1956 in music

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
List of years in music (table)
Diva Beverly Sills in 1956

This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1956.

Events[edit]

List of years in music (table)

Albums released[edit]

Biggest hit singles[edit]

Hitmaker Fats Domino in 1956

The following songs achieved the highest chart positions in the charts of 1956.

# Artist Title Year Country Chart Entries
1 Doris Day Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be, Will Be) 1956 United States UK 1 - Jun 1956 (22 weeks), Flanders 1 - Dec 1956 (6 months), Radio Luxembourg sheet music 1 for 5 weeks - Sep 1956, Record Mirror 1 for 6 weeks - Aug 1956, Australia 1 for 8 weeks - Sep 1956, France 1 for 1 week - Jan 1957, Oscar in 1956 (film 'The Man Who Knew Too Much'), US Billboard 2 - Jun 1956 (27 weeks), US CashBox 3 - Jun 1956 (25 weeks), Italy 4 of 1957, US CashBox 5 of 1956, Your Hit Parade 5 of 1956, Brazil 16 of 1957, US BB 23 of 1956, RYM 23 of 1956, POP 23 of 1956, Europe 27 of the 1950s (1956), UKMIX 34, AFI 48, RIAA 165
2 Fats Domino Blueberry Hill 1956 United States Belgium 1 - Jun 1976 (10 weeks), Grammy Hall of Fame in 1987 (1956), US BB 2 of 1957, Holland 2 - Jun 1976 (10 weeks), POP 2 of 1957, Europe 3 of the 1950s (1956), US Billboard 4 - Sep 1956 (27 weeks), US CashBox 4 - Oct 1956 (13 weeks), RYM 5 of 1956, UK 6 - Dec 1956 (15 weeks), Flanders 7 - Mar 1957 (5 months), DDD 8 of 1956, France 10 - May 1976 (1 week), D.Marsh 17 of 1956, RIAA 18, nuTsie 31 of 1950s, US CashBox 39 of 1956, DMDB 55 (1956), Brazil 74 of 1957, Rolling Stone 81, Acclaimed 153 (1956), one of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame 500
3 Elvis Presley Hound Dog 1956 United States US Billboard 1 - Aug 1956 (28 weeks), US CashBox 1 - Jul 1956 (21 weeks), Grammy Hall of Fame in 1988 (1956), RYM 1 of 1956, DDD 1 of 1956, US 4 X Platinum (certified by RIAA in Jul 1999), UK 2 - Sep 1956 (25 weeks), US BB 2 of 1956, POP 2 of 1956, nuTsie 8 of 1950s, D.Marsh 11 of 1956, Flanders 13 - Nov 1956 (2 months), US CashBox 15 of 1956, UKMIX 15, Brazil 17 of 1956, Rolling Stone 19, DMDB 20 (1956), Acclaimed 52 (1956), Europe 57 of the 1950s (1956), Scrobulate 60 of oldies, RIAA 68, Italy 72 of 1956, WXPN 692, Global 7 (10 M sold) - 1956, Party 281 of 1999
4 Elvis Presley Heartbreak Hotel 1956 United States US Billboard 1 - Mar 1956 (27 weeks), US CashBox 1 - Mar 1956 (21 weeks), Grammy Hall of Fame in 1995 (1956), D.Marsh 1 of 1956, US 2 X Platinum (certified by RIAA in Jul 1999), UK 2 - May 1956 (22 weeks), RYM 2 of 1956, 4 in 2FM list, US CashBox 6 of 1956, Your Hit Parade 6 of 1956, Europe 7 of the 1950s (1956), Scrobulate 13 of rock & roll, DDD 15 of 1956, Acclaimed 19 (1956), US BB 22 of 1956, UKMIX 22, POP 22 of 1956, DMDB 26 (1956), Brazil 37 of 1956, Rolling Stone 45, nuTsie 45 of 1950s, Italy 49 of 1956, RIAA 87, WXPN 730, one of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame 500
5 Elvis Presley Don't Be Cruel 1956 United States US Billboard 1 - Aug 1956 (27 weeks), US CashBox 1 - Aug 1956 (21 weeks), US CashBox 1 of 1956, Your Hit Parade 1 of 1956, Grammy Hall of Fame in 2002 (1956), RYM 1 of 1956, DDD 4 of 1956, D.Marsh 11 of 1956, DMDB 12 (1956), Europe 14 of the 1950s (1956), nuTsie 15 of 1950s, Belgium 17 - Sep 1977 (2 weeks), US BB 19 of 1956, Brazil 19 of 1956, POP 19 of 1956, UK 24 - Jun 1978 (12 weeks), RIAA 68, Acclaimed 74 (1956), Italy 92 of 1958, Rolling Stone 197, WXPN 543

US No. 1 hit singles[edit]

These singles reached the top of US Billboard magazine's charts in 1956.

