1945 in Germany
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|See also:||Other events of 1945
List of years in Germany
Events in the year 1945 in Germany. Many events took place in 1945. Including the change of the geographical map of Germany
Head of State:
- Adolf Hitler (the Führer) (Nazi Party) until 30 April, then Karl Dönitz (President) (Nazi Party) to 23 May, then none
- Adolf Hitler (Nazi Party) until 30 April, then Joseph Goebbels (Nazi Party) until 1 May, then from 2 May Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk (leading minister) (non-partisan conservative) to 23 May, then none
- January — American troops cross the Siegfried Line into Belgium.
- 6 January - More than 80,000 Jews held captive by the Nazis are freed in Budapest, Hungary, by Russian soldiers.
- 12 January — WWII: The Soviet Union begins the Vistula-Oder Offensive in Eastern Europe against the Nazis.
- 14 January - Eastern Germany is invaded by Russian troops.
- 18 January - 66,000 Jewish prisoners are evacuated from Auschwitz by the Nazis.
- 20 January — WWII: The Soviet Union occupies Warsaw.
- 20 January — The Holocaust: The evacuation of Auschwitz concentration camp begins.
- 27 January — The Holocaust: The Red Army liberates the Auschwitz and Birkenau death camps.
- 30 January — The Wilhelm Gustloff, with over 10,000 mainly civilian Germans from Gotenhafen (Gdynia) in the Gdansk Bay, is sunk by three torpedoes from the Soviet submarine S-13 in the Baltic Sea; up to 9,400 are thought to have died – the greatest loss of life in a single ship sinking in war action in history.
- 3 February - WWII: Largest-ever USAAF daylight bombing raid on Berlin carried out by one thousand bombers and nearly 600 escort fighters of the Eighth Air Force
- 8 February - WWII: A combined British and Canadian front, consisting of 50,000 soldiers with 500 tanks and 1,034 guns, enters Reichswald, southeast of Nijmegen.
- 9 February — WWII: "Black Friday": A force of Allied Bristol Beaufighter aircraft suffers heavy casualties in an unsuccessful attack on German destroyer Z33 and escorting vessels sheltering in Førde Fjord, Norway.
- 10 February — WWII: The SS General von Steuben is sunk by the Soviet submarine S-13.
- 12 February - WWII: The British/Canadian front liberates Cleve, in western Germany.
- 13 February — WWII: Soviet forces capture Budapest, Hungary from the Nazis.
- 13 February — WWII: Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Forces begin bombing of Dresden, Germany. Over the next three days, more than 3,900 tons of high-explosive bombs and incendiary devices are dropped on the city. The resulting firestorm destroys fifteen square miles (39 square kilometres) of the city center. Between 22,000 and 25,000 people are killed in a controversial attack.
- 14 February - WWII: The British/Canadian front reaches the Rhine
- 21 February — The last V-2-rocket is launched from Peenemünde.
- March — Anne Frank, dies in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, Lower Saxony, Germany, of typhus.
- 2 March — The Bachem Ba 349 Natter is launched from Stetten am kalten Markt. The Natter is the first manned rocket, developed as anti-aircraft weapon. The launch fails and the pilot dies.
- 3 March — WWII: A possible experimental atomic test blast occurs at the Nazis' Ohrdruf military testing area.
- 3 March - WWII: Units of the Canadian First Army capture Xanten
- 7 March — WWII: American troops seize the bridge over the Rhine River at Remagen, Germany and begin to cross.
- 19 March — WWII: Adolf Hitler orders that all industries, military installations, machine shops, transportation facilities and communications facilities in Germany be destroyed.
- 24 March — WWII: Operation Varsity: Two airborne divisions capture bridges across the Rhine River to aid the Allied advance.
- 4 April — WWII: American troops liberate their first Nazi concentration camp, Ohrdruf death camp in Germany.
- 6 April — WWII: Sarajevo is liberated from Nazi Germany and Nazi Croatia (German puppet state) by the Yugoslav Partisans.
- 7 April — WWII: The only flight of the German ramming unit known as the Sonderkommando Elbe takes place, resulting in the loss of some 24 B-17s and B-24s of the United States Eighth Air Force.
- 10 April — WWII: The Allied Forces liberate the Nazi concentration camp, Buchenwald.
