1947 in science
Jump to navigation Jump to search
- August 7 – Thor Heyerdahl's balsa-wood raft, the Kon-Tiki, smashes into the reef at Raroia in the Tuamotu Islands after a 101-day, 4300-mile (6900-km) journey across the Pacific Ocean, demonstrating that prehistoric peoples could have traveled from South America.
Astronomy and space exploration
- February 12 – Sikhote-Alin meteorite falls to earth in Siberia, the largest iron meteorite known to have impacted.
- February 20 – The first living things sent into space (and returned) are fruit flies, accompanied by rye and cotton seeds, aboard a V-2 rocket launched by the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps which reaches an altitude of 68 miles (109 km).
- Bok globules are reported.
- The Oxford Swift Research Project, based on the colony at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, is started by David and Elizabeth Lack. It will still be running more than sixty years later.
- David Lack publishes Darwin's Finches.
- Zika virus first isolated from a rhesus macaque in the Zika Forest of Uganda.
- January 25 – Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann file a United States patent request for an invention described as a "cathode ray tube amusement device", probably the first video game.
- July 29 – After being shut off on November 9, 1946, for a refurbishment, ENIAC, one of the world's first digital computers, is turned on after a memory upgrade. It will remain in continuous operation until October 2, 1955.
- August 18 – Official start of construction of Automatic Computing Engine in the United Kingdom.
- September 9 – A moth lodged in a relay is found to be the cause of a malfunction in the Harvard Mark II electromechanical computer, logged as "First actual case of bug being found."
- October – First recorded use of the word computer in its modern sense, referring to an electronic digital machine.
- The first antithyroid drug, propylthiouracil, is introduced in the United States.
- The first use of defibrillation on a human subject is performed by Claude Beck, professor of surgery at Case Western Reserve University.
- Mary Barber publishes her classic paper on antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus bacteria.
- April 18 – "Mrs. Ples" (STS 5), the most complete skull of an Australopithecus africanus specimen ever found in South Africa, is discovered at Sterkfontein by Robert Broom and John T. Robinson.
- June – The Doomsday Clock of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is introduced.
- June 2 – The Shelter Island Conference on the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics convenes in New York.
- August 15 – 'GLEEP' (the Graphite Low Energy Experimental Pile) experimental nuclear reactor runs for the first time at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Oxfordshire, the first reactor to operate in Western Europe.
- December 20 – the discovery of kaon is published in the Nature journal.
- February 21 – Edwin H. Land demonstrates the first practical instant camera, the Land Camera, in New York. It will first be on commercial sale in December 1948.
- November – Prototype AK-47 selective-fire, gas-operated assault rifle produced in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.
- November 17–December 23 – John Bardeen and Walter Brattain working under William Shockley at AT&T's Bell Labs in the United States demonstrate the transistor effect.
- December 11 – A hexagonal cellular telephone network is proposed by Douglas H. Ring and W. Rae Young of Bell Labs for mobile phones in vehicles.
- The clavioline is invented by Constant Martin.
- The disposable nappy is invented by Valerie Hunter Gordon.
- Nobel Prizes
- January 24 – Michio Kaku, American theoretical physicist and popularizer of science.
- January 29 – Linda B. Buck, American biologist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2004.
- March 16 – Keith Devlin, English-born mathematician and popularizer of science.
- May 9 – Michael Levitt, South African-born computational biologist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 2013.
- July 5 – Lalji Singh, Indian biotechnologist and cytogeneticist.
- August 21 – Margaret Chan, Hong Kong-born physician.
- December 16 – Martyn Poliakoff, British chemist and popularizer of science.
- Stuart W. Jamieson, Rhodesian-born cardiothoracic surgeon.
- February 25 – Friedrich Paschen (born 1865), German physicist.
- August 23 – Roy Chadwick (born 1893), English aircraft designer (aircraft accident).
- September 15 – Annie Maunder (born 1868), Anglo Irish astronomer.
- October 2 – P. D. Ouspensky (born 1878), Russian-born philosopher.
- October 4 – Max Planck (born 1858), German quantum physicist.
- December 1
- December 17 – J. N. Brønsted (born 1879), Danish physical chemist.
- "Wood Raft Makes 4,300-Mile Voyage". This Day in History. BBC. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
- Orton, O. Richard (1998). Rocks From Space (2nd ed.). Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press Publishing. p. 103. ISBN 0-87842-373-7.
- "Upper Air Rocket Summary V-2 No. 20". Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "The Beginnings of Research in Space Biology at the Air Force Missile Development Center, 1946-1952". History of Research in Space Biology and Biodynamics. NASA. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "V-2 Firing Tables". White Sands Missile Range. Archived from the original on 2008-01-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Bok, Bart J.; Reilly, Edith F. (March 1947). "Small Dark Nebulae". The Astrophysical Journal. 105: 255. Bibcode:1947ApJ...105..255B. doi:10.1086/144901.
- "The swifts in the tower". Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
- Lack, Andrew; Overall, Roy (2002). The Museum Swifts: the story of the swifts in the tower of the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Oxford University Museum of Natural History. ISBN 0-9542726-0-9.
- US 2455992 Granted 14 December 1948.
- "July 29, 1947". Britannica. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
- "bug:n". The Jargon File. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- "Log Book With Computer Bug". National Museum of American History. Retrieved 2013-01-16.
- "computer, n". Oxford English Dictionary online version. Oxford University Press. September 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-29. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Murty, Katta G. (1983). Linear programming. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-09725-X. MR 0720547.
- Dantzig, George B. (2003). Cottle, Richard W, ed. The Basic George B. Dantzig. Stanford University Press.
- Dantzig, George B.; Thapa, Mukund N. (1997). Linear programming 1: Introduction. Springer.
- Dantzig, George B.; Thapa, Mukund N. (2003). Linear Programming 2: Theory and Extensions. Springer.
- Todd, Michael J. (February 2002). "The many facets of linear programming". Mathematical Programming. 91 (3): 417–436. doi:10.1007/s101070100261.
- Computing in Science and Engineering 2(1) (2000).
- Skugor, Mario; Wilder, Jesse Bryant (2009). The Cleveland Clinic Guide to Thyroid Disorders. New York: Kaplan Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-4277-9969-2. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- "Claude Beck, defibrillation and CPR". Case Western Reserve University. 2010. Retrieved 2012-06-13.
- Barber, Mary (1947-11-29). "Staphylococcal Infection due to Penicillin-Resistant Strains". British Medical Journal. 2 (4534): 863–865. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4534.863. PMC 2056216. PMID 20272443.
- Pennington, Hugh (2010-02-09). "Rooting out the villains". Public Service.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-02-28. Retrieved 2012-12-06.
- Haines, Catharine M. C. (2001). International Women in Science: A Biographical Dictionary to 1950. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-090-5.
- "The Shelter Island Conference". The National Academies. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
- "November 17 – December 23, 1947: Invention of the First Transistor". American Physical Society. Retrieved 2013-01-16.
- Ring, D. H. (1947-12-11). "Mobile Telephony - Wide Area Coverage" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-06-20. Retrieved 2018-07-10.
- "Nobel Laureates 1947." Nobelprize.
- GRO Register of Deaths: December 1947 4a 204 Cambridge – Godfrey H. Hardy, aged 70.