1943 in science
Jump to navigation Jump to search
- July 21 – Living specimens of Metasequoia glyptostroboides, the Dawn Redwood, previously known only as a Mesozoic fossil, are located in China.
- The University of Oxford acquires the nearby Wytham Woods which become an important centre for research into ecology in England.
- March–December – Construction of British prototype Mark I Colossus computer, the world's first totally electronic programmable computing device, at the Post Office Research Station, Dollis Hill, to assist in cryptanalysis at Bletchley Park.
- May 17 – The United States Army contracts with the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School to develop the ENIAC.
- February 20 – The cinder cone volcano Parícutin begins to appear in Mexico, giving volcanologists an unusual opportunity to observe its complete life cycle.
- January 1 – Project Y, the Manhattan Project's secret laboratory at Los Alamos, New Mexico, for development and production of the first atomic bombs under the direction of J. Robert Oppenheimer, begins operations.
- March 23 – The drugs Vicodin and Lortab are made in Germany.
- October 19 – The antibiotic streptomycin (the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis) is first isolated by Albert Schatz in the laboratory of Selman Abraham Waksman at Rutgers University in the United States.
- December – Winston Churchill's recurring bacterial pneumonia is successfully treated with the sulphapyridine M&B 693, a first-generation sulphonamide antibiotic.
- Abraham Maslow proposes the Hierarchy of Needs theory of psychology in his paper "A Theory of Human Motivation".
Physiology and medicine
- Leo Kanner of the Johns Hopkins Hospital first publicly adopts the term autism in its modern sense in English in referring to early infantile autism.
- Warren S. McCulloch and Walter Pitts publish "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" in Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, considered seminal in neural network theory.
- Dr. Willem J. Kolff builds the first dialysis machine, in the occupied Netherlands.
- New Zealand-born British anaesthetist Robert Reynolds Macintosh introduces his new curved laryngoscope blade for tracheal intubation.
- March 5 – The Gloster Meteor, the first operational military jet aircraft for the Allies of World War II, has its first test flight, in England.
- May 16–17 – Operation Chastise: British Royal Air Force attacks German dams using 'bouncing bombs' designed by Barnes Wallis.
- Lyle Goodhue and William Sullivan patent the refillable aerosol spray in the United States, for use with mosquito-repellant.
- Krueger flaps for aircraft wings are invented by Werner Krüger and evaluated in the wind tunnels in Göttingen.
- Nobel Prizes
- January 14 – Ralph Steinman (died 2011), Canadian-born winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (2011).
- April 26 – Christiane Floyd, Austrian-born computer scientist.
- May 9 – Colin Pillinger (died 2014), English astrophysicist.
- June 6 – Richard Smalley (died 2005), American winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1996) for the discovery of a new form of carbon, buckminsterfullerene.
- June 22 – J. Michael Kosterlitz, Scottish-born condensed matter physicist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics (2016).
- June 23 – Vint Cerf, American Internet pioneer.
- July 11 – Hilary Kahn (died 2007), South African-born English computer scientist.
- August 29 – Arthur B. McDonald, Canadian astrophysicist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics (2015).
- September 20 – Richard McGehee, American mathematician working on celestial mechanics.
- December 7 – Nick Katz, American mathematician.
- Steen Willadsen, Danish-born embryologist.
- January 5 – George Washington Carver (born c.1864), African American agricultural botanist.
- January 7 – Nikola Tesla (born 1856), Croatian-born Serbian American inventor.
- January 24 – Carl Brigham (born 1890), American pioneer of psychometrics.
- January 26 – Nikolai Vavilov (born 1887), Russian plant pathologist (in prison).
- February 14 – David Hilbert (born 1862), German mathematician.
- February 23 – Abraham Buschke (born 1868), German Jewish dermatologist (in Theresienstadt concentration camp).
- March 2 – Gisela Januszewska (born 1867), Austrian public health physician (in Theresienstadt concentration camp).
- March 28 – Robert W. Paul (born 1869), English pioneer of cinematography.
- April 8 – Kiyotsugu Hirayama (born 1874), Japanese astronomer.
- June 26 – Karl Landsteiner (born 1868), Austrian-born American Jewish physiologist.
- July 7 – Hugh Whistler (born 1889), English ornithologist of India.
- September 23 – John Bradfield (born 1867), Australian civil engineer.
- October 1 – Albert Stewart Meek (born 1871), English-born Australian ornithologist.
- November 14 – Frank Leverett (born 1859), American glaciologist.
- November 20 – Bertha Lamme Feicht (born 1869), American electrical engineer.
- Ma, Jinshuang; Shao, Guofan (2003). "Rediscovery of the 'first collection' of the 'Living Fossil', Metasequoia glyptostroboides". Taxon. 52 (3): 585–8. doi:10.2307/3647458. JSTOR 3647458.
- Copeland, B. Jack, ed. (2006). Colossus: the Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-284055-4.
- "The Eruption of Parícutin (1943-1952)". How Volcanoes Work. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- "Parícutin, Mexico". Volcano World. Archived from the original on 2012-02-06. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- "Parícutin: The Birth of a Volcano". Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- Comroe, J. H. Jr (1978). "Pay dirt: the story of streptomycin. Part I: from Waksman to Waksman". American Review of Respiratory Disease. 117 (4): 773–781. doi:10.1164/arrd.19126.96.36.1993 (inactive 2018-08-27). PMID 417651.
- "Surviving War; Declining Health". Lincoln & Churchill. Lehrman Institute. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
- Kanner, L. (1943). "Autistic disturbances of affective contact". Nervous Child. 2: 217–50. Reprinted in: Acta Paedopsychiatrica. 35 (4): 100–36. 1968. PMID 4880460.CS1 maint: Untitled periodical (link)
- Aizawa, Ken (2004). "McCulloch, Warren Sturgis". Dictionary of the Philosophy of Mind. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
- Moore, Carrie A. (2009-02-11). "Kolff, 'father of artificial organs,' dies at 97". Deseret News. Salt Lake City. Retrieved 2012-06-13.
- Macintosh, R. R. (1943). "A new laryngoscope". The Lancet. 241 (6233): 205. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)89390-3.
- Scott, J.; Baker, P. A. (2009). "How did the Macintosh laryngoscope become so popular?". Paediatric Anaesthesia. 19 (Supplement 1): 24–9. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9592.2009.03026.x. PMID 19572841.
- Flower, Stephen (2002). A Hell Of A Bomb. Tempus. ISBN 978-0-7524-2386-9.
- McGrath, Kimberley A.; Travers, Bridget E., eds. (1999). World of Invention. Detroit: Thomson Gale. ISBN 978-0-7876-2759-1. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2011.