|1944 by topic|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2697|
|Balinese saka calendar||1865–1866|
|British Regnal year||8 Geo. 6 – 9 Geo. 6|
|Chinese calendar||癸未年 (Water Goat)|
4640 or 4580
— to —
甲申年 (Wood Monkey)
4641 or 4581
|- Vikram Samvat||2000–2001|
|- Shaka Samvat||1865–1866|
|- Kali Yuga||5044–5045|
|Japanese calendar||Shōwa 19|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 13 days|
|Minguo calendar||ROC 33|
|Thai solar calendar||2487|
2070 or 1689 or 917
— to —
2071 or 1690 or 918
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1944.|
1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1944th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 944th year of the 2nd millennium, the 44th year of the 20th century, and the 5th year of the 1940s decade.
Below, the events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix.
- January 2 – WWII:
- January 8 – WWII: Philippine Commonwealth troops enter the province of Ilocos Sur in northern Luzon, and attack Japanese forces.
- January 11
- January 12 – WWII: Winston Churchill and Charles de Gaulle begin a 2-day conference in Marrakech.
- January 14 – WWII: Soviet troops start the offensive at Leningrad and Novgorod.
- January 15
- January 17 – WWII:
- The Battle of Monte Cassino begins in Italy. British forces cross the Garigliano River. U.S. Fifth Army troops, commanded by Lieutenant-General Mark W. Clark, arrive at the Garigliano, to begin their attack against the Gustav Line south of Rome. The French Expeditionary Corps, under command of General Alphonse Juin, moves into the mountains north of Monte Cassino.
- The Soviet Union ceases production of the Mosin–Nagant 1891/30 sniper rifle.
- Meat rationing ends in Australia.
- January 20 – WWII:
- January 22 – WWII: Operation Shingle: The Allies begin the assault on Anzio, Italy. The U.S. 45th Infantry Division stand their ground at Anzio against violent assaults for four months.
- January 25 – A total solar eclipse is visible in Pacific Ocean, South America, Atlantic Ocean and Africa, the 48th solar eclipse of Solar Saros 130.
- January 27 - WWII:
- January 29 – WWII: Koniuchy massacre – A unit of Soviet partisans accompanied by Jewish partisans kills at least 38 civilians in the village of Koniuchy in Nazi occupied Lithuania.
- January 30 – WWII:
- January 31 – WWII: Battle of Kwajalein: American forces land on Kwajalein Atoll and other islands, in the Japanese-held Marshall Islands.
- The Zadran tribe rises up against the Afghan government, starting the Afghan tribal revolts of 1944–1947.
- February 1 – WWII: Pacific War - United States troops land in the Marshall Islands.
- February 2 – The first issue of Human Events is published in Washington, D.C.
- February 3 – WWII: United States troops capture the Marshall Islands.
- February 7 – WWII: At Anzio, German forces launch a counteroffensive.
- February 8 – WWII:
- February 14 – WWII: An anti-Japanese revolt breaks out on Java.
- February 15 – WWII – Battle of Monte Cassino: The monastery atop Monte Cassino is destroyed by Allied bombing.
- February 17 – WWII: Pacific War – The Battle of Eniwetok begins when U.S. forces invade the atoll in the Marshall Islands.
- February 18 – WWII: Light cruiser HMS Penelope is torpedoed and sunk by U-410; 417 of her crew, including the captain, go down with the ship; 206 survive.
- February 20 – WWII:
- The "Big Week" begins, with American bomber raids on German aircraft manufacturing centers.
- The United States takes Eniwetok Atoll.
- Norwegian heavy water sabotage: The Norwegian resistance sinks train ferry SF Hydro which is carrying a shipment of heavy water from the Vemork plant to Germany on Tinnsjå in Telemark.
- February 22 – The United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe is organized from the Eighth Air Force's strategic planning staff, subsuming strategic planning for all US Army Air Forces in Europe and Africa.
- February 23 – WWII:
- Deportation of the Chechens and Ingush ("Operation Lentil"): Forced deportation of Chechens and Ingush people from North Caucasus to Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia by the Soviet authorities begins.
- The Battle of Eniwetok concludes when U.S. forces secure the last islands in the Eniwetok Atoll.
- February 24 – WWII: USS Rasher torpedoes Ryūsei Maru and Tango Maru; 7,998 drown.
- February 26
- Kurt Gerron begins shooting the Nazi propaganda film Theresienstadt in Theresienstadt concentration camp. He and many others who are feature in it are transferred to Auschwitz and gassed upon the film's completion.
- Sue S. Dauser becomes the first woman appointed to the substantive rank of captain, in the United States Navy Nurse Corps.
- February 29 – WWII: Pacific War – The Admiralty Islands campaign (Operation Brewer) opens when U.S. forces land on Los Negros Island in the Admiralty Islands.
- March – Austrian-born economist Friedrich Hayek publishes his book The Road to Serfdom in London.
- March 1 – WWII: USS Trout torpedoes Sakito Maru; 2,495 drown.
- March 2
- Balvano train disaster: A train stalls inside a railway tunnel outside Salerno, Italy; 521 choke to death.
- The 16th Academy Awards Ceremony is held, the first Oscar ceremony held at a large public venue, Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood. Casablanca, (directed by Michael Curtiz), wins the Best Picture Award.
- March 3 – WWII: The Order of Nakhimov and the Order of Ushakov are instituted in the USSR.
- March 4 – In Ossining, New York, Louis Buchalter, the leader of 1930s crime syndicate Murder, Inc., is executed at Sing Sing, along with Emanuel Weiss and Louis Capone.
- March 6 – WWII: Soviet Army planes attack Narva, Estonia, destroying almost the entire baroque old town.
- March 9 – WWII: Soviet Army planes attack Tallinn, Estonia, killing 757 and leaving 25,000 homeless.
- March 10
- March 12 – WWII: The Political Committee of National Liberation is created in Greece.
- March 15
- WWII: Battle of Monte Cassino: Allied aircraft bomb the monastery, and an assault is staged.
- WWII: The National Council of the French Resistance approves the Resistance programme.
- The Soviet Union introduces a new anthem, replacing The Internationale.
- In Sweden, the 1864 law which had criminalized homosexuality is abolished.
- March 18
- March 19 - WWII: Operation Margarethe: German forces occupy Hungary.
- March 20 - WWII:
- Landing on Emirau: 4,000 United States Marines land on Emirau Island in the Bismarck Archipelago to develop an airbase, as part of Operation Cartwheel.
- British Royal Air Force Flight Sergeant Nicholas Alkemade's bomber is hit over Germany, and he has to bail out without a parachute from a height of over 4,000 meters (13,123 ft). Tree branches interrupt his fall and he lands safely on deep snow.
- March 23 – WWII: Members of the Italian Resistance attack Nazis marching in Via Rasella, killing 33.
- March 24 – WWII:
- Ardeatine massacre: In Rome, 335 Italians are killed, including 75 Jews and over 200 members of the Italian Resistance from various groups.
- In Markowa, Poland, German police kill Józef and Wiktoria Ulm, their 6 children and 8 Jews they were hiding.
- The "Great Escape": 76 Royal Air Force prisoners of war escape by tunnel "Harry" from Stalag Luft III this night. Only 3 men (2 Norwegians and a Dutchman) return to the UK; of those recaptured, 50 are summarily executed soon afterwards, in the Stalag Luft III murders.
- April 2 – WWII: Ascq massacre: Members of the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend shoot 85 civilians suspected of blowing up their train, on its approach to the Gare d'Ascq in France.
- April 4 – WWII: An Allied photoreconnaissance aircraft of 60 Squadron SAAF photographs part of Auschwitz concentration camp.
- April 10 – The Holocaust: Rudolf Vrba and Alfréd Wetzler escape from Auschwitz concentration camp; on April 25–27 they prepare the Vrba–Wetzler report, one of the earliest and most detailed descriptions of the extermination of Jews in the camp.
