1957 in Israel

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1957
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See also: Other events of 1957
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Events in the year 1957 in Israel.

Incumbents[edit]

Events[edit]

  • 15 January – The trial of 11 Israel Border Police officers and soldiers for their actions during the Kafr Qasim massacre begins.[1]
  • 18 January – Two students, Gideon Hollin and Shifra Rabinowitz, goes missing near Jerusalem.[2] It was found that the two were captured by Jordanian soldiers when they accidentally crossed the border near Talpiot.[3] Rabinowitz were returned to Israel on 28 January[4] and Hollin was returned on 5 March.[5]
  • 22 January – Israel withdraws from the Sinai Peninsula (captured from Egypt on 29 October 1956 during the Suez Crisis), keeping forces in the Gaza Strip and along the eastern shore of the peninsula.
  • 4 March – A few minutes past midnight, Israel Kastner is shot outside his house by Ze'ev Eckstein (who pulled the trigger), Dan Shemer and Yosef Menkes.[6] All three were former members of the pre-state right-wing underground Jewish militant group Lehi.[7] Kastner dies of his injuries twelve days later.[8]
  • 24 March – Bodies of 4 youngsters are returned from Jordan to Israel. The four set out from Be'er Menucha on 18 March and attempted to reach Petra by foot, but were killed by Bedouins during the journey.[9][10][11]
  • 6 April – Hapoel Tel Aviv wins the football league title, despite losing 0–2 to Maccabi Tel Aviv in the Tel Aviv derby,[12] as championship rival Hapoel Petah Tikva loses 1–2 to Beitar Tel Aviv.[13]
  • 13 April – 16 people were wounded at Basa Stadium, Hapoel Tel Aviv's ground, as an unfinished terrace on which they were sitting collapsed.[14]
  • 10 May – A strike breaks out in the ATA Textile factory, after failed negotiations between the owners and the workers' representatives over the terms of the workers' collective agreement and the management intent to fire a percentage of the workers.[15] Despite the attempt of government involvement in ending the dispute,[16] including an offer to transfer the matter to the personal mediation of PM Ben-Gurion,[17] the strike is held until 19 August, when an agreement is signed between the factory's management and the workers' representatives from the Histadrut.[18]
  • 1 June – Maccabi Tel Aviv wins the Basketball League title after beating their nearest rival, Hapoel Tel Aviv 88–44.[19]
  • 3 June – Soldier Yitzhak Kayam is returned from Jordan through the Mandelbaum Gate. Kayam was captured by fedayeen on 5 January 1957 near Kfar Truman and was imprisoned and interrogated in Jordan.[20]
  • 20 June – Youngster Margalit Shimoni is returned from Jordan after 80 days in captivity.[21] Shimoni went missing on 1 April near kibbutz Lahav.[22] According to Shimoni, she was captured by Jordanian forces when she mistakenly crossed the border while searching for the kibbutz's shepherd,[23] although other sources linked her disappearance to a row she had with her boyfriend.[24][25]
  • 6 July – Hapoel Petah Tikva wins the Football State Cup, as it beats Maccabi Jaffa 2–1 in the final.[26]
  • 22 July – An Israeli journalist, Rafi Ayalon, is detained by Egypt on board the Danish ship Brigitte Toft.[27] Ayalon was listed as a crew member and was arrested by the Egyptians as the ship was about to enter the Suez Canal. Ayalon is held by the Egyptians until 14 August.[28]
  • 8 August – 5 prisoners break out of the Tel Mond Prison as they are left unguarded and escape through the prison's roof.[29] Three are apprehended a short time after which, near the prison,[30] while two, Eliyahu Hadad and Itzhak (Zaki) Shem Tov, elude the police and hide out in Tel Aviv.[31] Hadad is caught in Tel Aviv on 19 August[32] and Shem Tov is caught on 27 August, on the beach near Dan Hotel, as he was bathing in the sea.[33] Shem Tov was hiding in a makeshift tent near Ayalon River, and used women's clothes and wig to disguise himself while on the loose.[34]
