From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of
aviation-related events from 1948:
Nevil Shute's novel set in the world of research into No Highway air safety. The
United States Air Force has 20,800 aircraft, about half of them combat aircraft, down from 68,400 aircraft at the end of World War II in 1945. U.S. Air Force personnel strength stands at 387,000. [1 ] The
United States ' inventory of atomic bombs reaches 50 weapons during the year. Each requires two days to assemble for use, and by mid-1948 the United States has only two bomb assembly teams. Faced with deep disagreement within the
United States Armed Forces over their appropriate roles in national defense, United States Secretary of Defense James V. Forrestal orders Chief of Staff of the United States Army General Omar N. Bradley, Chief of Naval Operations Louis E. Denfield, and Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force General Carl A. Spaatz to meet at Key West, Florida, in March and at Newport, Rhode Island, in August to determine "who will do what with what." A proposal that the U.S. Air Force take responsibility for strategic air warfare and that the United States Navy "conduct...air operations necessary for the accomplishments of objectives in a naval campaign" and participate in an overall air campaign "as directed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff" fails when the Air Force insists on clear and exclusive control of the strategic role and the Navy refuses to agree. [3 ] Summer – American intelligence analysts forecast that in 1957 the
Soviet Union will have 15,000 combat aircraft.
January [ edit ]
January 6 – An
Air France Douglas DC-3D (registration F-BAXC) strikes trees during an approach in bad weather to Paris-Le Bourget Airport in Paris, France, and crashes in Gonesse, killing all 16 people on board. [5 ] January 7 – Both engines of a
Coastal Air Lines Douglas C-47A-20-DK Skytrain (registration NC60331) shut down during a flight from Raleigh-Durham Airport in North Carolina to Miami, Florida. While the crew attempts to glide the aircraft to an emergency landing in a marsh, the aircraft stalls, crashes north-northeast of Savannah, Georgia, and breaks in two, killing 18 of the 27 people on board. [6 ] January 11 – After a
Dominicana de Aviación Douglas C-47-DL Skytrain (registration HI-6) carrying the B.B.C. Santiago baseball team home on a domestic flight in the Dominican Republic from Barahona to Santiago de los Caballeros encounters bad weather, its crew makes a navigational error while attempting to divert to Ciudad Trujillo. The aircraft crashes into a mountain near Yamasá, killing all 32 people on board. [6 ] January 17 –
BOAC begins to replace its Boeing 314 flying boats with the Lockheed Constellation on the Baltimore, Maryland-to- Bermuda route. January 20 – A
China National Aviation Corporation (CNAC) Curtiss C-46 Commando evacuating people from Mukden, China, crashes while taking off from Mukden Airport in a snowstorm, killing 11 of the 54 people on board. [7 ] January 29 – An Airline Transport Carriers
Douglas C-47B-40-DK Skytrain under contract to the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service crashes in the Diablo Mountains west of Coalinga, California, killing all 32 people on board. Among the dead are 28 Mexican migrant farm workers being deported to Mexico, leading singer-songwriter Woody Guthrie to write the protest song " Deportee (Plane Wreck at Los Gatos)." January 30
February [ edit ]
Two specially modified
Gloster Meteors begin carrier trials aboard HMS . Implacable
Pacific Ocean Airlines discontinues operations. [12 ] April 3 –
Alitalia launches its first postwar service from Italy ( Rome-Ciampino) to the United Kingdom ( London 's Northolt Aerodrome). April 5 – A
Soviet Air Force Yakovlev Yak-3 fighter harassing aircraft flying into West Berlin during the Berlin Blockade collides with a British European Airways Vickers VC.1B Viking airliner as it is levelling off to land at RAF Gatow in West Berlin. Both aircraft crash, killing the fighter pilot and all 14 people aboard the airliner and leading to a diplomatic standoff between the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom and United States. April 15 – The
Pan American World Airways Lockheed L-1049C-55-81 Super Constellation Clipper Empress of the Skies, operating as Flight 1-10, crashes short of the runway at Shannon Airport in Shannon, Ireland, killing 30 of the 31 people on board and leaving the lone survivor injured. April 17 – The U.S.
