1952 in science
The year 1952 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
- August 1 – Around 9 o'clock AM,[verification needed] the San Benedicto rock wren goes extinct as its island home is smothered in a massive volcanic eruption.
- August 14 – Alan Turing's paper "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis" is published, putting forward a reaction–diffusion hypothesis of pattern formation, considered a seminal piece of work in morphogenesis.
- August 28 – Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley publish the Hodgkin–Huxley model of action potentials in neurons of the squid giant axon.
- September 20 – Publication of the paper on the Hershey–Chase experiment showing conclusively that DNA, not protein, is the genetic material of bacteriophages.
- Biochemists Jack Gross and Rosalind Pitt-Rivers discover the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine.
- The Braeburn apple cultivar is discovered as a chance seedling in New Zealand.
- The first autocode and its compiler are developed by Alick Glennie for the Manchester Mark 1 computer, considered as the first working high-level compiled programming language.
History of science
- Discovery by Derek J. de Solla Price of a lost medieval scientific work entitled Equatorie of the Planetis, initially attributed to Geoffrey Chaucer.
- John Forbes Nash, Jr. produces groundbreaking work in the area of real algebraic geometry.
- The Bradley–Terry model in probability theory is presented.
- February 6 – A mechanical heart is used for the first time in a human patient, in the United States.
- March 1 – The British Psychological Society is founded.
- September 2 – The first successful operation to correct a cardiac shunt ("hole in the heart") is performed by Drs F. John Lewis and C. Walton Lillehei on a 5-year-old girl in the United States utilising the induced hypothermia technique developed by Wilfred Gordon "Bill" Bigelow.
- November – Royal College of General Practitioners established in the United Kingdom.
- November 20 – The first successful sex reassignment surgery is performed in Copenhagen, making George Jorgensen Jr. become Christine Jorgensen.
- December 14 – The first successful surgical separation of conjoined twins is conducted in Mount Sinai Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio.
- December – Robert Gwyn Macfarlane and colleagues publish the first identification of Haemophilia B.
- American obstetrical anesthesiologist Dr. Virginia Apgar devizes the Apgar score as a simple replicable method of quickly and summarily assessing the health of babies immediately after childbirth.
- American orthopedic surgeon Armin Klein publishes Klein's line as a diagnostic tool.
- Jean Delay, head of psychiatry at Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, with Jean-François Buisson, reports the antidepressant effect of isoniazid.
- November 1 – Nuclear testing: Operation Ivy – The United States successfully detonates the first hydrogen device, codenamed "Ivy Mike" ["m" for megaton], at Eniwetok island in the Bikini Atoll located in the Pacific Ocean. The elements einsteinium and fermium are discovered in the fallout.
- Geoffrey Dummer proposes the integrated circuit.
- September 30 – The Cinerama widescreen film system, developed by Fred Waller, debuts with the movie This Is Cinerama at the Broadway Theatre in New York City.
- October 7 – The barcode is patented in the United States by Norman J. Woodland and Bernard Silver, though it does not make its first appearance in an American shop until 1974.
- Nobel Prizes
- February 2 – Ralph Merkle, American computer scientist, co-inventor of public-key cryptography.
- February 15 – Frances Ashcroft, English geneticist.
- February 19 – Marcia McNutt, American geophysicist and science editor.
- February 28 – Simon P. Norton, English mathematician, co-discoverer of 'monstrous moonshine'.
- July 15 – Ann Dowling, English mechanical engineer.
- March 5 – Sir Charles Sherrington (born 1857), English neurophysiologist and bacteriologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932.
- September 5 – Hermann Stieve (born 1886), German anatomist and histologist.
- November 2 – Chaim Weizmann (born 1874), Belarusian-born chemist, first President of Israel.
- December 19 – Colonel Sir Charles Arden-Close (born 1865), British cartographer.
- Turing, A. M. (14 August 1952). "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. London. 237 (641): 37–72. Bibcode:1952RSPTB.237...37T. JSTOR 92463. doi:10.1098/rstb.1952.0012. Submitted November 1951.
- "Control Mechanism For Biological Pattern Formation Decoded". ScienceDaily. 30 November 2006.
- "Turing's Last, Lost Work". Swintons. Archived from the original on 23 August 2003. Retrieved 28 November 2011. ()
- Hodgkin, A. L.; Huxley, A. F. (1952). "A Quantitative Description of Membrane Current and its Application to Conduction and Excitation in Nerve". The Journal of Physiology. 117 (4): 500–544. PMC . PMID 12991237. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1952.sp004764.
- Hershey, A. D.; Chase, Martha (1952). "Independent Functions of Viral Protein and Nucleic Acid in Growth of Bacteriophage". The Journal of General Physiology. 36 (1): 39–56. PMC . PMID 12981234. doi:10.1085/jgp.36.1.39.
- Gross, J.; Pitt-Rivers, R. (1952). "The Identification of 3:5:3'-L-Triiodothyronine in Human Plasma". The Lancet. London. 259 (6705): 439–441. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(52)91952-1.
- Радушкевич, Л. В. (1952). О Структуре Углерода, Образующегося При Термическом Разложении Окиси Углерода На Железном Контакте. Журнал Физической Химии (in Russian). 26: 88–95.
- Knuth, Donald E.; Pardo, Luis Trabb. "Early development of programming languages". Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology. Dekker. 7: 419–493.
- Nash, J. F. (1952). "Real algebraic manifolds". Annals of Mathematics. 56: 405–21. MR 0050928. doi:10.2307/1969649..
- International Congress of Mathematicians (1952), Proceedings, 2, Providence: American Mathematical Society, pp. 516–17
- Bradley, Ralph Allan; Terry, Milton E. (1952). "Rank Analysis of Incomplete Block Designs: I. The Method of Paired Comparisons". Biometrika. 39 (3/4): 324. JSTOR 2334029. doi:10.2307/2334029.
- "The First Mechanical Heart Pump". GeneralMotors.com. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved 2009-12-29.
- Biggs, R.; Douglas, A. S.; MacFarlane, R. G.; Dacie, J. V.; Pitney, W. R.; Merskey, C.; O'Brien, J. R. (1952). "Christmas disease: a condition previously mistaken for haemophilia". British Medical Journal. 2 (4799): 1378–82. PMC . PMID 12997790. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4799.1378.
- Apgar, Virginia (1953). "A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant". Current Research in Anesthesia and Analgesia. 32 (4): 260–267. PMID 13083014. doi:10.1213/00000539-195301000-00041.
- Finster, M.; Wood, M. (May 2005). "The Apgar score has survived the test of time". Anesthesiology. 102 (4): 855–857. PMID 15791116. doi:10.1097/00000542-200504000-00022.
- Healy, David (1996). The Psychopharmacologists: Interviews. London: Chapman and Hall. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-86036-008-4.
- "Hydrogen Bomb". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 2009-12-29.
- Ghiorso, Albert (2003). "Einsteinium and Fermium". Chemical & Engineering News. 81 (36). Retrieved 2012-02-08.
- The Hutchinson Factfinder. Helicon. 1999. ISBN 1-85986-000-1.
- "Patent US2612994 – Classifying Apparatus And Method". Retrieved 2013-06-17.
- Kleinman, Zoe (2012-10-07). "Barcode birthday: 60 years since patent". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-06-17.