1945 in Canada

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Years in Canada: 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948
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Years: 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948

Events from the year 1945 in Canada.



Federal government[edit]

Provincial governments[edit]

Lieutenant governors[edit]


Territorial governments[edit]



Two young women standing on Saint Catherine Street in Montreal, reading the front page of The Montreal Daily Star. The title "Germany Quit" announces the German surrender and the impending end of the World War II in Europe.
A V-E Day parade on Sparks Street, Ottawa (May 8, 1945)

Full date unknown[edit]

Arts and literature[edit]



January to March[edit]

April to June[edit]

July to September[edit]

October to December[edit]

Full date unknown[edit]


See also[edit]

Historical Documents[edit]

Platoon leader in 48th Highlanders of Canada describes Battle of Apeldoorn in Netherlands[2]

"A zest to life she has never felt before" - Manitoban nurses "tigers" of 1st Canadian Division in Italy[3]

Food shortage in occupied France, especially in cities but benefiting farmers, accompanied after liberation by high inflation[4]

Winter 1945 is trying for Canadian diplomats Charles Ritchie and Saul Rae and family, living in liberated Paris without fuel[5]

Record of two British mariners killed on Canadian cargo ship sunk in Scottish waters in war's last U-boat attack[6]

Film: newsreel shows U-boats surrendering in North American waters, including off Shelburne, Nova Scotia[7]

"A despondent-looking mob" - Canadian Parachute Battalion finds German soldiers and families eagerly surrender to avoid Russians[8]

"My survival was an absolute miracle" - 14-year-old orphan liberated from Buchenwald concentration camp[9]

Hundreds of children freed from Buchenwald, where several Polish inmates ran school[10]

Agreement on trials of European war criminals, who will return "to the countries in which their abominable deeds were done"[11]

"That vague expression and pose of utter bewilderment" - war artist's painting of lone survivor of bomber crash[12]

Royal Navy electrician posted to Quebec City makes substantial extra pay playing trumpet in Al Bedard's band[13]

War artist Lance-Corporal Molly Lamb's humorous graphic story of saying goodbye to her CWAC comrades[14]

"A friend to the service man and his dependents at home" - New Brunswick MP's election campaign flyer is aimed at military voters[15]

Black Canadian Army private goes to City Hall to challenge segregation policy in four Glasgow dance halls[16]

Returning veterans should have houses and suits, but souvenir firearms are not encouraged[17]

Poster: Information on Canadian production and fighting in later war period[18]

"A steadfast and progressive people, blessed with a bountiful land" - production of energy and farm products in wartime Alberta[19]

To block inflation, Canadians urged to avoid black markets, keep to price controls and "not buy two where one will do"[20]

Discussion guide on women's war effort and future role of women in workplace, home and community[21]

Postwar hurdles that Canadians face and need to discuss include too few people, too little independence, and disunity[22]

Editorial speculates on "Japanese mind" in assessing Japan's crimes, "which no Japanese wants to hear about today"[23]

Protests against transfer of more than half of Japanese Canadians to Japan, with calls for their rehabilitation and rights restoration[24]

PM King explains proposal for peace and security organization (UN), and how it would improve on League of Nations[25]

"Trust the people as to the future" - King believes putting war and UN conference above politics will aid Liberals' re-election[26]

On way to UN conference, diplomat Charles Ritchie labels PM King "the fat little conjurer with his flickering, shifty eyes"[27]

Canadians seek standing equal to their role in victory, but U.S. diplomat says cooperation among four major Allies is complex enough[28]

U.S.A., U.K. and Canada intend to share non-military atomic research with all nations for "an atmosphere of reciprocal confidence"[29]

Soviet embassy clerk Igor Gouzenko defects, "sickened by the evidence of intrigues and espionage directed against Canada"[30]

Film: newsreel of Russian espionage case with shots of Deep River, Ontario "atom bomb plant" and many Mounties[31]

U.S. State Department briefing paper on Britain's (and specifically Churchill's) lack of control over Commonwealth nations[32]

"Anglophobia" in U.S.A. targets U.K. (and Canada, as still part of Empire), hampering postwar economic settlement[33]

Private cars, buses and trucks seized for enormous roadblock during strike by Ford of Canada workers in Windsor, Ont.[34]

Program of Oscar Peterson Trio concert includes works by Chopin, Kreisler, Dvorak, Gershwin, Ellington and Peterson[35]


