1953 in science

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List of years in science (table)

The year 1953 involved numerous significant events in science and technology, including the first description of the DNA double helix, the discovery of neutrinos, and the release of the first polio vaccine.


25 April 1953: the DNA double helix is first formally described.


Computer sciences[edit]

Earth sciences[edit]

Medicine and human sciences[edit]





  • January 13 – "Doctors' plot": The state newspaper Pravda publishes an article alleging that many of the most prestigious physicians in the Soviet Union, mostly Jews, are part of a major plot to poison the country's senior political and military leaders.
  • February 16 – The Pakistan Academy of Sciences is established.
  • October 9 – As part of an extended series of publications on science, Pope Pius XII publishes "The Technician", which instructs scientists to restrict themselves to the study of physical matter and do nothing to undermine the idea of a non-material soul or a Superior Being. "The Technician" is delivered as a papal address on October 9.
  • Rudolf Carnap publishes an article called "Testability and Meaning" in Readings in the Philosophy of Science, which moves away from the philosophical position of logical positivism with respect to science (particularly the heavily mathematical sciences, such as physics). Carnap instead emphasizes the idea that progress in science depends on the gradual accumulation of many small results that support human understanding of the world, a view more in line with Ludwig Wittgenstein's later philosophy and the biological sciences.


Nobel Prize[edit]



See also[edit]


  1. ^ Watson, J. D.; Crick, F. H. C. (1953). "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" (PDF). Nature. 171 (4356): 737–738. Bibcode:1953Natur.171..737W. PMID 13054692. doi:10.1038/171737a0. Retrieved March 1, 2011. 
  2. ^ "Scientists describe 'secret of life'". On This Day. BBC. April 25, 1953. Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved January 10, 2008. 
  3. ^ Wilkins, M. H. F.; Stokes, A. R.; Wilson, H. R. (1953). "Molecular Structure of Deoxypentose Nucleic Acids" (PDF). Nature. 171 (4356): 738–740. Bibcode:1953Natur.171..738W. PMID 13054693. doi:10.1038/171738a0. Retrieved March 1, 2011. 
  4. ^ Franklin, Rosalind E.; Gosling, R. G. (1953). "Molecular Configuration in Sodium Thymonucleate" (PDF). Nature. 171 (4356): 740–741. Bibcode:1953Natur.171..740F. PMID 13054694. doi:10.1038/171740a0. Retrieved March 1, 2011. 
  5. ^ Francis Crick (1916-2004) and James Watson (b. 1928) together discovered the double helix structure of DNA, the "blueprint of life." Surprisingly, when ... history1900s.about.com
  6. ^ Miller, Stanley L. (1953). "A Production of Amino Acids Under Possible Primitive Earth Conditions". Science. 117 (3046): 528–9. Bibcode:1953Sci...117..528M. JSTOR 1680569. PMID 13056598. doi:10.1126/science.117.3046.528. 
  7. ^ Pariser R.; Parr R. G. (1953). "A Semi‐Empirical Theory of the Electronic Spectra and Electronic Structure of Complex Unsaturated Molecules. II". Journal of Chemical Physics. 21 (5): 767. Bibcode:1953JChPh..21..767P. doi:10.1063/1.1699030. 
  8. ^ Pople, J. A. (1953). "Electron interaction in unsaturated hydrocarbons". Transactions of the Faraday Society. 49: 1375. doi:10.1039/tf9534901375. 
  9. ^ Turing, Alan M. (1953). "Some calculations of the Riemann zeta-function". Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. 3: 99–117. doi:10.1112/plms/s3-3.1.99. 
  10. ^ Ewing, Maurice; Heezen, Bruce C.; Ericson, D. B.; Northrop, John; Dorman, James (July 1953). "Exploration of the Northwest Atlantic Mid-ocean Canyon" (PDF). Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 64 (7): 865–868. Bibcode:1953GSAB...64..865E. ISSN 0016-7606. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1953)64[865:EOTNAM]2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 2011-03-01. 
  11. ^ Cohn, Lawrence H. (May 2003). "Fifty years of open-heart surgery". Circulation. 107 (17): 2168–70. PMID 12732590. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000071746.50876.E2. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  12. ^ Aserinsky, Eugene; Kleitman, Nathaniel (1953). "Regularly Occurring Periods of Eye Motility, and Concomitant Phenomena, During Sleep". Science. 118 (3062): 273–274. Bibcode:1953Sci...118..273A. JSTOR 1680525. PMID 13089671. doi:10.1126/science.118.3062.273. 
  13. ^ Healy, D. (2001). "The Antidepressant Drama". In Weissman, M.M. The treatment of depression: bridging the 21st century. American Psychiatric Pub. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-88048-397-1. Retrieved May 28, 2009. 
  14. ^ Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-929040-6.
  15. ^ Weiner, J. S.; Oakley, K. P.; Le Gros Clark, W. E. (1953-11-20). "The Solution of the Piltdown Problem". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geological Series. 2 (3): 141–6. 
  16. ^ "Piltdown Man forgery". The Times. London. 1953-11-21. p. 6. 
  17. ^ "End as a Man". Time. 1953-11-30. Archived from the original on 2010-10-30. Retrieved 2010-11-11. 
  18. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0. 
  19. ^ Reines, F.; Cowan, C. L., jr (November 1953). "Detection of the Free Neutrino". Physical Review. 92 (3): 830–831. Bibcode:1953PhRv...92..830R. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.92.830. 
  20. ^ "Professor Maria Petrou". The Daily Telegraph. London. 2012-11-11. Retrieved 2012-11-11.