  • 11 August - Kibbutz Beit Nir is founded.
  • 26 August - kibbutz Or HaNer is founded.[35][36]
  • 31 August – Two newly arrived immigrants from Mle'a, Shlomo Zilberman and Zigmunt Levy, walking to nearby Givat Oz, stray from their path and cross the 1949 Armistice Agreement Line near Zububa.[37] The two are capture by local villagers who deliver them to the armed forces. The two are returned to Israel on 10 September.[38]
  • 12 September – El Al receives its first Bristol Britannia airplane, one of four ordered.[39]
  • 15 September – With a ceremony held at Ramat Gan Stadium, the 1957 Maccabiah Games opens.[40] The games' closing ceremony is held on 24 September.
  • 17 September – 15 Children from the Arab village Sandala are killed while playing with a mortar shell which was fired but wasn't exploded during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.[41][42]
  • 22 September – The fishing boat Doron from is captured by Egyptian forces, who claim that the boat entered Egypt's territorial waters, and is led to Port Said. Its crew, 5 Israeli fishermen and its Italian captain, are interrogated by the Egyptians.[43]
  • 1 October – Heichal HaTarbut, the main concert hall in Tel Aviv, opens.[44]
  • 11 October – Hungarian actor Zoltán Greguss is detained by Tel Aviv police, facing accusations of molesting a 12-year-old girl.[45] The arrest causes diplomatic stress between Israel and Hungary, leading to deportation of three Israeli diplomats from Budapest.[46][47] The actor's trial was held during the second half of October and early November, and the court's verdict was given on 18 November, in which Greguss was acquitted.[48]
  • 28 October – In the 1957 Israeli presidential election, the Knesset re-elects incumbent Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, who ran unopposed, as President of Israel with 76 votes for and 16 abstaining.[49]
  • 29 October – Moshe Dwek, a 26-year-old Yemenite-Israeli mental patient throws a hand grenade in the Knesset. The grenade blast causes severe injuries to the Minister of Religious Affairs Haim-Moshe Shapira, and lightly wounds the prime minister David Ben-Gurion, Foreign Minister Golda Meir and the Minister of Transport Moshe Carmel.[50]
  • 1 November – The final gate is lifted in the dam blocking the Lake Hula, starting the final phase of the drainage of the lake towards the Sea of Galilee.[51]
  • 25 November – Bodies of 2 youngsters, Mordechai Tubi and Amiram Shai, are returned from Jordan to Israel. The two set out from Be'er Menucha on 20 November, trying to reach Petra by foot, but were killed by Jordanian-Bedouin soldiers during the journey.[9][52][53]
  • 27 November – In football, Moshe Varon is appointed as Israel national football team manager.[54][55]
  • 3 December – The Israeli Sports Betting Council is founded, as the Olympic Committee of Israel, the Israel Football Association and the Israel Sport Association establish a football pool.[56] The first betting slips are published in the Israeli papers in the following week.[57]
  • 17 December – A dispute breaks out in within the government regarding intent to send an official delegation, headed by IDF Chief of Staff Moshe Dayan (whose name was prohibited for publication), to West Germany.[58][59] The intent was made public by Ahdut HaAvoda ministers, who leaked the information to their party's newspaper, LaMerhav and to other evening papers.[60] Following the leak, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion demanded the resignation of Ahdut HaAvoda ministers,[61] and, as Ahdut HaAvoda refused, Ben-Gurion resigned as Prime Minister on 31 December,[62] ending the Seventh government of Israel.
  • 23 December – Yotvata, previously a Nahal settlement (established 1951),[63] becomes a permanent, civil settlement.[64]