Joint Chiefs of Staff inform the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission that the United States must establish a stockpile of atomic weapons if the United States Armed Forces are to sustain an immediate air offensive against the Soviet Union in the event of war. April 18 – The
flag carrier of Cyprus, Cyprus Airways, begins flight operations, using three Douglas DC-3 airliners flown by British pilots from British European Airways (BEA) to offer service from Nicosia to Athens, Beirut, Cairo, Haifa, Istanbul, London, and Rome. April 21
April 26 – During a dive, a
North American YP-86 flown by George Welch becomes the first American fighter aircraft to exceed Mach 1. [13 ] April 28 – The U.S. Navy launches two P2V-3C Neptune aircraft – a version of the
P2V configured for carrier launch carrying a nuclear weapon – from the aircraft carrier USS off the coast of Coral Sea (CVB-43) Virginia. The first carrier launches of any type of P2V, they establish the U.S. Navy 's first, interim carrier-based nuclear strike capability pending the acquisition of aircraft designed from the outset to be capable of carrying a nuclear weapon from a carrier. [14 ] April 28–29 –
Leonardo Bonzi and Maner Lualdi set a light plane distance record of 4,170 km (2,590 mi) flying from Campoformido (Italy) to Massawa ( Eritrea) in an Ambrosini S.1001.
May 13 –
Peter Wentworth-Fitzwilliam, 8th Earl Fitzwilliam, and Kathleen Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington, the sister of future U.S. President John F Kennedy, are among the dead when a de Havilland Dove 1 (registration G-AJOU) crashes in violent weather in Saint-Bauzile, Ardèche, France, killing all four people on board. May 15 – The
Royal Egyptian Air Force attacks Tel Aviv. The Israeli Air Force retaliates by striking Arab troops near Samakh. May 22 – Royal Egyptian Air Force (REAF)
Supermarine Spitfire Mark IXs conduct three attacks against the Royal Air Force's (RAF's) Ramat David Airbase near Haifa in the newly declared State of Israel. Their first attack destroys two British Spitfires on the ground and damages eight others, and in their second attack they shoot down a Douglas Dakota while it is landing, killing four men on board. Their third attack is ineffective and loses one Spitfire to ground fire and four others to Spitfires of the RAF's No. 208 Squadron flying combat air patrol over the base. The REAF later claims that its pilots mistook the airbase for the Israeli Air Force base at Megiddo Airport, although the Israelis did not yet operate Spitfires. [15 ] May 28 – The
Royal Netherlands Navy commissions its first fleet aircraft carrier, HNLMS , which formerly had served in the British Karel Doorman (R81) Royal Navy as HMS . She replaces the first Dutch carrier, the Venerable escort carrier HNLMS . Karel Doorman (QH1) May 29 – Former
United States Marine Corps pilot Lou Lenart, flying one of the four Avia S-199s that make up the Israeli Air Force's only fighter squadron, leads an air attack against an Egyptian Army ground column threatening Tel Aviv, forcing it to turn back short of the city. He is hailed as "The Man Who Saved Tel Aviv." [16 ]
United States Air Force changes its designation for its fighter aircraft from P (for "pursuit") to F (for "fighter") and its designation for its ground-attack aircraft from A (for "attack") to B (for " bomber"). June 1
June 4 –
Philippine Airlines begins the first transpacific sleeper service, using Douglas DC-6 airliners between San Francisco, California, and Manila in the Philippine Islands. [12 ] June 8 –
Air-India commences a regular Bombay- London service by Lockheed Constellation. June 17 – The
Douglas DC-6 Mainliner Utah (NC37506), operating as United Airlines Flight 624, crashes near Aristes, Pennsylvania, killing all 43 people on board. American theatrical producer, director, songwriter, and composer Earl Carroll and American singer, dancer, and actress Beryl Wallace are among the dead. [20 ] June 26 – The
Berlin Airlift begins, with U.S. Air Force, Royal Air Force, and British civil transport aircraft carrying supplies into West Berlin. June 28 –
Royal Air Force Squadron Leader Basil Arkel sets a new helicopter speed record of 124 mph (200 km/h) in a Fairey Gyrodyne.
