The 1956 Australian Championships was a tennis tournament that took place on outdoor Grass courts at the Milton Courts, Brisbane, Australia from 20 January to 30 January. It was the 44th edition of the Australian Championships (now known as the Australian Open), the 4th held in Brisbane, and the first Grand Slam tournament of the year. The singles titles were won by Lew Hoad and Mary Carter Reitano.
Lew Hoad defeated Ken Rosewall 6–4, 3–6, 6–4, 7–5 
Mary Carter Reitano defeated Thelma Coyne Long 3–6, 6–2, 9–7 
Lew Hoad / Ken Rosewall defeated Don Candy / Mervyn Rose 10–8, 13–11, 6–4 
Mary Bevis Hawton / Thelma Coyne Long defeated Mary Carter Reitano / Beryl Penrose 6–2, 5–7, 9–7 
Beryl Penrose / Neale Fraser defeated Mary Bevis Hawton / Roy Emerson 6–2, 6–4