Israeli–Palestinian conflict[edit]

The most prominent events related to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict which occurred during 1957 include:

Notable Palestinian militant operations against Israeli targets

The most prominent Palestinian fedayeen terror attacks committed against Israelis during 1957 include:

  • 18 February – Two Israeli civilians, Menachem Klug and Yeshaayahu Fein, are killed near kibbutz Nir Yitzhak. The two were conducting a seismological survey when their vehicle drove over a landmine.[68][69]
  • 8 March - Armed Palestinian Arab militants, who infiltrated into Israel, killed Shlomo Amsalem, a shepherd from kibbutz Beit Guvrin in a field near the kibbutz.[70]
  • 16 April - Armed Palestinian Arab militants, who infiltrated into Israel from the village of Faqqua, killed two guards, Yechezkel Beit Elgar (Idgadri)[71] and Yamin (Binyamin) David-Hai[72] at Kibbutz Mesilot.[73] The militants also planted a landmine in a nearby field, which exploded when a tractor drove over it. The tractor driver was injured lightly.[74]
  • 20 May - Armed Bedouin militants set up an ambush for passing vehicles on the Eilat-Be'er Sheva road. The militants fired on three different vehicles between 18:15 and 21:00, killing one person, Israel Rottman,[75] a passenger in the second vehicle (attacked at 19:30). Three were injured during the militants' last attack, during which army forces arrived to the location and the militants retreated back to Jordan.[76][77]
  • 29 May - A tractor driver, Eliezer Himmelfarb,[78] was killed and two others wounded when the vehicle struck a landmine next to kibbutz Kissufim.[79]
  • 8 June – 2 Israeli civilians, Daniel Agron, son of Jerusalem mayor Gershon Agron, and future MK Avraham Katz were injured when their vehicle drove over a landmine near Nahal Oz.[80]
  • 16 June – A civilian, Engineer Misha Faktori, was killed by a Syrian sniper near Bnot Yaakov Bridge.[81][82]
  • 18 June – An Israeli civilian, Makhluf Abarjil, was killed near Eilat from a landmine explosion.[83][84]
  • 24 June – An Israeli civilian, Ra'aya Goldschmidt was killed in kibbutz Gadot as a Syrian Armed Forces Syrian Army unit attached the kibbutz with machine gun fire.[85][86]
  • 9 July – One Israeli civilian, Kamus Ben Atiya, is killed[87] and seven Israel Border Police guards are injured during a Syrian attack on Kibbutz Gonen.[88]
  • 23 August –Two guards of the Israeli Mekorot water company, Druze brothers Hamed Nasser[89] and Fadallah Nasser,[90] were killed near Kibbutz Beit Guvrin.[91]
  • 6 November – A policeman, Amram Haziza, was killed when Syrian forces attacked a group of workers in the fields near Kibbutz Tel Katzir.[92][93]
  • 24 November – A member of Kibbutz She'ar Yashuv, Yosef Ben-Haim was killed by Syrian soldiers in the Kibbutz fields.[94][95]
  • 21 December - A member of kibbutz Gadot, Betzalel Bobritzki,[96][97] was killed by a Syrian soldier or soldiers in the Kibbutz fields while walking with his girlfriend.[98][99]

Notable Israeli military operations against Palestinian militancy targets

The most prominent Israeli military counter-terrorism operations (military campaigns and military operations) carried out against Palestinian militants during 1957 include:

Notable births[edit]

Notable deaths[edit]