- 15 April — The Bergen-Belsen concentration camp is liberated by British forces.
- 22 April — Heinrich Himmler, through Count Bernadotte, puts forth an offer of German surrender to the Western Allies, but not the Soviet Union.
- 23 April - Russian troops reach Berlin.
- 24 April — Retreating German troops destroy all the bridges over the Adige in Verona, including the historical Ponte di Castelvecchio and Ponte Pietra.
- 25 April — WWII: Elbe Day: United States and Soviet troops link up at the Elbe River, cutting Germany in two.
- 26 April — Battle of Bautzen (World War II): The last "successful" German panzer-offensive in Bautzen ends with the city recaptured.
- 27 April — The Western Allies flatly reject any offer of surrender by Germany other than unconditional on all fronts.
- 29 April — Adolf Hitler marries his longtime mistress Eva Braun in a closed civil ceremony in the Berlin Führerbunker, on the same day that American forces liberate Dachau.
- 30 April — Adolf Hitler and his wife of one day, Eva Braun, commit suicide as the Red Army approaches the Führerbunker in Berlin. Karl Dönitz succeeds Hitler as President of Germany; Joseph Goebbels succeeds Hitler as Chancellor of Germany. On the same day, some 33,000 Jews are freed from concentration camps by American troops.
- 1 May — WWII: Hamburg Radio announces that Hitler has died in battle, "fighting up to his last breath against Bolshevism."
- 1 May — Joseph Goebbels and his wife commit suicide after killing their six children. Karl Dönitz appoints Count Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk as the new Chancellor of Germany.
- 1 May - Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt is captured by US troops
- 1 May — Mass suicide in Demmin after Soviet troops capture the town and commit atrocities (murders, mass rapes, etc.) on the civilians in retaliation for the killing of some Soviet soldiers there. More than 700 German civilians hang, poison, cut, or drown themselves and loved ones in a panic.
- 2 May — WWII: The Soviet Union announces the fall of Berlin. Soviet soldiers hoist the Red flag over the Reich Chancellery.
- 3 May — WWII: The prison ships Cap Arcona, Thielbek and Deutschland are sunk by the RAF in Lübeck Bay.
- 3 May — Rocket scientist Wernher von Braun and 120 members of his team surrender to U.S. forces (later going on to help to start the U.S. space program).
- 3 May — German Protestant theologian Gerhard Kittel is arrested by the French forces in Tübingen, Germany.
- 4 May — WWII: The concentration camp Neuengamme near Hamburg is liberated by the British Army.
- 4 May — WWII: The North German army surrenders to Marshal Bernard Montgomery.
- 4 May — WWII: Holland is liberated by British and Canadian troops. German forces officially surrender one day later.
- 5 May — WWII: Denmark is liberated. German forces officially surrender one day later.
- 5 May — WWII: Prague rises up against the Nazis.
- 5 May — WWII: The US 11th Armored Division liberates the prisoners of Mauthausen concentration camp, including Simon Wiesenthal.
- 5 May — WWII: Canadian soldiers liberate the city of Amsterdam from Nazi occupation.
- 5 May — WWII: Admiral Karl Dönitz orders all U-boats to cease offensive operations and return to their bases.
- 7 May — WWII: General Alfred Jodl signs unconditional surrender terms at Reims, France, ending Germany's participation in the war. The document takes effect the next day.
- 8 May — WWII: V-E Day (Victory in Europe, as Nazi Germany surrenders) commemorates the end of WWII in Europe, with the final surrender being to the Soviets in Berlin, attended by representatives of the Western Powers.
- 9 May — WWII: Hermann Göring is captured by the United States Army.
- 9 May — WWII: General Alexander Löhr, Commander of German Army Group E near Topolšica, Slovenia, signs the capitulation of German occupation troops.
- 9 May — WWII: The German occupation of the Channel Islands ends with the liberation by British troops.
- 16 May — WWII: Alderney camps, an annex of the concentration camp Neuengamme, is liberated.
- 23 May — President of Germany Karl Dönitz and Chancellor of Germany Count Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk are arrested by British forces at Flensburg. They are respectively the last German Head of state and Head of government until 1949.
- 23 May — Heinrich Himmler, former head of the Nazi SS, commits suicide in British custody.