  1. ^ "Japan bombs Saskatchewan". CBC.ca. Retrieved 2011-03-18.
  2. ^ A.E. Brock, "My Last Battle," WW2 People's War, BBC. Accessed 24 July 2020 https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/user/44/u1698244.shtml
  3. ^ Mary Lyle Benham, "They Stay in the Fight; 'Red Patches' Her Gang - And Woe to Any Critics!" The Winnipeg Tribune, 56th Year, No. 106 (May 3, 1945), pg. 13. Accessed 13 August 2020 https://digitalcollections.lib.umanitoba.ca/islandora/object/uofm:1354506
  4. ^ Roy H. Thomson, "The Puzzling Years Ahead" (April 12, 1945), The Empire Club of Canada Addresses, pgs. 409-26. Accessed 13 August 2020 http://speeches.empireclub.org/60610/data?n=147
  5. ^ Charles Ritchie, The Siren Years: A Canadian Diplomat Abroad, 1937-1945, pg. 185, quoted in Pat Barclay, Charles Ritchie and the English Diary Tradition (1987), pgs. 144-7 (PDF pgs. 154-8). Accessed 13 August 2020 https://knowledgecommons.lakeheadu.ca/bitstream/2453/1775/1/BarclayP1987m-1b.pdf
  6. ^ "Avondale Park; Canadian Steam Merchant," Ships Hit by U-boats, uboat.net. Accessed 7 August 2020 https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/ship/3512.html
  7. ^ "Uboat Surrender - film clip," "'An East Coast Port;' Halifax in Wartime, 1939-1945," Nova Scotia Archives. Accessed 10 August 2020 https://novascotia.ca/archives/eastcoastport/films.asp?ID=4427
  8. ^ Historical Section (G.S.), Army Headquarters, "The 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion in the Low Countries and in Germany" (Report No. 17, October 27, 1947), paras. 64-5, pgs. 31-2. Accessed 24 July 2020 https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/themes/defence/caf/militaryhistory/dhh/reports/ahq-reports/ahq017.pdf
  9. ^ Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre, "Photograph: Buchenwald, April 1945," Open Hearts - Closed Doors: The War Orphans Project; Liberation, pg. 6. Accessed 10 August 2020 http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/sgc-cms/expositions-exhibitions/orphelins-orphans/english/themes/pdf/the_liberation.pdf (turn to pg. 6)
  10. ^ WNS, "Buchenwald Yields 4,500 Including 1000 Children," Jewish Western Bulletin, Vol. XIII, No. 9 (May 4, 1945), pg. 4. Accessed 11 August 2020 https://newspapers.lib.sfu.ca/jwb-49775/page-4
  11. ^ "Agreement for the Prosecution and Punishment of the Major War Criminals of the European Axis,[...]8 August 1945," Treaties, States Parties and Commentaries, International Committee of the Red Cross. Accessed 12 August 2020 https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/52d68d14de6160e0c12563da005fdb1b/59e5a3f396d98cc3c125641e00405ea7
  12. ^ Letter of Eric Aldwinckle (June 1, 1945), pgs. 4-5. Accessed 10 August 2020 http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/pw20c/case-study/creative-dialogue-across-ocean-eric-aldwinckles-letters-harry-somers?page=15 (scroll down to 1 June); relevant pages: http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/pw20c/aldwinckle-eric-letter-1-june-1945-2 http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/pw20c/aldwinckle-eric-letter-16-june-1945 (note: pg. 5 from the June 1 letter is mislabelled June 16); The Survivor: http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/sites/default/files/pw20c_images/00001881.jpg
  13. ^ "Sidecar" (Stan Dibben), "VE and VJ Days in Canada," WW2 People's War, BBC. Accessed 24 July 2020 https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/stories/28/a4413728.shtml
  14. ^ Molly Lamb Bobak, "Girl fails to avoid sordid end" (March 27, 1945), "W110278" the Personal War Records of Private Lamb, M., pg. 165. Accessed 31 July 2020 https://collectionscanada.gc.ca/pam_archives/index.php?fuseaction=genitem.displayItem&lang=eng&rec_nbr=3665121
  15. ^ Letter and flyer of Alfred J. Brooks, "The Man For Royal (Kings and Queens) Service Men and Women to Vote For" (May 1, 1945). Accessed 10 August 2020 http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/MOP/english/ww2/dosearch.asp?browse=3&results=50&all=true (scroll down to Alfred J. Brooks)
  16. ^ The (U.K.) League of Coloured Peoples, "17. Dance Hall Colour Bar Challenged - 'Daily Worker' of 13th September," News Letter, Vol. XIII, No. 73 (October 1945), pg. 19. Accessed 24 July 2020 http://www.movinghere.org.uk/search/..\deliveryfiles\BL\025NWLT194510\0\7.pdf
  17. ^ "Rehab Roundup," Civvy Street News, No. 21 (October 1945), in Canadian Affairs, Vol. 2, No. 16 (Canadian Edition, 1945), inserted between pgs. 10 and 11. Accessed 29 July 2020 http://wartimecanada.ca/document/world-war-ii/peace/canadian-affairs-learning-living
  18. ^ Industrial Information Section, Wartime Information Board, "Wallnews, Feb. 1945. Canadian guns first-rate ... RCAF 'Lankys' bomb Ruhr[...]" (1945). Accessed 24 July 2020 https://digitalcollections.hoover.org/objects/11422/wallnews-feb-1945-canadian-guns-firstrate--rcaf-lank