Major public holidays[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Trial of the 11 Accused of Murdering 47 People from Kafr Qasim Had Began Ma'ariv, 15 January 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  2. ^ The Two Missing Students Are Yet to Be Found HaTzofe, 22 January 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  3. ^ The Missing Student Couple Are Imprisoned in Jordan Herut, 23 January 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  4. ^ The Jordanians Return the Female Student Ma'ariv, 27 January 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  5. ^ G. Hollin Is Being Interregated Ma'ariv, 6 March 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  6. ^ 4 Apprehended After the Kastner Assassination Ma'ariv, 4 March 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  7. ^ Decoding Israel Kastner Murder (1957) Shabak.gov.il (Hebrew)
  8. ^ Dr. I. Kastner Will Be Interred Today Davar, 17 March 1957, Histocial Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  9. ^ a b Petra and the Paratroopers Dr. Arie Gilai, Paratroopers.org.il (Hebrew)
  10. ^ Four Set Out to Petra Erela, HaOlam Haze, 22 March 1957 (via 202.org.il) (Hebrew)
  11. ^ The Bodies of the Four Youngsters Were Returned HaTzofe, 24 March 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  12. ^ Hapoel T.A. Lost – and Won the Championship Ma'ariv, 7 April 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  13. ^ Beitar T.A. Foiled Hapoel P.T.'s Last Chance to Win the Championship Ma'ariv, 7 April 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  14. ^ 16 Spectators Wounded as Terrace Collapses in "Basa" Herut, 14 April 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  15. ^ A Strike at ATA Factories HaTzofe, 12 May 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  16. ^ Minister of Labor Invited the Sides of the ATA Dispute Davar, 30 June 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  17. ^ ATA Workers Rejected Ben-Gurion's Mediation Itzhak Elad, Herut, 22 July 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  18. ^ ATA Dispute Is Eliminated Herut, 19 August 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  19. ^ Maccabi T.A. Won the Basketball Championship Ma'ariv, 2 June 1957, Historical Jewish Press
  20. ^ An Israeli Soldier Was Returned from Jordanian Captivity After Six Months Davar, 10 June 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  21. ^ Youngster Returned from Jordanian Captivity Ma'ariv, 21 June 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  22. ^ Girl Missing from Kibbutz Lahav Ma'ariv, 2 April 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  23. ^ I Sat in a Women's Prison in Amman Ma'ariv, 23 June 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  24. ^ The Girl's Tracks Led to Jordan Ma'ariv, 3 April 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  25. ^ Ran Away to Jordan Because of a Row With Her Boyfriend HaTzofe, 4 April 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  26. ^ Stelmach's Head Brought the Cup to Hapoel P.T. Dov Goldstein, Ma'ariv, 7 July 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  27. ^ An Israeli Sailor Was Arrested Aboard the Brigitte Toft Davar, 23 July 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  28. ^ Rafi Ayalon, Who Was Released Yesterday by the UN Tells of His Torture at the Egyptian Prison Herut, 15 August 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  29. ^ Five Prisoners Break Out of Prison HaTozfe, 9 August 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  30. ^ I Tried Breaking Out of Tel Mond Prison Uri Dan, Ma'ariv, 11 August 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  31. ^ Tel Mond Escapees Evading Police Herut, 15 August 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  32. ^ I've Hidden Near the Police and Took Strolls in Allenby Street Shaul Ben Haim, Ma'ariv, 20 August 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  33. ^ Zaki Shem Tov, the Second Escapee, Is Caught HaTzofe, 28 August 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  34. ^ Shem Tov Was Caught on the Beach Davar, 28 August 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  35. ^ A New Kibbutz in the Negev Herut, 26 August 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  36. ^ Zaid Hills Men Opened a New Life Chapter in the Negev Zvi Lavie, Ma'ariv, 1 September 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  37. ^ 2 Settlers Who Accidentally Penetrated Jordan Were Captured, Davar, 6 September 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  38. ^ We Were Interrogated at the Jordanian Prison in the Presence