First week Number of weeks Title Artist
January 14, 1956 5 "Memories Are Made Of This" Dean Martin
February 18, 1956 1 "Rock and Roll Waltz" Kay Starr
February 25, 1956 4 "Lisbon Antigua" Nelson Riddle
March 24, 1956 4 "The Poor People Of Paris" Les Baxter
April 21, 1956 8 "Heartbreak Hotel" Elvis Presley
June 16, 1956 6 "The Wayward Wind" Gogi Grant
July 28, 1956 1 "I Want You, I Need You, I Love You" Elvis Presley
August 4, 1956 2 "My Prayer" The Platters
August 18, 1956 11 "Don't Be Cruel/Hound Dog" Elvis Presley
November 3, 1956 5 "Love Me Tender" Elvis Presley
December 8, 1956 9 "Singing the Blues" Guy Mitchell

Top hits on record[edit]

Top R&B and country hits on record[edit]

Published popular music[edit]

Other notable songs[edit]

Classical music[edit]

Premieres[edit]

Sortable table
Composer Composition Date Location Performers
Arnold, Malcolm A Grand, Grand Overture, Op. 57 1956-11-13 United Kingdom London (Hoffnung MF) Morley College SymphonyArnold[2]
Baird, Tadeusz Cassazione 1956-10-21 Poland Warsaw (Autumn) Warsaw PhilharmonicRowicki[3][4]
Barber, Samuel Summer Music 1956-03-20 United States Detroit (CMS) Members of the Detroit Symphony[5]
Barraqué, Jean Sequence 1956-03-10 France Paris Semser / Domaine musicalAlbert[6]
Berio, Luciano Variazione sull'aria di Papageno 1 1956-10-21 West Germany Donaueschingen (Musiktage) Lemser, Meiser / SWF Radio SymphonyRosbaud[7]
Bliss, Arthur Edinburgh Overture 1956-08-20 United Kingdom Edinburgh (Festival) Royal PhilharmonicBliss[8][9]
Cage, John Radio Music 1956-05-30 United States New York City Ajemain, Cage, Sultan, Tudor, Juilliard Quartet[10]
Cowell, Henry Lines from the Dead Sea Scrolls 1956-07-07 United States Lenox, MA Yale Glee Club, Boston SymphonyBoss[11]
Cowell, Henry String Quartet No. 5 1956-10-05 United States Cleveland Juilliard Quartet[12]
Cowell, Henry Variations for Orchestra 1956-11-23 United States Cincinnati Cincinnati SymphonyJohnson[12]
Dallapiccola, Luigi Cinque canti per baritono e alcuni strumenti 1956-11-30 United States Washington DC Fuller / [unknown ensemble and conductor][13]
Guridi, Jesús Homenaje a Walt Disney 1956-10-03 Spain Alicante Bayona / Barcelona Municipal OrchestraToldrà[14]
Henze, Hans Werner Concerto per il Marigny 1956-03-10 France Paris Loriod / Domaine MusicalAlbert, Rudolf[15]
Henze, Hans Werner Symphonic Studies 1956-02-14 West Germany Hamburg NDR SymphonyMartinon[16]
Hovhaness, Alan Symphony No. 3 1956-10-14 United States New York City Symphony of the AirStokowski[17]
Ives, Charles Robert Browning Overture 1956-10-14 United States New York City Symphony of the AirStokowski[18]
Jacob, Gordon Oboe Concerto No. 2 1956-04-25 Soviet Union Leningrad Goossens / [unknown orchestra] – Raybould[19][20]
Khachaturian, Aram Spartacus 1956-12-27 Soviet Union Leningrad[21]
Leimer, Kurt Piano Concerto No. 4 1956-10-14 United States New York City Symphony of the AirStokowski[22]
Martin, Frank Etudes for Strings 1956-11-23 Switzerland Basel Basel Chamber OrchestraSacher[23]
Martinu, Bohuslav Concerto for Oboe and Small Orchestra 1956-08-08 Australia Melbourne (Olympiad)[24] Tancibudek / Sydney SymphonySchmidt-Isserstedt[25]
Martinu, Bohuslav Piano Concerto No. 4, Incantation 1956-10-04 United States New York City Firkusny / Symphony of the AirStokowski[26]
Martinu, Bohuslav The Frescoes of Piero della Francesca 1956-08-26 Austria Salzburg (Festival) Vienna PhilharmonicKubelik[27]
Messiaen, Olivier Oiseaux exotiques 1956-03-10 France Paris Loriod / Domaine MusicalAlbert[28][29]
Nono, Luigi Il canto sospeso 1956-10-24 West Germany Cologne (Musik der Zeit) Cologne Radio SymphonyScherchen[30]
Pettersson, Allan Symphony No. 3 1956-11-19 Sweden Gothenburg Gothenburg SymphonyMann[31]
Piston, Walter Symphony No. 5 1956-02-24 United States New York City Juilliard OrchestraMorel[32]
Rainier, Priaulx Requiem 1956-04-15 United Kingdom London Pears / Purcell SingersHolst[33]
Rodrigo, Joaquín Concierto Serenata for harp and orchestra 1956-09-11 Spain Madrid Zabaleta / Spanish National Orchestra - Kletzki[34]
Rubbra, Edmund Piano Concerto 1956-03-21 United Kingdom London Matthews / BBC SymphonySargent[35]
Schoenberg, Arnold O Du mein Gott, alle Völker preisen Dich (Modern Psalm, Op. 50c) 1956-05-30 West Germany Cologne (WDR, Musik der Zeit) WDR Choir – [conductor not known][36]
Sessions, Roger Idyll of Theocritus 1956-01-14 United States Louisville Nossaman / Louisville OrchestraWhitney[37]
Sessions, Roger Piano Concerto 1956-02-10 United States New York City Webster / Juilliard OrchestraMorel[38]
Shebalin, Vissarion Viola Sonata 1956-10-26 Soviet Union Moscow D. Shebalin, Edlina[39]
Shostakovich, Dmitri String Quartet No. 6 1956-10-07 Soviet Union Leningrad Beethoven Quartet[40]
Stockhausen, Karlheinz Gesang der Jünglinge 1956-05-30 West Germany Cologne (WDR, Musik der Zeit) electronic music[36]
Stockhausen, Karlheinz Zeitmaße for 5 woodwinds (revised version) 1956-12-15 France Paris Domaine musicalBoulez[41]
Tippett, Michael Piano Concerto 1956-10-30 United Kingdom Birmingham Kentner / City of Birmingham SymphonySchwarz[42]
Vaughan Williams, Ralph Symphony No. 8 1956-05-02 United Kingdom Manchester Hallé OrchestraBarbirolli[43]
Villa-Lobos, Heitor Guitar Concerto 1956-02-06 United States Houston Segovia / Houston SymphonyVilla-Lobos[44]
Walton, William Johannesburg Festival Overture 1956-09-25 South Africa Johannesburg SABC SymphonySargent[45]