- April 14 – Bombay Explosion: Freighter SS Fort Stikine, carrying a mixed cargo of ammunition, cotton bales and gold, explodes in harbour at Bombay (India), sinking surrounding ships and killing around 800 people.
- April 15 – Italian fascist philosopher Giovanni Gentile is assassinated in Florence by Bruno Fanciullacci, a member of the partisan group GAP.
- April 16 – WWII: Allied forces start bombing Belgrade, killing about 1,100 people. This bombing fell on the Orthodox Christian Easter.
- April 19 – WWII:
- April 25
- The Holocaust: SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann opens "blood for goods" negotiations with Joel Brand, to offer the release of thousands of Jews from eastern Europe to the Hungarian Aid and Rescue Committee, in exchange for supplies for the German Eastern Front.
- The United Negro College Fund is incorporated in the United States.
- April 26
- April 28 – WWII: Allied convoy T4, forming part of amphibious Exercise Tiger (a full-scale rehearsal for the Normandy landings) in Start Bay, off the Devon coast of England, is attacked by E-boats, resulting in the deaths of 749 American servicemen from LSTs.
- May – Jean-Paul Sartre's existentialist drama No Exit (Huis Clos) premières in Nazi-occupied Paris.
- May 1 – WWII: Two hundred Communist prisoners are shot by the Germans at Kaisariani, Athens, Greece, in reprisal for the killing of General Franz Krech by Partisans at Molaoi.
- May 5 – WWII: Mohandas Gandhi is released from jail in India, on health grounds.
- May 9 – WWII: In the Ukrainian city of Sevastopol, Soviet troops completely drive out German forces, who had been ordered by Hitler to “fight to the last man.”
- May 12 – WWII: Soviet troops finalize the liberation of the Crimea.
- May 14 – The Holocaust: Predominantly Muslim Albanian troops of the 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg (1st Albanian) round up 281 Jews in Pristina, and hand them over to the Germans for transportation to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
- May 15–July 8 – The Holocaust: Hungarian Jews are deported to Auschwitz, and other Nazi concentration camps.
- May 18 – WWII:
- May 24 – WWII: West Loch disaster: Six LSTs are accidentally destroyed and 163 men killed, in Pearl Harbor.
- May 30 – Princess Charlotte Louise Juliette Louvet Grimaldi of Monaco, heir to the throne, resigns in favor of her son Prince Rainier Louis Henri Maxence Bertrand Grimaldi, who later reigns as Prince Rainier III of Monaco.
- May 31 – WWII: Destroyer escort USS England sinks the sixth Japanese submarine in two weeks. This anti-submarine warfare performance remains unmatched through the 20th-century.
- June 1
- WWII: The BBC transmits coded messages (including the first line of the poem "Chanson d'automne" by Paul Verlaine) to the French Resistance, signalling to them that the invasion of Europe was imminent.
- Two K-class blimps of the United States Navy complete the first transatlantic crossing by non-rigid airships, from the U.S. to French Morocco, with two stops.
- June 2 – WWII: The Provisional Government of the French Republic is established.
- June 3 – Hans Asperger publishes his paper on Asperger syndrome.
- June 4 – WWII:
- June 5 – WWII:
- The German navy's Enigma messages are decoded almost in real time.
- British Group Captain James Stagg correctly forecasts a brief improvement in weather conditions over the English Channel, which will permit the following day's Normandy landings to take place (having been deferred from today due to unfavourable weather).
- At 10:15 p.m. local time, the BBC transmits coded messages including the second line of the Paul Verlaine poem "Chanson d'automne" to the French Resistance, indicating that the invasion of Europe is about to begin.
- More than 1,000 British bombers drop 5,000 tons of bombs on German gun batteries on the Normandy coast, in preparation for D-Day.
- US and British airborne divisions drop into Normandy, in preparation for D-Day.
- D-Day naval deceptions are launched.
- June 6 – WWII: D-Day: 155,000 Allied troops shipped from England land on the beaches of Normandy in northern France, beginning Operation Overlord and the Invasion of Normandy. The Allied soldiers quickly break through the Atlantic Wall and push inland, in the largest amphibious military operation in history. This operation helps liberate France from Germany, and also weakens the Nazi hold on Europe.
- June 7 – WWII:
- The steamer Danae (Greek: Δανάη), carrying 600 Cretans (including 350 Greek Jews) on the first leg of the journey to Auschwitz, is sunk, with no known survivors, off Santorini.
- Joel Brand is intercepted by British agents in Aleppo.
- Bayeux is liberated by British troops.
- Operation Perch, a British attempt to capture Caen from the Germans, commences; it is abandoned on June 14.
- June 9 – WWII: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin launches the Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive against Finland, with the intent of defeating Finland before pushing for Berlin.
- June 10 – WWII: Oradour-sur-Glane massacre: 642 men, women and children are killed in France.
- June 13 – WWII: Germany launches the first V-1 flying bomb attack on London.
- June 15 – WWII: Battle of Saipan: United States forces land on Saipan.
- June 15/16 – WWII: Bombing of Yawata: The United States Army Air Forces conduct the first air raid on the Japanese home islands.
- June 16 – At age 14, George Stinney becomes the youngest person ever executed in the United States.
- June 17 – Iceland declares full independence from Denmark.
- June 19 – A severe storm badly damages the Mulberry harbours on the Normandy coast.
- June 20 – WWII: A V-2 rocket becomes the first man-made object to cross the Kármán line and reach the edge of space.
- June 22 – WWII:
- June 23 – The Holocaust: Maurice Rossel of the International Committee of the Red Cross visits Theresienstadt concentration camp, uncritically accepting the propaganda view of it presented by the Schutzstaffel.
- June 25 – WWII:
- June 26 – WWII: American troops enter Cherbourg.
- June 29 – WWII: USS Sturgeon torpedoes Toyama Maru; 5,400 drown.
- June 30 – WWII: USS Tang torpedoes Nikkin Maru; 3,219 drown.
- July–October – WWII: Germans are driven out of Lithuania leading to reimposition of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic.
- July 1 – The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference begins at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States.
- July 3 – WWII:
- July 6
- Hartford circus fire: More than 100 children die in one of the worst fire disasters in the history of the United States.
- WWII: At Camp Hood, Texas, future baseball star and 1st Lt. Jackie Robinson is arrested and later court-martialed, for refusing to move to the back of a segregated U.S. Army bus (he is eventually acquitted).
- July 9 – WWII: British and Canadian forces capture Caen.
- July 10 – WWII: Soviet troops begin operations to liberate the Baltic countries.
- July 10-11 -- Operation Jupiter (1944) took place during the Battle of Normandy of World War II, involving the victorious United Kingdom of Great Britain versus the loser, Nazi Germany.
- July 12–21 – WWII: Dortan massacre – 35–36 French civilians are killed by Ostlegionen (Cossacks) serving with the Wehrmacht.
- July 13 – WWII: Vilnius is freed by Soviet forces.
- July 16 – WWII: The first contingent of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force arrives in Italy.
- July 17 – WWII:
- July 18 – WWII:
- American forces push back the Germans in Saint-Lô, capturing the city.
- British forces launch Operation Goodwood, an armoured offensive aimed at driving the Germans from the high ground to the south of Caen. The offensive ends 2 days later with minimal gains.
- Hideki Tōjō resigns as Prime Minister of Japan due to numerous setbacks in the war effort and is succeeded on July 22 by Kuniaki Koiso.
- July 20
- WWII: Adolf Hitler survives the 20 July plot to assassinate him led by Claus von Stauffenberg; he and his fellow conspirators in this and Operation Valkyrie are executed the following day.
- The annular solar eclipse of July 20, 1944 is visible in Africa, Indian Ocean, Asia, Pacific Ocean and Australia, and is the 35th solar eclipse of Solar Saros 135.
- July 21 – WWII:
- July 22
- The Bretton Woods Conference ends with agreements signed to set up the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and International Monetary Fund.