of a Russian Woman Ma'ariv, 10 September 1959 Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  39. ^ The "Whispering Giant" Came to Israel Menachem Talmai, Ma'ariv, 13 September 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  40. ^ Sportive Ingathering in the stadium Uri Dan, Ma'ariv, 16 September 1957 Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  41. ^ 14 Boys Killed While Playing With a Shell in Sandala Hezi Gonen, Herut, 18 September 1957 Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  42. ^ The Shell Waited for the Children Ya'akov Aviel, Ma'ariv, 18 September 1957 Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  43. ^ The Six Fishermen Were Caught Far from the Egyptian Shore R. Ben Zvi, Ma'ariv, 25 September 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  44. ^ The Culture Palace in Tel Aviv Is to Open Tonight Ma'ariv, 1 October 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  45. ^ Greguss: I Don't Blame Israel Yosef Lapid, Ma'ariv, 21 October 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  46. ^ Disclosures About the Actor Greguss Affair Which Caused a Diplomatic Dispute With Hungary Ma'ariv, 21 October 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  47. ^ Three of the Consulate Personnel Leave Budapest to Israel Today HaTzofe, 22 October 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  48. ^ The Actor Zoltan Greguss Acquitted Davar, 19 November 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  49. ^ Y. Ben-Zvi Elected for a Second Term Davar, 29 October 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  50. ^ Four Ministers Wounded in Assassination Dan Horowitz and D. Zuta, Davar, 30 October 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  51. ^ The Giant Enterprise of the Hula Drainage Is Completed David Shalev, 1 November 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  52. ^ The Jordanians Delivered the Bodies of 2 Petra-Dead Ma'ariv, 25 November 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  53. ^ Tubi and Shai Defended With Their Weapons When They Were Attacked on the Way to Petra G. Strassmann, Ma'ariv, 28 November 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  54. ^ M. Varon – Manager of the Football Team Ma'ariv, 28 November 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  55. ^ Varon Chosen as Manager to Preserve "Domestic Peace" Hadshot HaSport, 1 December 1957, p. 1 (Hebrew)
  56. ^ Toto Guesses - In the Country Ma'ariv, 1 December 1957, hjp (Hebrew)
  57. ^ SportToto Participation Slip Ma'ariv, 3 December 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  58. ^ Fierce Dispute Erupted in Government Over Sending an Official Representative to Germany Ma'ariv, 17 December 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  59. ^ Head of Mapai Was Forced to Withdraw from a Decision of Horror: Sending _______ to Germany Herut, 18 December 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  60. ^ A Military Delegation to Germany Was Cancelled Following a Serious Leak of "Ahdut HaAvoda" Hagai Eshed and Dan Horowitz, Davar, 18 December 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  61. ^ Amid Anger Over the Discovery of the Plan of Horror to Send ____ to Germany: Head of Mapai Demands the Resignation of Ahdut HaAvoda Ministers Itzhak La'ish, Herut, 19 December 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  62. ^ The Government Resigned Ma'ariv, 31 December 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  63. ^ The Journey to Kibbutz Yotvata yotvata.co.il (Hebrew)
  64. ^ Yotvata Became a Permanent Settlement Davar, 27 December 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  65. ^ Burns, Lieutenant-General E.L.M. (1962) Between Arab and Israeli. George G. Harrap. P. 260.
  66. ^ FULL GAZA POWER IS GIVEN TO BURNS - U.N. Official Says General Will 'Do What He Thinks Necessary' in Area - Article - NYTimes.com
  67. ^ Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Google News Archive Search
  68. ^ The 2 Landmine Casualties – To Rest Ma'ariv, 19 February 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  69. ^ Menachem Klug RIP Bituah Leumi – Civilians Victims of Terror (Hebrew)
  70. ^ Beit Guvrin's Shepherd Was Murdered Herut, 10 March 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  71. ^ Yechezkel Beit Elgar RIP Bituah Leumi – Civilians Victims of Terror (Hebrew)
  72. ^ Yamin Binyamin David-Hai RIP Bituah Leumi – Civilians Victims of Terror (Hebrew)
  73. ^ The clock stopped at 8.45… Ma'ariv, 17 April 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  74. ^ The Murderers of the Two Guards Are Those Who Mined the Tractor Ma'ariv, 19 April 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  75. ^ Israel Rottman RIP Bituah Leumi – Civilians Victims of Terror (Hebrew)