1 Variazione sull'aria di Papageno was part of Divertimento für Mozart, an omnibus composition by 12 different composers.

Compositions[edit]

  • Hans Erich Apostel –
    • String Quartet No. 2
    • Variationen über drei Volkslieder, for orchestra
  • Malcolm Arnold –
    • Concerto No. 2 for Horn and String Orchestra, Op. 58
    • A Grand Grand Overture, Op. 57, for organ, three vacuum cleaners, electric floor polisher in E-flat, four rifles, and orchestra
    • Song of Praise, Op. 55 (text: J. Clare), for unison voices and piano
    • Trio for Violin, Cello, and Piano, Op. 54
  • Milton Babbitt – Semi-Simple Variations for piano
  • Jan Bach – String Trio
  • Samuel Barber – Summer Music for wind quintet
  • William Bergsma –
    • The Fortunate Islands, for string orchestra (revised version)
    • March with Trumpets, for band
  • Luciano Berio –
    • String Quartet
    • Variazioni "Ein Mädchen oder Weibchen", for two basset horns and strings
  • Arthur Bliss –
    • Edinburgh Overture, for orchestra
    • Seek the Lord (anthem), SATB choir and organ
  • Reginald Smith Brindle – El Polifemo de Oro
  • Benjamin Britten –
  • John Cage –
    • 27′ 10.554″ for a percussionist
    • Music for Piano 53–68
    • Music for Piano 69–84
    • Radio Music, for 1–8 radios
  • Carlos Chávez – Prometheus Bound, cantata (text: Aeschylus, trans. R. Trevelyan), for alto, tenor, baritone, bass, SATB chorus and orchestra
  • Aaron Copland – Variations on a Shaker Melody for symphonic band (from Appalachian Spring)
  • Henry Cowell –
    • Ballad, for wind quintet
    • Bounce Dance, for piano
    • Fifteenth Anniversary, for two unspecified treble instruments
    • Lines from the Dead Sea Scrolls, for six-part male choir and orchestra
    • Septet, for five madrigal singers, clarinet, and keyboard
    • String Quartet No. 5
    • Sidney Xmas ’56, for violin and piano
    • Sway Dance, for piano
    • Two Part Invention, for soprano and alto recorders
    • Variations for Orchestra
  • Luigi Dallapiccola – Cinque canti (Greek texts, trans. Salvatore Quasimodo), for baritone and eight instruments
  • Mario Davidovsky -
    • Three Pieces for Woodwind Quartet,
    • Noneti for Nine Instruments
  • Peter Maxwell Davies – Sonata for Clarinet and Piano
  • Henri Dutilleux – Serenade for La couronne de Marguerite Long
  • Herbert Eimert – Fünf Stücke, electronic music
  • Hanns Eisler –
    • Horatios Monolog (text: William Shakespeare), for voice and piano
    • Legende von der Entstehung des Buches Taote King (text: Bertolt Brecht), for voice and piano
    • Vier Szenen auf dem Lande (text: E. Strittmatter), children's or female voices and small orchestra
    • Von Wolkenstreifen leicht befangen (text: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe), for voice and piano
    • Zu Brechts Tod "Die Wälder atmen noch", for voice and four horns
  • Morton Feldman –
    • Piano Piece A
    • Piano Piece B
    • Pieces (2), for flute, alto flute, horn, trumpet, violin, and cello
    • Pieces (3), for string quartet
  • Kenneth Gaburo –
    • "Ad te domine", for SATB choir
    • "Ave Maria", for SATB choir
    • Elegy for a Small Orchestra
    • "Laetentur caeli", for SATB choir
    • String Quartet
    • "Terra tremuit", for SATB choir
  • Blas Galindo – Sinfonia breve, for string orchestra
  • Roberto Gerhard –
    • Lamparilla Overture for orchestra
    • Sonata for Cello and Piano
    • Songs (7), for soprano or tenor and guitar
  • Cecil Armstrong Gibbs – Threnody
