1955 in the Soviet Union
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- First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union - Nikita Khrushchev
- Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union - Kliment Voroshilov
- Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union - Georgy Malenkov (until 8 February), Nikolai Bulganin (starting 8 February)
- 2 June - Belgrade declaration
- 15 November - Władysław Gomułka initiates talks about the Repatriation of Poles (1955–59).
- 22 November - The first Soviet hydrogen bomb, RDS-37, is tested.
- 30 November - The 1st Soviet Antarctic Expedition begins.
- 31 December - The Pospelov Commission is set up.
- 22 March - Valdis Zatlers, President of Latvia
- 16 May - Olga Korbut, Belorussian Olympic gymnast
- 1 July - Nikolai Demidenko, pianist
- 7 August - Vladimir Sorokin, writer
- 7 September - Efim Zelmanov, mathematician
- 13 October - Sergei Shepelev, ice hockey player
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