- 24 May - Field marshal Robert Ritter von Greim commander of the Luftwaffe in the last days of the Third Reich, commits suicide.
- 29 May — German communists, led by Walther Ulbricht, arrive in Berlin.
- 5 June — The Allied Control Council, military occupation governing body of Germany, formally takes power.
- 1 July — WWII: Germany is divided between the Allied occupation forces.
- 16 July — A train collision near Munich kills 102 war prisoners.
- 16 November — Cold War: The United States controversially imports 88 German scientists to help in the production of rocket technology.
- 20 November — The Nuremberg Trials begin: Trials against 24 Nazi war criminals of WWII start at the Nuremberg Palace of Justice.
- 30 December Hitler's will is found, confirming his intention of committing suicide.
- 2 February — Robert Atzorn, German actor
- 8 March — Anselm Kiefer, German painter
- 7 April — Werner Schroeter, German film director (died 2010)
- 9 May - Jupp Heynckes, German football player and football trainer
- 21 May — Ernst Messerschmid, German physicist and astronaut
- 31 May — Rainer Werner Fassbinder, German film director (died 1982)
- 9 June — Nike Wagner, German woman of the theater
- 14 June — Jörg Immendorff, German painter (died 2007)
- 15 July — Jürgen Möllemann, German politician (died 2003)
- 14 August — Wim Wenders, German film director and producer
- 11 September — Franz Beckenbauer, German footballer and coach
- 3 November — Gerd Müller, German footballer
- 7 February — Halfdan Jønsson, Norwegian trade unionist (born 1891).
- 15 February — Helmut Möckel, youth leader and politician (born 1909)
- 21 February — Adolf Brand, German writer (born 1874)
- 3 February — Roland Freisler, Nazi German judge (born 1893)
- March — Anne Frank, German-born Jewish diarist (typhus) (born 1929)
- March — Margot Frank, Anne Frank's old sister (born 1926)
- 16 March — Börries von Münchhausen, German poet (born 1874)
- 19 March — Friedrich Fromm, German Nazi official (born 1888)
- 31 March — Hans Fischer, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1881)
- April — Auguste van Pels, German-Jewish housemate of Anne Frank (born 1900)
- 9 April — Dietrich Bonhoeffer, German theologian (hanged by Nazis) (born 1906)
- 9 April — Wilhelm Canaris, head of the German Abwehr (hanged by Nazis) (born 1887)
- 22 April — Käthe Kollwitz, German artist (born 1867)
- 24 April — Ernst-Robert Grawitz, German Reichsphysician (S.S. and Police) in the Third Reich (born 1899)
- 30 April — Adolf Hitler, Austrian-born German Nazi dictator (suicide) (born 1889)
- 30 April — Eva Braun, German wife of Adolf Hitler (suicide) (born 1912)
- 1 May — Joseph Goebbels, German Nazi propagandist (suicide) (born 1897)
- 1 May — Magda Goebbels, wife of Joseph Goebbels (suicide) (born 1901)
- 2 May — Martin Bormann, German Nazi leader (suicide) (born 1900)
- 5 May — Peter van Pels, German-Jewish love interest of diarist Anne Frank (born 1926)
- 8 May — Ernst-Günther Baade, German general (gangrene) (born 1897)
- 8 May — Wilhelm Rediess, SS and Police Leader of Nazi-occupied Norway (suicide) (born 1900)
- 8 May — Josef Terboven, Reichskommissar of Nazi-occupied Norway (suicide) (born 1898)
- 8 May — Bernhard Rust, Education Minister of Nazi Germany (suicide) (born 1883)
- 19 May — Philipp Bouhler, German Nazi leader (suicide) (born 1899)
- 20 May — Otto von Feldmann, Army officer (born 1873)
- 23 May — Heinrich Himmler, German head of the SS (suicide) (born 1900)
- 20 September — Eduard Wirths, German doctor, chief SS doctor at Auschwitz concentration camp (suicide) (born 1909)
- September 24 — Hans Geiger, German physicist (born 1882)
- 9 October — Gottlieb Hering, German Nazi concentration camp commandant (born 1887)
- 25 October — Robert Ley, German Nazi politician (suicide) (born 1890)
- 8 November — August von Mackensen, German field marshal (born 1849)