  • Alberto Ginastera – Suite de danzas criollas, for piano (revised version)
  • Camargo Guarnieri –
    • Chôro, for clarinet and orchestra
    • Chôro, for piano and orchestra
    • Sonata No. 4 for violin and piano
    • Sonata No. 5 for violin and piano
  • Carlos Guastavino –
    • La primera pregunta (El adolescente muerto), for voice and piano (text: N. Cortese)
    • Ombú, for voice and piano (text: N. Mileo, revised in 1989)
    • Mi canto, for voice and piano (text:Mileo),
  • Ernesto Halffter – Fantasía galaica (ballet)
  • Iain Hamilton – The Bermudas, Op. 33 (text: Hamilton, Jourdain, A. Marvell), for baritone, chorus, and orchestra
  • Karl Amadeus Hartmann – Symphony No. 1 Versuch eines Requiems
  • Robert Helps – Études (3), for piano
  • Hans Werner Henze –
    • Concerto per il Marigny, for piano, clarinet, bass clarinet, horn, trumpet, trombone, viola, and cello
    • Fünf neapolitanische Lieder (texts: anon. 17th-century), for baritone and chamber orchestra
    • Maratona (dance drama in one act), also a suite for two jazz bands and orchestra
    • Sinfonische Etüden, for orchestra
  • Alfred Hill –
    • Symphony No. 6 "Celic"
    • Symphony No. 7, in E minor
  • Paul Hindemith –
    • "Othmar Sch Sch Sch Schoeck", canon for four voices
    • "40, 40, 40, 40, es lebe hoch das Konzerthausleben", canon for three voices
  • Alan Hovhaness –
    • God Who Is in the Fire, Op. 146, for tenor solo, men's choir, and percussion (revised in 1965)
    • Greek Folk Dances (7), Op. 150, for harmonica and piano
    • Hercules, Op. 56, no. 4, for soprano and violin
    • Nocturne, Op. 20, no. 2, for flute and harp
    • Piano Sonata, Op. 145
    • Symphony No. 3, Op. 148
  • Andrew Imbrie –
    • Introit, Gradual and Alleluia for All Saints’ Day, chorus and organ
    • Little Concerto, for piano four-hands and orchestra
  • Gordon Jacob –
    • Concerto No. 2 for Oboe and Orchestra
    • Sextet for Piano and Wind Quintet
    • Trio for Violin, Cello, and Piano
    • Variations on "Annie Laurie", for two piccolos, two contrabass clarinets, hecklephone, two contrabassoons, serpent, contrabass serpent, subcontrabass tuba, harmonium, and hurdy-gurdy
  • Dmitri Kabalevsky –
    • Romeo and Juliet, suite from the incidental music, op.56
    • Symphony No. 4, Op. 54
  • Gottfried Michael Koenig – Klangfiguren II, electronic music
  • Ernst Krenek –
    • Guten Morgen, Amerika, Op. 159, for chorus (text: Carl Sandburg)
    • Spiritus Intelligentiae, Sanctus, Whitsun oratorio for soprano and tenor with electronic music
  • Lars-Erik Larsson – Concertino for Violin
  • Bruno Maderna – Notturno, electronic music
  • Gian-Francesco Malipiero – Dialoghi VII for two pianos and orchestra
  • Frank Martin –
    • Études, for string orchestra
    • Ouverture en hommage à Mozart, for orchestra
  • Bohuslav Martinů –
    • Impromptu for Two Pianos
    • Legenda z dýmu bramborové [Legend of the Smoke from Potato Tops] (text: Bureš), solo voices, chorus, flute, clarinet, hornn, accordion, and piano
    • Piano Concerto no. 4, Incantation
    • Sonatina for Clarinet and Piano
    • Sonatina for Trumpet and Piano
  • Yoritsune Matsudaira – Figure sonores for orchestra
  • Toshiro Mayuzumi and Makoto Moroi – Seven Variations, electronic music
  • Peter Mennin – Concerto for Cello and Orchestra, Sonata Concertante for Violin and Piano
  • Gian Carlo Menotti – The Unicorn, the Gorgon, and the Manticore, or The Three Sundays of a Poet (madrigal ballet/fable)