- The new Polish Committee of National Liberation publishes the PKWN Manifesto in Chełm, calling for a continuation of fighting against Nazi Germany, radical reforms including nationalisation of industry, and a "decent border in the West" (the Oder–Neisse line).
- United States v. Masaaki Kuwabara, the only Japanese American draft avoidance case to be dismissed on a due process violation of the U.S. Constitution.
- July 25
- WWII – Operation Spring: One of the bloodiest days for Canadian forces during the war results in 1,550 casualties, including 450 killed, during the Normandy Campaign.
- WWII – The Battle of Tannenberg Line (or the "Battle of the Blue Hills" in Northeastern Estonia) begins: The Red Army will gain a Pyrrhic victory by August 10.
- July 26 – WWII: A Messerschmitt Me 262 becomes the first jet fighter aircraft to have an operational victory.
- July 31 – WWII: USS Parche torpedoes Yoshino Maru; 2,495 drown.
- August 1 – WWII: The Warsaw Uprising begins.
- August 2 – WWII:
- August 3 – The Education Act in the United Kingdom, promoted by Rab Butler, creates a Tripartite system of education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
- August 4 – The Holocaust: A tip from a Dutch informer leads the Gestapo to a sealed-off area in an Amsterdam warehouse, where they find Jewish diarist Anne Frank, her family, and others in hiding. All will die in the Holocaust, except for Otto Frank, Anne's father.
- August 5 – WWII:
- The Warsaw Uprising:
- Cowra breakout: Over 500 Japanese prisoners of war attempt a mass breakout from the Cowra camp in Australia. In the ensuing manhunt, 231 Japanese escapees and four Australian soldiers are killed.
- August 7 – IBM dedicates the first program-controlled calculator, the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (known best as the Harvard Mark I).
- August 9 – The United States Forest Service and the Wartime Advertising Council release the first posters featuring Smokey Bear.
- August 12 – WWII:
- August 15 – WWII: Operation Dragoon lands Allies in southern France. The U.S. 45th Infantry Division participates in its fourth assault landing at Sainte-Maxime, spearheading the drive for the Belfort Gap.
- August 18 – WWII: Submarine USS Rasher sinks Teia Maru, Eishin Maru, Teiyu Maru, and aircraft carrier Taiyō from Japanese convoy HI71, in one of the most effective American "wolfpack" attacks of the war.
- August 19 – WWII:
- August 20 – WWII:
- August 21
- The Dumbarton Oaks Conference (Washington Conversations on International Peace and Security Organization) opens in Washington, D.C.: U.S., British, Chinese, French and Soviet representatives meet to plan the foundation of the United Nations.
- WWII: Operation Tractable concludes, when Canadian troops relieve the Polish and link with the Americans, capturing remaining German forces in the Falaise Pocket, and securing the strategically important French town of Falaise, in the final offensive of the Battle of Normandy.
- August 22 – WWII:
- Tsushima Maru, an unmarked Japanese passenger/cargo ship, is sunk by torpedoes launched by the submarine USS Bowfin off Akuseki-jima, killing 1,484 civilians, including 767 schoolchildren.
- Holocaust of Kedros: German Wehrmacht infantry begin an intimidatory razing operation, killing 164, against the civilian residents of nine villages in the Amari Valley on the occupied Greek island of Crete.
- August 23 – WWII:
- King Michael's Coup: Ion Antonescu, prime minister of Romania, is arrested and a new government established. Romania leaves the war against the Soviet Union, joining the Allies.
- Padule di Fucecchio massacre: At least 174 Italian civilians are killed by members of the 23rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht).
- August 24 – WWII:
- August 25 – WWII:
- German surrender of Paris: General Dietrich von Choltitz surrenders Paris to the Allies, in defiance of Hitler's orders to destroy it.
- Maillé massacre: 129 civilians (70% women and children) are massacred by the Gestapo at Maillé, Indre-et-Loire.
- Hungary decides to continue the war together with Germany.
- The Red Ball Express convoy system begins operation, supplying tons of materiel to Allied forces in France.
- August 29 – WWII: The Slovak National Uprising against the Axis powers begins.
- August 31 – The Mad Gasser of Mattoon apparently resumes his mysterious attacks in Mattoon, Illinois for two weeks.
- September – The Dutch famine ("Hongerwinter") begins, in the occupied northern part of the Netherlands.
- September 1 – WWII: In Bulgaria, the Bagryanov government resigns.
- September 2
- September 3 – WWII: The Allies liberate Brussels.
- September 4 – WWII:
- September 5
- September 6 – WWII: The Tartu Offensive in Estonia concludes, with Soviet forces capturing Tartu.
- September 7 – WWII:
- The Belgian government in exile returns to Brussels from London.
- Members of Vichy France's collaborationist government are relocated to Germany where an enclave is established for them in Sigmaringen Castle.
- Shin'yō Maru incident: Japanese cargo ship SS Shinyō Maru is torpedoed and sunk in the Sulu Sea by American submarine USS Paddle while carrying 750 American prisoners of war; 688 perish.
- September 8 – WWII:
- September 9 – WWII: The Bulgarian government is overthrown by the Fatherland Front coalition, which establishes a pro-Soviet government.
- September 10 – WWII: Liberation of Luxembourg.
- September 11 – WWII:
- The Laksevåg floating dry dock at Bergen (Norway) is sunk by British X-class submarine X-24.
- An approaching formation of 36 US bombers is engaged by a German fighter squadron (Jagdgeschwader) in the Battle over the Ore Mountains. After the first German attack on the bombers, US Mustangs attack the German squadron in aerial dogfights.
- September 12 – WWII: Allied forces from Operation Overlord (in northern France) and Operation Dragoon (in the south) link up near Dijon.
- September 13 – WWII: The Battle of Meligalas begins, between the Greek Resistance forces of the Greek People's Liberation Army (ELAS) and the collaborationist Security Battalions.
- September 14 – The Great Atlantic hurricane makes landfall in the New York City area.
- September 15 – WWII: The Battle of Peleliu begins in the Pacific.
- September 17 – WWII: Operation Market Garden: Allied airborne landings begin in the Netherlands and Germany.
- September 17–20 – WWII: Italian Campaign – In the Battle of San Marino, British and Empire forces take the occupied neutral republic of San Marino from the German Army.
- September 18 – WWII:
- September 19 – WWII:
- September 22 – WWII: The Red Army captures Tallinn, Estonia. Prime Minister in Duties of the President of Estonia Jüri Uluots and 80,000 Estonian civilians manage to escape to Sweden and Germany. The evacuees include almost the entire population of the Estonian Swedes. Soviet bombing raids on the evacuating ships sink several, with thousands on board.
- September 24 – WWII: The U.S. 45th Infantry Division takes the strongly defended city of Épinal before crossing the Moselle River and entering the western foothills of the Vosges.
- September 26 – WWII:
- October 2 – WWII: Nazi troops end the Warsaw Uprising. This is followed by the Destruction of Warsaw.
- October 4 – WWII: Milan Nedić's collaborationist puppet government of the Axis powers, the Government of National Salvation in Nazi-occupied Serbia, is disbanded.
- October 5 – WWII: Royal Canadian Air Force pilots shoot down the first German Me 262 over the Netherlands.[clarification needed]
- October 6
- WWII: The Battle of Debrecen starts on the Eastern Front, lasting until October 29.
- Milan Nedić, president of the Serbian collaborationist puppet state of the Axis powers, the Government of National Salvation, flees from Belgrade in Nazi-occupied Serbia by air together with other Serbian collaborators and German officials, via Hungary to Austria.
- The Holocaust: Members of the Sonderkommando (Jewish work units) in Auschwitz concentration camp stage a revolt, killing 3 SS men before being massacred themselves.
- The Dumbarton Oaks Conference concludes.
- October 8 – The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet radio show debuts in the United States.
- October 9 – WWII: Fourth Moscow Conference: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin begin a 9-day conference in Moscow, to discuss the future of Europe.
