). "Općinski izbori u Banovini Hrvatskoj 19. maja 1940. godine", Prilozi Instituta za istoriju Sarajevo 9(1)
  • Miličević, Tomislav (2014). "Dr. Juraj Krnjević: političko djelovanje od 1929. do 1941". darhiv.ffzg.unizg.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 2019-03-18.
  • Boban, Ljubo. "Previranja na selu u Banovini Hrvatskoj", Istorija XX veka, II., Beograd, 1961.
  • Kolar-Dimitrijević, Mira (1976). "Utjecaj fašizma na ekonomsko-socijalnu politiku Hrvatske do travnja 1941. godine", Zbornik fašizam i neofašizam, CDD, Zagreb, 221.-233.
  • Jelić-Butić, Fikreta. Prilog proučavanju djelatnosti ustaša do 1941. godine
  • IŠEK, Tomislav (1991.). Hrvatska seljačka stranka u Bosni i Hercegovini 1929. -1941., Sarajevo: Institut za istoriju, 1991.
  • Boban, Ljubo (1974) Maček i politika HSS-a od 1928. do 1941., Zagreb, Liber, knjiga I. II.