The U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff request that the United States establish an inventory of 150 atomic bombs for use against 100 urban targets in the event of war with the Soviet Union.
July 1 – With the transfer of its assets to the new
Military Air Transportation Service completed, the U.S. Navy 's Naval Air Transport Service is disestablished. [19 ] July 4 – A
Scandinavian Airlines Douglas DC-6 and an Avro York C.1 of No. 99 Squadron, Royal Air Force, collide over Northwood in London in the United Kingdom. Both aircraft crash, killing all seven people aboard the York and all 32 people on board the DC-6. Among the dead is High Commissioner for the Federation of Malaya Sir Edward Gent, who had been a passenger aboard the York. July 6 – The U.S. Navy forms its first two carrier-based
airborne early warning squadrons, Airborne Early Warning Squadron 1 (VAW-1) and Airborne Early Warning Squadron 2 (VAW-2). July 13 – A
Bristol Type 170 Freighter makes the first flight of Silver City Airways ' air car-ferry service between Lympne, England, and Le Touquet, France. July 14 –
De Havilland Vampire F3s of the Royal Air Force's No. 54 Squadron become the first jet aircraft to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. The six aircraft, commanded by Wing Commander D. S. Wilson-MacDonald, DSO, DFC, go via Stornoway, Iceland, and Labrador to Montreal on the first leg of a goodwill tour of Canada and the United States, where they give several formation aerobatic displays. July 16 –
Catalina seaplane (VR-HDT), operated by a Miss Macao Cathay Pacific subsidiary, with 23 passengers and 3 crew on board flying from Macau to Hong Kong is hijacked mid-way over the Pearl River Delta by a group of four hijackers attempting to rob the passengers on board. The pilot is attacked and the aircraft loses control during the ensuing struggle in the cockpit. The subsequent crash kills all on board except one passenger, who was later identified to be the lead hijacker. It is the first known airliner hijacking. July 21 – A U.S. Air Force
Boeing F-13 Superfortress photographic reconnaissance aircraft on a low-level atmospheric research flight accidentally ditches in Nevada 's Lake Mead and sinks. The entire crew of five escapes safely in life rafts.
August 28 – The U.S. Navy
Martin JRM-2 Mars flying boat Caroline Mars arrives in Chicago, Illinois, after a record-breaking nonstop flight of 4,748 miles (7,646 km) from Honolulu, Hawaii, in 24 hours 12 minutes with 42 people and a payload of 42,000 pounds (6,350 kg) on board. [19 ] August 29 –
Northwest Airlines Flight 421, a Martin 2-0-2, loses part of its left wing in a thunderstorm and crashes between Fountain City, Wisconsin, and Winona, Minnesota, killing all 37 people on board.
September [ edit ]
September 2 – The
Australian National Airways Douglas DC-3 into the Lutana crashes North West Slopes of Australia 's Great Dividing Range near Nundle, New South Wales, killing all 13 people on board. September 5 – On a 390-mile (628-km) flight from
Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland, to Cleveland, Ohio, the U.S. Navy Martin JRM-2 Mars flying boat Caroline Mars sets a new cargo record of 62,262 lb (28,242 kg), the heaviest payload any aircraft had ever carried. [19 ] September 6 – A
de Havilland DH.108 breaks the sound barrier, the first British aircraft to do so. September 15
September 16 – President
Harry S. Truman endorses National Council Report 30 ( NSC-30), reserving to the President of the United States the power to order the use of atomic bombs by the United States Armed Forces. September 18
September 25 – Flying in rain and fog, American
professional wrestler Joe Lynam dies when his U.S. Navy surplus North American SNJ-4 Texan trainer crashes into Horse Ridge 500 feet (152 meters) below its summit just after takeoff from Bend, Oregon. [20 ] [28 ] September 28–29 (overnight) – An Israeli
Douglas C-54 Skymaster military transport aircraft converted for civilian use to carry President of Israel Chaim Weizmann from Geneva, Switzerland, to Israel makes the flight with extra fuel tanks installed to allow a nonstop trip and painted with the logo of the "El Al/Israel National Aviation Company." The flight begins the history of Israel's national airline, El Al, which will be incorporated in November.