- October 10
- October 11 – The Tuvan People's Republic is annexed into the Soviet Union.
- October 12
- WWII: The Allies land in Athens.
- Canadian Arctic explorer Henry Larsen returns to Vancouver, becoming the first person successfully to navigate the Northwest Passage in both directions, in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police schooner St. Roch. His westbound voyage is the first completed in a single season, and the first passage through the Prince of Wales Strait.
- October 13 – WWII:
- October 14 – WWII: German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel commits forced suicide rather than face public disgrace and execution for allegedly conspiring against Adolf Hitler.
- October 16 – WWII: American bombing of Salzburg destroys the dome of the city's cathedral and most of a Mozart family home.
- October 18 – WWII: The Volkssturm Nazi militia is founded, on Adolf Hitler's orders.
- October 19 – The Guatemalan Revolution begins with the overthrow of Federico Ponce Vaides by a popular leftist movement.
- October 20 – WWII:
- Belgrade Offensive ends when Belgrade is liberated by Yugoslav Partisans, together with the Bulgarian Army and the Red Army, and the remnants of Nedić's collaborationist Serbian puppet state, the Government of National Salvation, are abolished.
- American and Filipino troops (with Filipino guerrillas) begin the Battle of Leyte in the Philippines. American forces land on Red Beach in Palo, Leyte, as General Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines with Philippine Commonwealth president Sergio Osmeña and Armed Forces of the Philippines Generals Basilio J. Valdes and Carlos P. Romulo. American forces land on the beaches in Dulag, Leyte, accompanied by Filipino troops entering the town, and fiercely opposed by the Japanese occupation forces. The combined forces liberate Tacloban.
- Operation Pheasant begins - an offensive in the Netherlands which supports the ongoing Battle of the Scheldt.
- October 21 – WWII: Aachen, the first German city to fall, is captured by American troops.
- October 23–26 – WWII: Naval Battle of Leyte Gulf in the Philippines – In the largest naval battle in history by most criteria and the last naval battle in history between battleships, combined United States and Australian naval forces decisively defeat the Imperial Japanese Navy. This is the first battle in which Japanese aircraft carry out organized kamikaze attacks.
- October 24
- October 25
- WWII: The Red Army liberates Kirkenes, the first town in Norway to be liberated.
- WWII: USS Tang is sunk in the Formosa Strait by one of her own torpedoes. Medal of Honor-winning submarine ace Richard O'Kane becomes a prisoner of war.
- Padule di Fucecchio massacre: Nazi German soldiers murder at least 174 Italian civilians in a reprisal killing.
- Florence Foster Jenkins gives a recital in Carnegie Hall, New York.
- October 27 – WWII: German forces capture Banská Bystrica, the center of anti-Nazi opposition in Slovakia, bringing the Slovak National Uprising to an end.
- October 30
- October 31 – Serial killer Dr Marcel Petiot is apprehended at a Paris Métro station after 7 months on the run.
- November 1–December 7 – Delegates of 52 nations meet at the International Civil Aviation Conference in Chicago, to plan for postwar international cooperation, framing the constitution of the International Civil Aviation Organization.
- November 3 – WWII: Two supreme commanders of the Slovak National Uprising, Generals Ján Golian and Rudolf Viest, are captured, tortured and later executed by German forces.
- November 7
- United States presidential election: Franklin D. Roosevelt wins reelection over Republican challenger Thomas E. Dewey, becoming the only U.S. president elected to a fourth term.
- Election day rail accident in Puerto Rico: A passenger train derails at Aguadilla due to excessive speed on a downgrade; 16 are killed, 50 injured.
- November 10 – WWII: Ammunition ship USS Mount Hood disintegrates from the accidental detonation of 3,800 tons of cargo, in the Seeadler Harbor fleet anchorage at Manus Island. 22 small boats are destroyed, 36 nearby ships damaged, 432 men are killed and 371 more are injured.
- November 11 – Operational ships of the French Navy re-enter their base at Toulon.
- November 12 – WWII: Operation Catechism – German battleship Tirpitz is sunk by British Royal Air Force Lancaster bombers near Tromsø. Estimated casualties range from 950 to 1,204.
- November 14 – WWII: USS Queenfish torpedoes Japanese aircraft carrier Akitsu Maru; 2,246 drown.
- November 16 – WWII: U.S. forces begin the month-long Operation Queen in the Rur Valley.
- November 18
- November 22
- Conscription Crisis: Prime Minister of Canada William Mackenzie King agrees a one-time conscription levy in Canada for overseas service.
- Laurence Olivier's film Henry V, based on Shakespeare's play, opens in London. It is the most acclaimed and the most successful movie version of a Shakespeare play made up to that time, and the first in Technicolor. Olivier both stars and directs.
- November 24 – WWII: German forces evacuate from the West Estonian Archipelago.
- November 26 – American amateur operatic soprano Florence Foster Jenkins dies in her sleep from a heart attack on Manhattan, at the age of 76.
- November 27
- RAF Fauld explosion: Between 3,450 and 3,930 tons (3,500 and 4,000 tonnes) of ordnance explodes at an underground storage depot in Staffordshire, England, leaving about 75 dead and a crater 1,200 metres (1,300 yd) across and 120 metres (390 ft) deep. The blast is one of the largest non-nuclear explosions in history, and the largest on UK soil.
- Operation Tigerfish: The Royal Air Force bombing of Freiburg im Breisgau kills 2,800.
- November 29 – WWII: Submarine USS Archerfish sinks Japanese aircraft carrier Shinano. Shinano is the largest carrier built to this date, and will remain through the twentieth century the largest ship sunk by a submarine.
- December 1–Edward Stettinius, Jr. becomes the last United States Secretary of State of the Roosevelt administration, filling the seat left by Cordell Hull.
- December 3 – WWII:
- December 7 – The Convention on International Civil Aviation is signed in Chicago, creating the International Civil Aviation Organization.
- December 10 – Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini leads a concert performance of the first half of Beethoven's Fidelio (minus its spoken dialogue) on NBC Radio, starring Rose Bampton. He chooses this opera for its political message: a statement against tyranny and dictatorship. Conducting it in German, Toscanini intends it as a tribute to the German people who are being oppressed by Hitler. The second half is broadcast a week later. The performance is later released on LP and CD, the first of 7 operas that Toscanini conducts on radio.
- December 12–December 13 – WWII: British units attempt to take the hilltop town of Tossignano, but are repulsed.
- December 13 – Battle of Mindoro: United States, Australian and Philippine Commonwealth troops land on Mindoro Island in the Philippines.
- December 14
- December 15 – A USAAF utility aircraft carrying bandleader Major Glenn Miller disappears in heavy fog over the English Channel, while flying to Paris.
- December 16 – WWII:
- December 17
- December 18 – General Douglas MacArthur becomes the second U.S. Five-Star General.
- December 19 – The daily newspaper Le Monde begins publication in Paris.
- December 20
- December 22
- December 24
- WWII: Troopship SS Léopoldville is sunk in the English Channel by German submarine U-486. Approximately 763 soldiers of the U.S. 66th Infantry Division, bound for the Battle of the Bulge, drown.
- WWII: German tanks reach the furthest point of the Bulge at Celles.
- WWII: Fifty German V-1 flying bombs, air-launched from Heinkel He 111 bombers flying over the North Sea, target Manchester in England, killing 42 and injuring more than 100 in the Oldham area.
- WWII: Bande massacre: 34 men between the ages of 17 and 32 are executed by the Sicherheitsdienst near Bande, Belgium, in retaliation for the killing of 3 German soldiers.
- The first complete U.S. production of Tchaikovsky's ballet The Nutcracker is presented in San Francisco, choreographed by Willam Christensen. It will become an annual tradition there, and for the next ten years, the San Francisco Ballet will be the only company in the United States performing the complete work.
- December 26
- December 30
- December 31 – WWII: Battle of Leyte – Tens of thousands of Imperial Japanese Army soldiers are killed in action, in a significant Filipino/Allied military victory.