  19. ^ Calgary Brewing and Malting Co., "The Miracle of Wartime Production in Alberta" (1945). Accessed 10 August 2020 http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/bibliography/10760.html
  20. ^ The Brewing Industry (Ontario), "The Canadian Way of Life ... 'where the heart is!'" The Canadian Jewish Review, Vol. XXVII, No. 29 (April 20, 1945), pg. 9. Accessed 11 August 2020 https://newspapers.lib.sfu.ca/mcc-cjr-15857/page-9
  21. ^ Renée Morin, "Women after the War," Canadian Affairs, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Canadian Edition, March 1, 1945). Accessed 29 July 2020 http://wartimecanada.ca/document/world-war-ii/reconstruction/women-after-war
  22. ^ "Canadian Hurdles," Looking Ahead (Canadian Post-War Affairs Discussion Manual No. 4; August 1945). Accessed 29 July 2020 http://wartimecanada.ca/document/world-war-ii/reconstruction/looking-ahead-canadian-hurdles
  23. ^ "The Case Against Japan," The Winnipeg Tribune, 56th Year, No. 215 (September 7, 1945), pg. 6. Accessed 12 August 2020 https://digitalcollections.lib.umanitoba.ca/islandora/object/uofm:2166561
  24. ^ "Movement to Japan to Start" and "Protest Repatriation of Japanese Canadians," Granada Pioneer, Vol. III, No. 91 (Final Edition; Amache, Colorado, September 15, 1945), pg. 9. Accessed 15 February 2020 https://www.loc.gov/resource/sn83025522/1945-09-15/ed-1/?sp=10
  25. ^ W.L. Mackenzie King, "San Francisco Conference; Proposed General International Organization for Maintenance of Peace and Security" (March 20, 1945) House of Commons Debates, 19th Parliament, 6th Session: Vol. 1, pgs. 24-7. Accessed 14 August 2020 http://parl.canadiana.ca/view/oop.debates_HOC1906_20/36?r=0&s=1
  26. ^ William Lyon Mackenzie King Diary for 1945 (March 21), pg. 268. Accessed 14 August 2020 https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/politics-government/prime-ministers/william-lyon-mackenzie-king/Pages/item.aspx?IdNumber=28147
  27. ^ Charles Ritchie, "Diary of a Quiet Diplomat," Macleans (November 1, 1974). Accessed 13 August 2020 https://archive.macleans.ca/article/1974/11/1/diary-of-a-quiet-diplomat (scroll down to April 21, 1945)
  28. ^ United States Department of State, "The Assistant Chief of the Division of British Commonwealth Affairs (Parsons) to the Ambassador in Canada (Atherton)" (May 4, 1945), Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers, 1945; European Advisory Commission, Austria, Germany, pgs. 271-3. Accessed 12 August 2020 http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?type=turn&id=FRUS.FRUS1945v03&entity=FRUS.FRUS1945v03.p0281
  29. ^ "Atomic Energy; Agreed Declaration by the President of the United States, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and the Prime Minister of Canada" (November 15, 1945), in Gill Bennett and Richard Smith (eds.), Britain and the Making of the Post-War World (Documents from the British Archives: No. 1; 2020), pgs. 164-6. Accessed 26 July 2020 https://e.issuu.com/issuu-reader3-embed-files/latest/twittercard.html?u=fcohistorians&d=britain_and_the_making_of_the_post-war_world_with_&p=172
  30. ^ Royal Canadian Mounted Police ("apparently"), "Corby" (September 1945), in Gill Bennett and Richard Smith (eds.), Britain and the Making of the Post-War World (Documents from the British Archives: No. 1; 2020), pgs. 110-12. Accessed 26 July 2020 https://e.issuu.com/issuu-reader3-embed-files/latest/twittercard.html?u=fcohistorians&d=britain_and_the_making_of_the_post-war_world_with_&p=118
  31. ^ British Pathé, "Espionage Found In Canada" (1946). Accessed 27 July 2020 https://www.britishpathe.com/video/VLVA1MCWI99DUW0RIKVO3OU7BLZD2-ESPIONAGE-FOUND-IN-CANADA
  32. ^ United States Department of State, "No. 223; Briefing Book Paper; Britain as Member of the 'Big Three'" (July 2, 1945), General Background Reports, Foreign Relations of the United States; Diplomatic Papers; The Conference of Berlin (The Potsdam Conference), 1945; Volume I, pgs. 253-5. Accessed 12 August 2020 http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?type=turn&id=FRUS.FRUS1945Berlinv01&entity=FRUS.FRUS1945Berlinv01.p0385
  33. ^ D.W. Brogan, "U.S. Suspicions of Britain; Misunderstanding of Empire Position," The Glasgow Herald, 163rd Year, No. 232 (September 29, 1945), pg. 4. Accessed 24 July 2020 https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=GGgVawPscysC&dat=19450929&printsec=frontpage&hl=en
  34. ^ Walter W. Ruch, "12,000 Defy Police in Windsor Strike," The New York Times (November 7, 1945), pgs. 1, 4. Accessed 12 August 2020 https://projects.windsorpubliclibrary.com/digi/sar/part6.htm (scroll down to Excerpt from The New York Times)
  35. ^ "Glebe Collegiate Institute Auditorium; Wednesday, December 5th, 1945; Oscar Peterson and His Jazz Trio" Accessed 12 August 2020 https://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/206/301/lac-bac/oscar_peterson-ef/www.lac-bac.gc.ca/4/2/m3-7042-e.html