  76. ^ 3 Injured in Another Attack on the Eilat Road Ma'ariv, 21 May 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  77. ^ And Once Again the Tracks Led to Wadi Musa Ma'ariv, 23 May 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  78. ^ Eliezer Himmelfarb RIP Bituah Leumi – Civilians Victims of Terror (Hebrew)
  79. ^ Tractor Driver from Kissufim Killed from Landmine Herut, 30 May 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  80. ^ 2 Wounded from an Egyptian Landmine Herut, 9 June 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  81. ^ Israeli Engineer Murdered by Syrian Fire Herut, 17 June 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  82. ^ Misha Faktori (Faktorovich) RIP Bituah Leumi – Civilians Victims of Terror (Hebrew)
  83. ^ Eilat Resident Killed by a Landmine Ma'ariv, 19 June 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  84. ^ Makhluf Abarjil RIP Bituah Leumi – Civilians Victims of Terror (Hebrew)
  85. ^ After the Murder of Gadot Member Ra'aya Goldschmidt: Israel Took Security Measures at the Syrian Border Ma'ariv, 25 June 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  86. ^ Ra'aya Krolik Goldschmidt RIP Bituah Leumi – Civilians Victims of Terror (Hebrew)
  87. ^ Kamus Ben Atiya RIP Bituah Leumi – Civilians Victims of Terror (Hebrew)
  88. ^ A Casualty and 7 Injured in a Syrian Attack in Gonen Area Davar, 10 July 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  89. ^ Hamed Nasser RIP Bituah Leumi – Civilians Victims of Terror (Hebrew)
  90. ^ Fadallah Nasser RIP Bituah Leumi – Civilians Victims of Terror (Hebrew)
  91. ^ Jordanians Murdered Two Druze Guards Davar, 25 August 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  92. ^ Private Amram Haziza Izkor (Hebrew)
  93. ^ A Policeman Murdered and a Worker Wounded by Syrian Fire Hezi Gonen, Herut, 7 November 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  94. ^ Tractor Operator Killed By Syrian Gunshots Y. Shai, Ma'ariv, 24 November 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  95. ^ Yosef Ben-Haim RIP Bituah Leumi – Civilians Victims of Terror (Hebrew)
  96. ^ Near Kibbutz Gadot ezy.co.il
  97. ^ Private Betzalel "Batzul" Buvritzik RIP Ra'anana Municipalicty (Hebrew)
  98. ^ Betzalel Fell at the Jordan River Banks I.Shai, Ma'ariv, 22 December 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  99. ^ Several Syrians Took Part in the Killing of Bobritzki from Gadot I. Shai, Ma'ariv, 23 December 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  100. ^ Burns, Lieutenant-General E.L.M. (1962) Between Arab and Israeli. George G. Harrap. Page 260.
  101. ^ FULL GAZA POWER IS GIVEN TO BURNS - U.N. Official Says General Will 'Do What He Thinks Necessary' in Area - Article - NYTimes.com
  102. ^ Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Google News Archive Search
  103. ^ The Writer Mastboym Dies Herut, 14 April 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  104. ^ The Writer Itzhak Shenhar Dies Ma'ariv, 18 April 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  105. ^ Yechiel Weizmann Dies Ma'ariv, 4 July 1957, Historical Jewish Press
  106. ^ Colonel Nehemiah Argov, Military Aide of Ben-Gurion, Committed Suicide in T.A. Herut, 4 November 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  107. ^ Is the Mystery of Col. Nehemiah Argov's Suicide Solved? Historical Moments (Hebrew)
  108. ^ Moshe Ichilov – Gone M. Ben-Shachar, Herut, 17 November 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  109. ^ Moshe Ichilov – Gone (cont.) M. Ben-Shachar, Herut, 17 November 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  110. ^ The Actor Zvi Ben-Haim Passed Away Ma'ariv, 2 December 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  111. ^ The G.R.A.Z. Werner Laid to Rest HaTzofe, 31 December 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  112. ^ Tu Bishvat Is Here! Herut, 16 January 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  113. ^ When Is Purim? Ma'ariv, 8 March 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  114. ^ The Holocaust Ma'ariv, 28 April 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  115. ^ The Nation Remembers the Independence Fallen Ma'ariv, 5 May 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  116. ^ Holiday Guide - from Evening to Evening Ma'ariv, 5 May 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)
  117. ^ Lag Ba'Omer Celebrations and Student Day in the Capital Herut, 19 May 1957, Historical Jewish Press (Hebrew)