- The Arab Women's Congress of 1944 is hosted by the Egyptian Feminist Union in Cairo and the Pan-Arabian Arab Feminist Union is founded.
- The 1944 Summer Olympics, scheduled for London (together with the February Winter Olympics scheduled for Cortina d'Ampezzo in Italy), are suspended due to WWII.
- In Sweden, Erik Wallenberg and Ruben Rausing invent a way to package milk in paper, and start the company Tetra Pak.
- The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence is established in the United States.
- Last known evidence of the existence of the Asiatic lion in the wild in Khuzestan Province, Persia.
- The BC Žalgiris professional basketball club is founded in Kaunas, Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic.
|January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December|
- January 1
- January 2 – Prince Norodom Ranariddh, Cambodian politician
- January 3 – Chris von Saltza, American swimmer
- January 6
- January 7 – Mike Hebert, American volleyball coach (d. 2019)
- January 8 – Terry Brooks, American writer
- January 9
- January 10
- January 12
- January 17
- January 18
- January 19 – Shelley Fabares, American actress, singer
- January 20 – Isao Okano, Japanese judoka
- January 23
- January 24
- January 25
- January 26
- January 27
- January 28
- January 29 – Susana Giménez, Argentinian television presenter
- January 31 – Connie Booth, American writer, actress
- February 2
- February 4
- February 5
- February 8
- February 9 – Alice Walker, African-American novelist, writer, poet and activist
- February 10
- February 11 – Michael G. Oxley, American politician (d. 2016)
- February 12 – Moe Bandy, American country music singer
- February 13
- February 14
- February 15
- February 16
- February 17
- February 19 – Donald F. Glut, American writer, film director and screenwriter
- February 20
- February 22
- February 23 – Johnny Winter, American rock musician (d. 2014)
- February 24
- February 25 – François Cevert, French racing driver (d. 1973)
- February 27
- February 28
- February 29 – Dennis Farina, American actor (d. 2013)
- March 1
- March 2
- March 3 – Odessa Cleveland, American actress (M*A*S*H)
- March 4
- March 5 – Peter Brandes, Danish artist
- March 6
- March 7
- March 8 – Buzz Hargrove, Canadian labour leader
- March 11
- March 15
- March 17
- March 18 – Dick Smith, Australian entrepreneur
- March 19
- March 20 – Erwin Neher, German biophysicist
- March 21 – Hilary Minster, English actor (d. 1999)
- March 23 – Ric Ocasek, American singer, songwriter, and record producer (The Cars) (d. 2019)
- March 24 – R. Lee Ermey, American actor, and Marine drill instructor (d. 2018)
- March 26 – Diana Ross, African-American actress and singer
- March 27 – Ann Sidney, Miss World
- March 28
- March 29
- April 3 – Tony Orlando, American musician
- April 4
- April 5 – Peter T. King, American politician
- April 6
- April 7
- April 8
- April 10 – Abubakar Habu Hashidu, Nigerian politician (d. 2018)
- April 11 – John Milius, American film director, producer and screenwriter
- April 13 – Jack Casady, American rock musician (Jefferson Airplane, Hot Tuna)
- April 14 – Nguyễn Phú Trọng, Vietnamese politician, General Secretary of the Communist Party and President
- April 15 – Kunishige Kamamoto, Japanese footballer, manager and politician
- April 18
- April 19
- April 20 – Thein Sein, Burmese politician, 8th President of Myanmar
- April 22 – Steve Fossett, American aviator, sailor and millionaire adventurer (d. 2007)
- April 24 – Tony Visconti, American record producer, musician and singer
- April 25 – Len Goodman, British ballroom dancer and television personality
- April 26
- April 27
- April 28 – Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe, Belgian politician
- April 29
- April 30
- May 1
- May 4 – Russi Taylor, American actress (d. 2019)
- May 5
- May 8 – Gary Glitter, English singer
- May 9
- May 10
- May 12 – Sara Kestelman, English actress
- May 13
- May 14
- May 15
- May 16 – Danny Trejo, Hispanic-American actor
- May 17
- May 19 – Peter Mayhew, English-American actor (d. 2019)
- May 20
- May 21 – Mary Robinson, President of Ireland
- May 22 – Roberto A. Abad, Filipino lawyer
- May 23
- May 24 – Patti LaBelle, American singer, actress and entrepreneur
- May 25 – Frank Oz, English puppeteer and film director
- May 26 – Jan Schakowsky, U.S. Representative, Illinois's 9th congressional district
- May 27 – Chris Dodd, American politician
- May 28
- Rudy Giuliani, American politician, former Mayor of New York City
- Gladys Knight, American singer
- Sondra Locke, American actress and director (d. 2018)
- Rita MacNeil, Canadian folk singer (d. 2013)
- Patricia, Lady Stephens (née Quinn), retired Northern Irish actress
- Gary Stewart, American country rock singer, songwriter and musician (d. 2003)
- May 29 – Helmut Berger, Austrian actor
- May 30 – Meredith MacRae, American actress (d. 2000)
- May 31 – Ayad Allawi, 38th Prime Minister of Iraq
- June 1 – Robert Powell, English actor
- June 2
- June 3 – Edith McGuire, American sprinter
- June 4 – Michelle Phillips, American singer and actress
- June 5
- June 6
- June 7 – Annette Lu, Taiwanese politician, 8th Vice President of the Republic of China
- June 8
- June 13 – Ban Ki-moon, South Korean politician and 8th Secretary-General of the United Nations
- June 15 – Malaysia Vasudevan, Tamil playback singer and actor (d. 2011)
- June 16 – Henri Richelet, French painter
- June 17 – Bill Rafferty, American comedian and impressionist (d. 2012)
- June 18
- June 19 – Chico Buarque, Brazilian musician
- June 21
- Carmen Cardinali Paoa, Chilean professor
- Franco Cordova, Italian international football player
- Corinna Tsopei, Greek actress, model and beauty queen who won Miss Universe 1964
- Ray Davies, English rock-singer and songwriter, co-founder of The Kinks
- Kenny O'Dell, American country singer-songwriter (d. 2018)
- Tony Scott, English film director (d. 2012)
- Luigi Sgarbozza, Italian former cyclist
- Chris Wood, English musician (Traffic) (d. 1983)
- June 22
- June 23
- June 24
- June 25 – Ricardo Salgado, Portuguese economist and banker
- June 27
- June 28 – Luis Nicolao, Argentine butterfly swimmer
- June 29
- June 30
- July 1
- July 2
- July 3 – Michel Polnareff, French singer
- July 4
- July 5
- July 6
- July 7
- July 8
- July 10 – Carlos Ruckauf, Argentine politician
- July 11
- July 12
- July 13 – Ernő Rubik, Hungarian inventor
- July 14 – Aad Mansveld, Dutch footballer (d. 1991)
- July 16
- July 17
- July 18 – David Hemery, British Olympic athlete
- July 20
- July 21
- July 23 – Alex Buzo, of Sydney, Australian playwright and author (d. 2006)
- July 26
- July 28 – Jozo Križanović, Bosnian politician (d. 2009)
- July 31
- August 1
- August 2
- August 3 – Jonas Falk, Swedish actor (d. 2010)
- August 4
- August 7
- August 8
- August 9 – Sam Elliott, American actor
- August 11
- August 12 – Larry Troutman, American musician (d. 1999)
- August 13 – Kevin Tighe, American actor
- August 15 – Sylvie Vartan, French singer
- August 18
- August 19
- August 20 – Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (d. 1991)
- August 21
- August 22 – Ayşen Gruda, Turkish actress and comedian (d. 2019)
- August 23
- August 24 – Rocky Johnson, Canadian professional wrestler (d. 2020)
- August 25 – Christine Chubbuck, American television reporter (d. 1974)
- August 25 – Pat Martino, American Jazz guitarist
- August 26 – Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
- August 27 – G. W. Bailey, American actor
- August 30 – Tug McGraw, American baseball player (d. 2004)
- August 31
- September 1 – Leonard Slatkin, American conductor
- September 2 – Gilles Marchal, French musician
- September 3
- Ty Warner, American Businessman, Inventor: Beanie Babies
- September 4 – Tony Atkinson, British economist (d. 2017)
- September 6
- September 7
- September 11 – Serge Haroche, French physicist
- September 12
- September 13
- September 15
- September 17 – Reinhold Messner, Italian mountaineer
- September 18