  • Olivier Messiaen – Oiseaux exotiques, for piano, eleven winds, and seven percussionists
  • Robert Moevs – The Past Revisited, three pieces for unaccompanied violin
  • Frederic Mompou and Xavier Montsalvatge – Perimplinada (ballet, after F.G. Lorca),
  • Bo Nilsson – Zwei Stücke, for flute, bass clarinet, piano, and percussion
  • Luigi Nono – Il canto sospeso (text: letters of Resistance fighters), for soprano, contralto, tenor, chorus, and orchestra
  • Harry Partch – The Bewitched (dance satire in one act), soprano, chorus, dancers, large instrumental ensemble
  • Juan Carlos Paz – Música para fagot, cuerdas y batería
  • Vincent Persichetti
    • Little Recorder Book, Op. 70, 1956
    • Serenade no. 9, Op.71, for two recorders
    • Symphony No. 6, Op. 69, for Band
  • Allan Pettersson – Concerto No. 2 for Strings
  • Daniel Pinkham –
    • Concerto for Violin and Orchestra
    • Wedding Cantata, for optional solo voices, chorus, and instrumental ensemble
  • Walter Piston –
    • Quintet for Winds
    • Serenata for Orchestra
  • Quincy Porter –
    • Nocturne, for piano
    • Songs (2), (text: A. Porter)
  • Francis Poulenc – Dernier poème
  • Franz Reizenstein –
    • Concerto populare
    • Fantasia concertante, op.33, for violin and piano
  • George Rochberg –
    • Dialogues, for clarinet and piano
    • Sonata-Fantasia, for piano
  • Ned Rorem – Symphony No. 2
  • Miklós Rózsa – Concerto for Violin
  • Edmund Rubbra – Piano Concerto in G, Op. 85, Improvisation for Violin and Orchestra Op. 89
  • R. Murray Schafer – Minnelieder (Minnesinger texts), for mezzo-soprano and wind quintet
  • Hermann Schroeder – Concerto No. 1 for Violin and Orchestra
  • William Schuman –
    • Chester Overture, for concert band
    • The Lord Has a Child, for SATB choir, or female choir, or solo voice, with piano (text: Langston Hughes)
    • New England Triptych, for orchestra
    • Rounds on Famous Words (4), for SATB choir (a fifth round was added in 1969)
  • Roger Sessions – Piano Concerto
  • Dmitri Shostakovich -
    • Ispanskiye pesni [Spanish Songs], op. 100 (texts: anon., translated by Bolotin, Sikorskaya), mezzo-soprano and piano
    • String Quartet No. 6 in G major Op. 101
  • Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji –
    • Passeggiata veneziana sopra la Barcarola di Offenbach, for piano
    • Rosario d'arabeschi, for piano
  • Karlheinz Stockhausen –
  • Igor Stravinsky – Choral-Variationen über das Weihnachtslied "Vom Himmel hoch da komm’ ich her", arr. from Johann Sebastian Bach, for chorus and orchestra
  • Sándor Szokolay – Violin Concerto, Op. 13
  • Virgil Thomson – Homage to Marya Freund and to the Harp, musical portrait for piano
  • Michael Tippett –
    • Bonny at Morn (arr. of Northumbrian folksong), unison choir and three recorders
    • Songs from the British Isles (4), SATB choir
  • Ralph Vaughan Williams –
    • A Choral Flourish (text from the Psalms), for SATB choir, two trumpets, and organ
    • God Bless the Master of This House, for SATB choir
    • Preludes on Welsh Folksongs (2), for organ
    • Symphony No. 8
    • A Vision of Aeroplanes (text: N. Ezekiel), motet for SATB choir and organ
  • Heitor Villa-Lobos – Emperor Jones (ballet, after Eugene O'Neill),
  • William Walton – Cello Concerto
  • Mieczysław Weinberg – Piano Sonata No. 5 in A minor, Op. 58
  • Egon Wellesz –
    • Suite for solo clarinet, Op. 74
    • Suite for solo oboe, Op. 76
    • Symphony No. 5, Op. 75
  • Charles Wuorinen – Music for Orchestra
  • Iannis Xenakis – Pithoprakta, for orchestra

