1958 US–UK Mutual Defence Agreement
The 1958 US–UK Mutual Defence Agreement, or UK–US Mutual Defence Agreement, is a bilateral treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom on nuclear weapons cooperation. The treaty's full name is Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland for Cooperation on the uses of Atomic Energy for Mutual Defense Purposes.
It was signed after the UK successfully tested its first hydrogen bomb during Operation Grapple. While the US has nuclear cooperation agreements with other countries, including France and some NATO countries, this agreement is by far the most comprehensive.
The treaty is renewed every ten years, most recently extending the treaty to 31 December 2024.
Details of the agreement
The agreement enables the US and the UK to exchange classified information with the objective of improving each party's "atomic weapon design, development, and fabrication capability".
This includes development of defence plans; training personnel in the use and defence against nuclear weapons; evaluation of enemy capabilities; development of nuclear delivery systems; and research, development and design of military reactors. The agreement also provides for the transfer of special nuclear material (e.g., plutonium, highly enriched uranium, tritium), components, and equipment between the two countries, and the transfer of "non-nuclear parts of atomic weapons" to the UK.
The agreement also covered the export of one complete US submarine nuclear propulsion plant and its enriched uranium fuel which was installed in the UK's first nuclear-powered submarine, HMS Dreadnought. The design however was found to be unsatisfactory and a quieter all British design developed in parallel to the prototype HMS Dreadnought was used on the production Valiant class.
There are also confidential intelligence matters covered by the agreement. The UK government has not published these sections "because of the necessity for great confidentiality and because ... it might well assist proliferation".
While most of the activity under the treaty is information exchange through joint working groups, as of 2014 there are also two enhanced collaborations jointly developing capabilities:
- Enhanced Nuclear Safety – to develop architectures and technologies related to warhead safety
- Warhead Electrical System – to develop architectures and technologies for warhead electrical systems
This agreement replaced the earlier "Agreement for Cooperation Regarding Atomic Information for Mutual Defense Purposes" of 1955. A separate Polaris Sales Agreement was signed on 6 April 1963.
Assistance to UK nuclear weapons development
An early benefit of the agreement was to allow the UK to "Anglicise" the US W28 nuclear warhead as the Red Snow thermonuclear weapon for the Blue Steel missile by 1961. In 1974 a CIA proliferation assessment noted that "In many cases [Britain's sensitive technology in nuclear and missile fields] is based on technology received from the US and could not legitimately be passed on without US permission."
The UK National Audit Office noted that most of the UK Trident warhead development and production expenditure was incurred in the US who would supply "certain warhead-related components". Some of the fissile materials for the UK Trident warhead were purchased from the US. There is evidence that the warhead design of the British Trident system is similar to, or even based on, the US W76 warhead fitted in some US Navy Trident missiles, with design and blast model data supplied to the UK.
Special nuclear materials barter
Under the agreement 5.37 tonnes (11,800 lb) of UK-produced plutonium was sent to the US in return for 6.7 kilograms (15 lb) of tritium and 7.5 tonnes (17,000 lb) of highly enriched uranium over the period 1960–79. A further 470 kilograms (1,040 lb) of plutonium was swapped between the US and the UK for reasons that remain classified. Some of the UK produced plutonium was used in 1962 by the US for the only known nuclear weapon test of reactor-grade plutonium.
The plutonium sent to the US included some produced in UK civil Magnox reactors, and the US gave assurances that this civil plutonium was not used in the US nuclear weapons program. It was used in civil programmes which included californium production and reactor research. However, the UK did obtain military nuclear material in return, so via this barter UK civil power stations probably provided weapons material.
- Atomic Weapons Establishment
- Manhattan Project
- Nassau agreement
- Nuclear weapons and the United Kingdom
- Nuclear weapons and the United States
- Project E
- Quebec Agreement
- Special Relationship
- UKUSA Agreement
- Philip Dunne (21 October 2014). "Written question 209762: Angus Robertson 26-09-2014". UK Parliament. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- "Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland for Cooperation on the uses of Atomic Energy for Mutual Defense Purposes". British American Security Information Council. 4 August 1958. Archived from the original on 21 December 2004.
- Tobias Ellwood (The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for FCO) (24 November 2014). "Military Alliances:Written question - 214429". Hansard. UK Parliament. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- "UK/US: Amendment to the agreement for cooperation on the uses of atomic energy for mutual defense purposes". Foreign & Commonwealth Office. 16 October 2014. Archived from the original on 22 March 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "UK Mounts First Underground Nuclear Test (UGT)". Atomic Weapons Establishment. Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
- "UK-US Mutual Defence Agreement". Lords Hansard – column 1119. Hansard. 22 June 2004. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
- "Yellow Sun MK.2 Enters Service". Atomic Weapons Establishment. Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
- "Prospects for Further Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons" (PDF). Special National Intelligence Estimate. CIA. 23 August 1974: 40. SNIE 4-1-74. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 February 2008. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- "National Security Decision Memorandum 276". United States National Security Council. 15 October 1974. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
- "National Security Directive 61" (PDF). The White House. 2 July 1991. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
- Dan Plesch (March 2006). "The Future of Britain's WMD" (PDF). Foreign Policy Centre: 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 June 2006. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
- Ministry of Defence and Property Services Agency: Control and Management of the Trident Programme. National Audit Office. 29 June 1987. pp. ara. 1.1, 3.27, A4.4. ISBN 978-0-10-202788-4.
- "Britain's Next Nuclear Era". Federation of American Scientists. 7 December 2006. Archived from the original on 6 February 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
- "Stockpile Stewardship Plan: Second Annual Update (FY 1999)" (PDF). United States Department of Energy. April 1998. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
- "Plutonium and Aldermaston – an historical account" (PDF). UK Ministry of Defence. 4 September 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 December 2006. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
- "Additional Information Concerning Underground Nuclear Weapon Test of Reactor-Grade Plutonium". US Department of Energy. June 1994. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
- David Lowry (29 April 2004). "Obituary: Ross Hesketh". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 March 2012.