- September 19 – İsmet Özel, Turkish poet
- September 21
- September 22 – Frazer Hines, British actor
- September 25 – Michael Douglas, American actor and producer
- September 26 – Anne Robinson, British television host
- September 27 – Angélica María, American-born Mexican singer-songwriter and actress
- September 28 – Miloš Zeman, 3rd President of the Czech Republic
- September 30 – Jimmy Johnstone, Scottish footballer (d. 2006)
- October 2 – Vernor Vinge, American science fiction writer
- October 4
- October 5 – Arnhim Eustace, Vincentian politician and 3rd Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- October 6
- October 8 – Dale Dye, American actor, technical advisor, radio personality and writer
- October 9
- October 14 – Udo Kier, German actor
- October 15
- October 16 – Elizabeth Loftus, American cognitive psychologist and memory specialist
- October 20 – Clive Hornby, English actor (d. 2008)
- October 21 – Jean-Pierre Sauvage, French scientist; recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016
- October 25
- October 27 – Nikolai Karachentsov, Russian actor (d. 2018)
- October 28
- October 30 – Ahmed Chalabi, Iraqi businessman and politician (d. 2015)
- October 31 – Hal Wick, American politician (d. 2018)
- November 1
- Florindo Fabrizio, American politician (d. 2018)
- Kinky Friedman, American singer, songwriter, novelist, humorist, politician, and columnist
- Rafic Hariri, 2-Time Prime Minister of Lebanon (d. 2005)
- Bobby Heenan, American professional wrestling manager and commentator (d. 2017)
- Oscar Temaru, President of French Polynesia
- November 2
- November 4 – Linda Gary, American actress (d. 1995)
- November 7 – Luigi Riva, Italian footballer
- November 10
- November 11 – Kemal Sunal, Turkish comedian
- November 12
- November 17
- Jim Boeheim, American basketball player and coach
- Gene Clark, American singer-songwriter (d. 1991)
- Danny DeVito, American actor, film producer and director
- Rem Koolhaas, Dutch architect
- Lorne Michaels, Canadian television and film producer
- Tom Seaver, American baseball pitcher (d. 2020)
- Sammy Younge Jr., American civil rights activist (d. 1966)
- November 18
- November 20
- November 21
- November 23 – Peter Lindbergh, German fashion photographer, and film director (d. 2019)
- November 24
- November 25
- November 30 – George Graham, Scottish football player and manager
- December 1 – John Densmore, drummer, member of The Doors.
- December 2
- December 3 – Ralph McTell English singer songwriter
- December 4 – Dennis Wilson, American singer, songwriter and drummer (d. 1983)
- December 5 – Jeroen Krabbé, Dutch actor and film director
- December 6
- December 7
- December 8 – Sharmila Tagore, Indian actress and model
- December 9
- December 10 – Andris Bērziņš, 8th President of Latvia
- December 11
- December 12
- December 17 – Bernard Hill, British actor
- December 19
- December 20 – Ray Martin, Australian journalist and television presenter
- December 21
- December 22 – Steve Carlton, American baseball player
- December 23
- December 24 – Erhard Keller, German speed skater
- December 25 – Jairzinho, Brazilian football player
- December 26
- December 28
- December 29 – King Birendra of Nepal (d. 2001)
- December 30 – Joseph Hilbe, American statistician and author
- December 31
- January 1
- January 3 – Franz Reichleitner, Austrian SS officer and Nazi concentration camp commandant (b. 1906)
- January 4 – Kaj Munk, Danish playwright, Lutheran pastor and martyr (b. 1898)
- January 6 – Ida Tarbell, American journalist and muckraker (b. 1857)
- January 7 – Lou Henry Hoover, First Lady of the United States (b. 1874)
- January 9 – Antanas Smetona, President of Lithuania (b. 1874)
- January 10
- January 11
- Notable Italian Fascist leaders executed in the Verona Trial
- Charles King, American actor (b. 1889)
- Edgard Potier, Belgian spy (suicide) (b. 1903)
- January 12
- January 13 – King Yuhi V of Rwanda (b. 1883)
- January 14 – Mehmet Emin Yurdakul, Turkish writer (b. 1869)
- January 18 – Léon Brunschvicg, French philosopher (b. 1869)
- January 20 – James McKeen Cattell, American psychologist (b. 1860)
- January 21 – Yoshimi Nishida, Japanese general (b. 1892)
- January 23 – Edvard Munch, Norwegian painter (b. 1863)
- January 25 – Teresa Grillo Michel, Italian Roman Catholic nun and blessed (b. 1855)
- January 29 – William Allen White, American journalist (b. 1868)
- January 31
- February 1 – Piet Mondrian, Dutch painter (b. 1872)
- February 3 – Yvette Guilbert, French singer and actress (b. 1867)
- February 7 – Robert E. Park, American sociologist (b. 1864)
- February 9 – Agnes Mary Frances Duclaux, British poet, essayist and novelist (b. 1857)
- February 11 – Carl Meinhof, German linguist (b. 1857)
- February 12
- February 13 – Edgar Selwyn, American screenwriter (b. 1875)
- February 16
- February 21 – Ferenc Szisz, Hungarian-born race car driver (b. 1873)
- February 23 – Leo Baekeland, Belgian-born American chemist (b. 1863)
- February 29 – Pehr Evind Svinhufvud, Finnish politician, 1st Prime Minister and 3rd President of Finland (b. 1861)
- March 2 – Ida Maclean, British biochemist, the first woman admitted to the London Chemical Society (b. 1877)
- March 3 – Paul-Émile Janson, Belgian politician, 30th Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1872)
- March 4 – Louis Buchalter, Jewish-born American mobster, head of Murder, Inc. (executed) (b. 1897)
- March 5
- March 8 - Xu Zonghan, Chinese medical doctor, politician and revolutionary (b. 1877)
- March 9 – Demetrios Capetanakis, Greek poet, essayist and critic (b. 1912)
- March 11
- March 15
- March 17 – Mario Bravo, Argentinian politician and writer (b. 1862)
- March 19
- March 22 – Pierre Brossolette, journalist and French Resistance fighter (b. 1903)
- March 23 – Myron Selznick, American film producer (b. 1898)
- March 24
- March 25 – Omelyan Kovch, Soviet Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox priest, martyr and blessed (b. 1884)
- March 31
- April 1 – Sharifzyan Kazanbaev, Soviet army officer (b. 1916)
- April 2 – John Batchelor, British missionary and reverend (b. 1855)
- April 9 – Yevgeniya Rudneva, Soviet WWII heroine (b. 1920)
- April 13 – Bartolomeo Gosio, Italian scientist (b. 1863)
- April 15 – Giovanni Gentile, Italian philosopher and Fascist politician (assassinated) (b. 1875)
- April 17 – J. T. Hearne, English cricketer (b. 1867)
- April 21 – Hans-Valentin Hube, German army general (b. 1890)
- April 24 – Charles Jordan, American magician (b. 1888)
- April 25 – George Herriman, American cartoonist (b. 1880)
- April 28
- April 29
- April 30 – Paul Poiret, French couturier (b. 1879)
- May 5 – Bertha Benz, German automotive pioneer, wife and business partner of automobile inventor Karl Benz (b. 1849)
- May 7 – William Ledyard Rodgers, American admiral and military and naval historian (b. 1860)
- May 8 – Albert Leo Stevens, pioneering American balloonist (b. 1877)
- May 11 – Leon Kozłowski, Polish archaeologist and politician, 25th Prime Minister of Poland (b. 1892)
- May 12
- May 15 – Patriarch Sergius I (b. 1867)
- May 16 – George Ade, American author (b. 1866)
- May 17 – Milena Jesenská, Czechoslovakian journalist, writer, editor and translator (b. 1896)
- May 20
- May 21
- May 23 – Thomas Curtis, American Olympic athlete (b. 1873)
- May 24
- May 25 – Clark Daniel Stearns, 9th Governor of American Samoa (b. 1870)
- May 30
- June 5 – Józef Beck, Polish statesman (b. 1894)
- June 6
- June 12 – Erich Marcks, German general (b. 1891)
- June 14 – George Stinney, American executed minor (b. 1929)
- June 16
- June 18 – Harry Fielding Reid, American geophysicist and seismologist (b. 1859)
- June 25
- June 27 – Milan Hodža, Slovak politician, champion of regional integration in Europe (b. 1878)
- June 28 – Anton Breinl, Australian medical practitioner and researcher (b. 1880)
- July 1 – Carl Mayer, Austrian screenwriter (b. 1894)
- July 6
- July 7 – Georges Mandel, French politician and WWII hero (b. 1885)
- July 8