Opera[edit]

Musical theater[edit]

Musical films[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

Awards[edit]

Eurovision Song Contest[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Guralnick, Peter (1994). Last Train to Memphis. Little, Brown. p. 258. 
  2. ^ Music Sales Classical
  3. ^ [Warsaw Philharmonic Foundation]
  4. ^ Warsaw Autumn
  5. ^ University of North Texas
  6. ^ IRCAM
  7. ^ Luciano Berio Study Center
  8. ^ Your Classical
  9. ^ The Herald
  10. ^ Soundscape Explorations
  11. ^ Henry Cowell memorial website
  12. ^ a b Henry Cowell memorial website
  13. ^ IRCAM
  14. ^ Fundación JUan March
  15. ^ Olivier Messiaen: Oiseaux Exotiques
  16. ^ IRCAM
  17. ^ Classical Music Review Blog
  18. ^ Music Web International
  19. ^ Gordon Jacob website
  20. ^ Jennifer Vyvyan website
  21. ^ Mariinsky Theatre
  22. ^ Leopold Stokowski website
  23. ^ The Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra
  24. ^ Chicago Symphony Orchestra
  25. ^ Deutschlandradio Kultur
  26. ^ Naxos Records
  27. ^ U/niversal Edition
  28. ^ Universal Edition
  29. ^ The Messiaen Companion
  30. ^ Fondazione Onlus
  31. ^ Allan Pettersson Society
  32. ^ Boston Symphony Orchestra
  33. ^ The Musical Timnes, via Jstor
  34. ^ Joaquín Rodrigo official website
  35. ^ Edmund Rubbra: Symphonist
  36. ^ a b Michael Kurtz, Stockhausen: A Biography, translated by Richard Toop (London: Faber and Faber, 1992): 83–84. ISBN
  37. ^ American Music Resource
  38. ^ American Symphony Orchestra
  39. ^ Le Chant du Monde
  40. ^ Lincoln Center Chamber Music Society
  41. ^ Karlheinz Stockhausen, "Nr. 5: Zeitmaße (1955/56) für Oboe, Flöte, Englisch-Horn, Klarinette, Fagott", in his Texte zur Musik 2, edited by Dieter Schnebel, 46–48. DuMont Dokumente (Cologne: Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg, 1964 ): 46.
  42. ^ Naxos Records
  43. ^ Hallé Orchestra official website
  44. ^ Naxos Records
  45. ^ William Walton Trust
  46. ^ New General Catalog of Old Books and Authors