October [ edit ]
October 1 –
Transcontinental and Western Air inaugurates luxury all-sleeper service between New York City and Paris. The Paris-bound service is marketed as "Paris Sky Chief," the New York-bound service as "New York Sky Chief." [29 ] October 2 –
Bukken Bruse disaster: The pilots of the Det Norske Luftfartsselskap flying boat Bukken Bruse, a Short Sandringham with 43 people on board, lose control of the aircraft while attempting to land at Hommelvika in Malvik, Norway; the aircraft crashes and rapidly fills with water. Nineteen people die; the British philosopher Bertrand Russell is among the survivors and is hospitalized. October 6 –
1948 Waycross B-29 crash: A U.S. Air Force B-29-100-BW Superfortress bomber on a flight to test the secret Sunseeker infrared homing device later used on the AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missile crashes in Waycross, Georgia, shortly after takeoff from Robins Air Force Base, killing nine of the 13 men on board. The four survivors parachute to safety. October 20 –
1948 KLM Constellation air disaster: KLM Lockheed L-049-46-25 Constellation PH-TEN Nijmegen crashes at about 23:32 UTC into power cables on high ground on approach to [30 ] Glasgow Prestwick Airport, in Prestwick, Scotland, killing all 40 people on board, most on impact. Deteriorating visibility and inadequate charts are cited as causes. Among the KLM staff killed are the pilot, Koene Dirk Parmentier (a winner of the MacRobertson Air Race); the cofounder, Edgar Fuld; and the technical director, Hendrik Veenendaal. October 21 –
United States Naval Reserve Naval Cadet Jesse L. Brown receives his Naval Aviator Badge, becoming the first African-American naval aviator. [31 ] [32 ] [33 ]
November [ edit ]
November 15 –
El Al is incorporated and becomes Israel's national airline. November 20 – An
Israeli Air Force F-51 Mustang of 101 Squadron flown by a former United States Army Air Forces pilot shoots down a Royal Air Force Mosquito PR.34 photographic reconnaissance aircraft on a mission to photograph Israeli airfields, killing the Mosquito's two-man crew. The Israeli acquisition of Mustangs surprises the British and prompts them to suspend Mosquito reconnaissance flights over Palestine. [34 ] November 30 – The U.S. Joint Intelligence Committee reports that as of August 1, 1948, the Soviet Air Force has 500,000 men and 15,000 aircraft and could deploy an additional 5,000 combat aircraft by six months after the beginning of a war. It forecasts that the Soviet Union will have a growing number of atomic bombs after 1950 with 20 to 50 available by 1956 or 1957, and that by 1957 the Soviet Air Force will be capable of attacking the
continental United States and Canada.
December [ edit ]
Mordechai Hod smuggles a Supermarine Spitfire into Israel by flying it all the way from Czechoslovakia. [36 ] December 1 – The
United States Air Force creates the Continental Air Command and subordinates the Air Defense Command and the Tactical Air Command to it. [37 ] December 16 – The
Royal Australian Navy commissions its first aircraft carrier, HMAS . Sydney (R17) December 17 – The original
goes on display at the Wright Flyer Smithsonian Institution. December 24 – As a public relations move, the U.S. Air Force issues a communique claiming that an “early warning radar net to the north” had detected “one unidentified
sleigh, powered by eight reindeer, at 14,000 feet [4,267 meters], heading 180 degrees.” The "report" is passed along to the public by the Associated Press. It is the first time that the U.S. armed forces have issued a statement about tracking Santa Claus's sleigh on Christmas Eve; doing so will become an annual holiday tradition beginning in 1955. [38 ] December 28 – The
Douglas DC-3 NC16002 disappears on a flight from San Juan, Puerto Rico, to Miami, Florida, with the loss of all 32 people on board.