- July 9 – Ingvar Fredrik Håkansson, Swedish pilot (b. 1920)
- July 12
- July 14 – Asmahan, Syrian-born Egyptian singer (b.1918)
- July 15 – Joseph Sadi-Lecointe, French aviator (b. 1891)
- July 16 – Moncena Dunn, American inventor (b. 1867)
- July 17 – Tarsykiya Matskiv, Soviet Eastern Catholic religious sister and blessed (b. 1919)
- July 18
- July 20
- July 21
- Ludwig Beck, German general and Chief of the German General Staff (b. 1880)
- Werner von Haeften, German resistance member (executed) (b. 1908)
- Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim, German resistance leader (b. 1905)
- Hans-Ulrich von Oertzen, German resistance member (suicide) (b. 1915)
- Friedrich Olbricht, German resistance leader (b. 1888)
- Henning von Tresckow, German general and resistance leader (suicide) (b. 1901)
- July 23 – Eduard Wagner, German general and resistance member (suicide) (b. 1894)
- July 25
- July 26
- July 27 – Perry McGillivray, American Olympic swimmer (b. 1893)
- July 28 – Werner Schrader, German resistance member (suicide) (b. 1895)
- July 30
- July 31 – Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, French pilot and writer (b. 1900)
- August 1
- August 2 – Kakuji Kakuta, Japanese admiral (b. 1890)
- August 4 – Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński, Polish poet (b. 1921)
- August 5 – Jędrzej Moraczewski, Polish politician, 2nd Prime Minister of Poland (b. 1870)
- August 7 – Jadwiga Falkowska, Polish teacher and activist (b. 1889)
- August 8
- Robert Bernardis, German resistance fighter (executed) (b. 1908)
- Albrecht von Hagen, German resistance fighter (executed) (b. 1904)
- Paul von Hase, German general and resistance leader (executed) (b. 1885)
- Erich Hoepner, German colonel-general and resistance leader (executed) (b. 1886)
- Juliusz Kaden-Bandrowski, Polish journalist and novelist (b. 1885)
- Hellmuth Stieff, German resistance fighter (executed) (b. 1901)
- Michael Wittmann, German tank commander (killed in action) (b. 1914)
- Erwin von Witzleben, German Field Marshal and resistance leader (executed) (b. 1881)
- Peter Yorck von Wartenburg, German resistance fighter (executed) (b. 1904)
- August 9 – Felix Nussbaum, German painter (b. 1904)
- August 10
- August 11
- August 12
- August 15
- August 17
- August 18
- August 19
- August 21
- August 23
- August 24 – Carlo Emanuele Buscaglia, Italian aviator (b. 1915)
- August 25 – Teresio Vittorio Martinoli, Italian pilot (b. 1917)
- August 26
- August 27
- August 28
- August 30
- September 1 – Krystyna Dąbrowska, Polish sculptor and painter (b. 1906)
- September 2 – Maria Vetulani de Nisau, Polish soldier (b. 1898)
- September 3 - Friedrich Alpers, German Nazi politician and general (b. 1901)
- September 4
- September 5 – Gustave Biéler, Swiss WWII hero (b. 1904)
- September 6 – Jan Franciszek Czartoryski, Polish Dominican friar, martyr and blessed (b. 1897)
- September 7 – Eduardo Sánchez de Fuentes, Cuban composer (b. 1897)
- September 8
- Georg Hansen, German resistance fighter (b. 1904)
- Ulrich von Hassell, German diplomat and resistance fighter (b. 1881)
- Paul Lejeune-Jung, German resistance fighter (b. 1882)
- Ulrich Wilhelm Graf Schwerin von Schwanenfeld, German resistance fighter (b. 1902)
- Günther Smend, German resistance fighter (b. 1912)
- Josef Wirmer, German resistance fighter (b. 1901)
- September 9 – Robert Benoist, French race car driver and war hero (b. 1895)
- September 11 – Joseph Müller, German Roman Catholic priest and Servant of God (executed) (b. 1894)
- September 12 – Robert Fiske, American actor (b. 1889)
- September 13
- Grigore Bălan, Romanian general (died of wounds) (b. 1896)
- Yolande Beekman, French WWII heroine (executed) (b. 1911)
- Madeleine Damerment, French WWII heroine (executed) (b. 1917)
- Noor Inayat Khan, Indian WWII heroine (executed) (b. 1914)
- Eliane Plewman, British WWII heroine (executed) (b. 1917)
- W. Heath Robinson, British cartoonist and illustrator (b. 1872)
- September 14
- Heinrich Graf zu Dohna-Schlobitten, German resistance fighter (executed) (b. 1882)
- John Kenneth Macalister, Canadian WWII hero (b. 1914)
- Michael Graf von Matuschka, German resistance fighter (executed) (b. 1888)
- Frank Pickersgill, Canadian WWII hero (b. 1915)
- Roméo Sabourin, Canadian WWII hero (b. 1923)
- Nikolaus von Üxküll-Gyllenband, German resistance fighter (executed) (b. 1877)
- Hermann Josef Wehrle, German Catholic priest and resistance member (executed) (b. 1899)
- September 16 – Gustav Bauer, 11th Chancellor of Germany (b. 1870)
- September 18
- September 22 – Fritz Lindemann, German army officer (died of wounds) (b. 1894)
- September 23 – Matylda Palfyova, Czechoslovakian artistic gymnast (b. 1912)
- September 25
- September 27
- September 28 – Josef Bürckel, German Nazi gauleiter (b. 1895)
- September 29
- October 1
- October 2
- October 4 – Al Smith, American politician (b. 1873)
- October 5 – Prince Gustav of Denmark (b. 1887)
- October 8 – Wendell Willkie, American politician (b. 1892)
- October 9
- October 12
- October 13
- October 14 – Erwin Rommel, German field marshal (b. 1891)
- October 17 – Anton Hafner, German aviator (b. 1918)
- October 18
- October 19
- October 20
- October 21
- October 22 – Richard Bennett, American actor (b. 1870)
- October 23 – Charles Glover Barkla, British physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1877)
- October 24
- October 25 - Yukio Seki, Japanese kamikaze pilot (b. 1921)
- October 26
- Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom, youngest and last surviving child of Queen Victoria (b. 1857)
- Hiroyoshi Nishizawa, Japanese fighter ace (b. 1920)
- José de la Riva-Agüero y Osma, Peruvian historian, writer and politician, 84th Prime Minister of Peru (b. 1885)
- William Temple, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1881)
- October 27 – Judith Auer, German World War II resistance fighter (b. 1905)
- October 31 – Henrietta Crosman, American actress (b. 1861)
- November 1
- November 2
- November 4 – Sir John Dill, Field Marshal of the British Army (b. 1881)
- November 5 – Alexis Carrel, French surgeon and biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1873)
- November 7
- November 8 – Jane Grey, American actress (b. 1883)
- November 10
- November 12
- November 13
- November 14
- November 16 – Maria Rodziewiczówna, Polish writer (b. 1863)
- November 19 – Ignacio Bolívar, Spanish naturalist and entomologist (b. 1850)
- November 22
- November 25 – Kenesaw Mountain Landis, 1st commissioner of Major League Baseball (b. 1866)
- November 26 – Florence Foster Jenkins, American socialite and singer (b. 1868)
- November 30 – Lilo Gloeden, German resistance member (b. 1903)
- December 1 – Franciszek Pius Radziwiłł, Polish nobleman and activist (b. 1878)
- December 2
- December 3 – Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark (b. 1882)
- December 4 – Roger Bresnahan, American baseball player and member of the MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1879)
- December 9 – Laird Cregar, American actor (b. 1913)
- December 11 – Montgomery Cunningham Meigs, American WWII hero (b. 1919)
- December 12 – Bernard Chrzanowski, Polish activist (b. 1861)
- December 13 – Wassily Kandinsky, Russian-born Polish artist (b. 1866)
- December 14 – Lupe Vélez, Mexican actress (b. 1908)
- December 15 – Glenn Miller, American band leader (accident) (b. 1904)
- December 19 – King Abbas II of Egypt (b. 1874)
- December 20
- December 22 – Harry Langdon, American comedian (b. 1884)
- December 26 – George Bellamy, British actor (b. 1866)
- December 27
- December 30 – Romain Rolland, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1866)
- December 31
- Physics – Isidor Isaac Rabi
- Chemistry – Otto Hahn
- Medicine – Joseph Erlanger, Herbert Spencer Gasser
- Literature – Johannes V. Jensen
- Peace – International Committee of the Red Cross
- Ford, Ken (2004). Cassino 1944: Breaking the Gustav Line. Oxford: Osprey. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-84176-623-2.
- "ГЛАВА XXXVIII. ВОССТАНИЕ ПУШТУНСКИХ ПЛЕМЕН 1944 -1945 ГГ. В". scibook.net. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
- "Convoy Mo-Ta-06 (モタ61船団)" (PDF). All Japan Seamen's Union. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
- "Greatest Maritime Disasters". International Registry of Sunken Ships. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
- "More Maritime Disasters of World War II". George Duncan. Archived from the original on April 4, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
- "List of sunken ships in Pacific War (太平洋戦争時の喪失船舶明細表)" (PDF). Sunken Ships Record Association (戦没船を記録する会). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 2, 2013. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
- Kynaston, David (2007). Austerity Britain 1945–1951. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-7985-4.
- fr:Semaine rouge (Rouen)
- "Convoy Take Ichi" (PDF). All Japan Seamen's Union. Retrieved November 17, 2011.
- Small, Ken; Rogerson, Mark (1988). The Forgotten Dead – Why 946 American Servicemen Died off the Coast of Devon in 1944 – and the Man who Discovered their True Story. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-0309-5.
- Fenton, Ben (April 26, 2004). "The disaster that could have scuppered Overlord". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Savill, Richard (April 26, 2004). "Last of torpedo survivors remembers brave buddies". The Daily Telegraph.
- Wasley, Gerald (1994). Devon at War, 1939–1945. Tiverton: Devon Books. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-86114-885-1.
- "Year by Year 1944" – History Channel International
- Kaiser, Don (2011). "K-Ships Across the Atlantic" (PDF). Naval Aviation News. 93 (2). Retrieved September 23, 2011.
- Asperger, H. (1991) . "'Autistic psychopathy' in childhood". In Frith, Uta (ed.). Autism and Asperger Syndrome. Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–92. ISBN 978-0-521-38448-3.
- Asperger, Hans (June 3, 1944). "Die "Autistischen Psychopathen" im Kindesalter". Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten. 117 (1): 76–136. doi:10.1007/BF01837709. S2CID 33674869.
- Foot, M. R. D. (1999). SOE: An Outline History of the Special Operations Executive 1940–46. London: Pimlico. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-7126-6585-8.
- Stourton, Edward (2017). Auntie's War: the BBC during the Second World War. London: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-857-52332-7.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 978-0-14-102715-9.
- Neufeld, Michael J. (1995). The Rocket and the Reich: Peenemünde and the Coming of the Ballistic Missile Era. New York: The Free Press. pp. 158, 160–162, 190. ISBN 9780029228951.
- "Nikkin Maru - Casualties (日錦丸の被害)" (PDF). All Japan Seamen's Union. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
- 56 F. Supp. 716 (N.D. Cal 1944).
- Radinger, Will; Schick, Walter (1996). Me 262 (in German). Berlin: Avantic Verlag GmbH. ISBN 978-3-925505-21-8.
- Kennedy, Liam (2013). Ulster Since 1600: Politics, Economy, and Society. Oxford University Press. p. 221. ISBN 9780199583119.
- Prose, Francine (August 1, 2014). "Anne Frank's final entry". CNN. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
On Friday, August 4, 1944... a car pulled up in front of a spice warehouse at 263 Prinsengracht in Amsterdam. Inside the car were an Austrian Gestapo officer and his Dutch subordinates, who, acting on a tip-off (whose source has never been identified), had come to arrest the eight Jews who had been hiding for two years in an attic above the warehouse. The eight prisoners were taken to a deportation camp, from where they were sent to Auschwitz. Only one of them, Otto Frank, would survive.
- Cressman, Robert J. (2000). The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in WWII. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-55750-149-3.
- "Convoy Hi-71 (ヒ71船団)" (PDF). All Japan Seamen's Union. Retrieved November 17, 2011.
- Van der Zee, Henri A. (1982). The Hunger Winter: Occupied Holland 1944–5. London: Norman & Hobhouse. ISBN 978-0-906908-71-6.
- van der Kuil, Peter (March 2003). "List of Casualties". The Sinking of the Junyo Maru. Archived from the original on March 12, 2012.
- Larsen, Henry A. (1967). The Big Ship: an autobiography. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.
- "Across the Northwest Passage: The Larsen Expeditions". University of Calgary. Archived from the original on May 6, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "Antwerp, "City of Sudden Death"". V2Rocket.com. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- Fuller, John F. C. (1956). The Decisive Battles of the Western World. III. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode.
- Morison, Samuel E. (1956). "Leyte, June 1944–January 1945". History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. XII. Boston: Little & Brown.
- Gile, Chester A. (February 1963). "The Mount Hood Explosion". Proceedings.
- "Convoy Hi-81 (ヒ81船団)" (PDF). All Japan Seamen's Union. Retrieved November 17, 2011.
- As does Kenneth Branagh reprising the role over forty years later in his successful remake.
- Reed, John (1977). "Largest Wartime Explosions: 21 Maintenance Unit, RAF Fauld, Staffs. November 27, 1944". After the Battle. 18: 35–40. ISSN 0306-154X.
- Cressman, Robert J. (2000). The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in WWII. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-1-55750-149-3.
- "The Sinking of SS Leopoldville". uboat.net. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 392–394. ISBN 978-0-7126-5616-0.
- "Battle of Britain". ww2db.com. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
- Guggisberg, Charles Albert Walter (1961). Simba: the life of the lion. Cape Town: Howard Timmins.
- "BC Zalgiris Kaunas basketball team". Retrieved April 24, 2019.
- Bob Wechsler (2008). Day by Day in Jewish Sports History
- "Biografía de Angelica Maria" [Biography of Angelica Maria]. Buena Musica (in Spanish).
- Bahr, Robert (1979). Least of All Saints: the Story of Aimee Semple McPherson. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-527978-6. OCLC 4493103.
- Frank, Friedrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Otto
- "6 Women Scientists Who Were Snubbed Due to Sexism". National Geographic News. May 19, 2013. Retrieved January 19, 2021.