First flights [ edit ]
January [ edit ]
January 8 - Lavochkin La-174, prototype of the
February [ edit ]
September [ edit ]
October [ edit ]
December [ edit ]
Entered service [ edit ]
October [ edit ]
November [ edit ]
Retirements [ edit ]
September [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Ross, Steven T. (1996). American War Plans 1945-1950: Strategies For Defeating the Soviet Union. Portland, Oregon: Frank Cass. pp. 11–2. ISBN 0-7146-4192-8.
^ Isenberg, Michael T. (1993). Shield of the Republic: The United States Navy in an Era of Cold War and Violent Peace. I: 1945-1962. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 113. ISBN 0-312-09911-8.
^ "Accident Description (19480106-0)". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network.
^ a b "Accident Description (19480107-0)". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network.
^ "Accident Description (19480120-0)". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network.
^ Mondey, David, ed. (1978). The Complete Illustrated History of the World. Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books. p. 66. 's Aircraft ISBN 0-89009-771-2.
^ Donald, David, ed. (1997). The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. p. 87. ISBN 0-7607-0592-5.
^ a b "Aviation Hawaii: 1940-1949 Chronology of Aviation in Hawaii". hawaii.gov.
^ Angelucci, Enzo (1987). The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present. New York: Orion Book. p. 342. ISBN 0-517-56588-9.
^ Polmar, Norman (October 2011). "Historic Aircraft: The God of the Sea's Namesake". . p. 16. Naval History
^ O'Connor, Derek (November 2014). "Spitfire vs. Spitfire". Aviation History. p. 56.
^ Anonymous, "Lou Lenart. 94, Pilot Who 'Saved Tel Aviv'," Military History, January 2016, p. 11.
^ a b c d Felhofer, Mark W. "Chronology of Significant Events in Naval Aviation: "Naval Air Transport" 1941 -- 1999". vrc-50.org.
^ a b planecrashinfo.com Famous People Who Died in Aviation Accidents: 1940s
^ "12 Killed at Air Display" The Times (London). Monday, 20 September 1948. (51181), col F, p. 4.
^ Ingleton, Roy (2010). Kent Disasters. Barnsley: Pen & Sword. pp. 117–9.
^ "4 Including Movie Jeweler, Cartoonist Killed in Plane Crash at Newhall Airport". scvhistory.com. Santa Clarita, CA: SCVTV.
^ Davis, Carolyn N. "Joseff of Hollywood". guyotbrothers.com. Attleboro, MA: Guyot Brothers.
^ [file:///C:/Users/Michael/AppData/Local/Microsoft/Windows/INetCache/IE/AQTE6IVM/north-american-texan-yale.pdf North American NA-64 Yale]
^ TWA History Timeline
^ "Accident description (19481020-0)". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network . Retrieved . 2014-11-18 Reliable contemporary British reports, e.g. newspaper (October 1948) and the Court of Investigation report (November 1949), cite the accident as occurring early on 21 October. The Times
^ Dwight, Margaret L.; Sewell, George A. (2009). Mississippi Black History Makers. Oxford, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. p. 395. ISBN 978-1-60473-390-7.
^ Fannin, Caroline M.; Gubert, Betty Kaplan; Sawyer, Miriam (2001). Distinguished African Americans in Aviation and Space Science. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-57356-246-1.
^ Williams, Albert E. (2003). Black Warriors: Unique Units and Individuals. Haverford, Pennsylvania: Infinity Publishing. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-7414-1525-7.
^ O'Connor, Derek, "Spitfire vs. Spitfire," Aviation History, November 2014, pp. 56-57.
^ Hammel, Eric, Six Days in June: How Israel Won the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992, ISBN 0-684-19390-6, p. 130.
^ Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) . Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF) (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. p. 12. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979.
^ Appelbaum, Yoni, "Yes, Virginia, There Is a NORAD," theatlantic.com, December 24, 2015.
^ Bridgman, Leonard (1951). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1951–52. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company. p. 72c.
^ Bernier, Robert (July 2012). "Ensign Eliminator". Aviation History. p. 15.