1958 in science
- During International Geophysical Year
- Earth's magnetosphere is discovered.
- The 3rd Soviet Antarctic Expedition discovers the subglacial Gamburtsev Mountain Range in Antarctica; also becoming the first to reach the Southern Pole of Inaccessibility (December 14).
- The Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition completes (March 2) its three-year mission to make the first overland crossing of Antarctica, via the South Pole. The first (and third ever) team to reach the Pole overland (January 3) is Edmund Hillary's, using adapted Ferguson TE20 tractors, the first powered vehicles to complete a trip here.
- April 17–October 19 – Expo 58 in Brussels. The centrepiece is the Atomium; and a model of tobacco mosaic virus structure by Rosalind Franklin's research team is exhibited.
- July 9 – 1958 Lituya Bay megatsunami: A 7.8 Mw strike-slip earthquake in Southeast Alaska causes a landslide that produces a megatsunami. The runup from the waves reached 525 m (1,722 ft) on the rim of Lituya Bay.
Astronomy and space exploration
- January 4 – Sputnik 1 falls to Earth from its orbit and burns up (launched on October 4, 1957).
- January 31 – The first successful American satellite, Explorer I, is launched into orbit.
- February 5 – A backup for Vanguard TV3 fails to reach orbit.
- February 11 – The strongest ever known solar maximum is recorded.
- March 5 – Explorer 2 fails to reach orbit.
- March 17 – Vanguard 1 becomes the first of its program to enter space, after three failed attempts.
- March 26 – Explorer 3 is launched into orbit.
- April 14 – Sputnik 2 re-enters Earth's atmosphere.
- July 29 – The United States Congress formally creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
- September 14 – Two rockets designed by Ernst Mohr (the first post-war German rockets) reach the upper atmosphere.
- December 18 – The United States launches SCORE, the world's first communications satellite.
- Francis Crick states the "central dogma of molecular biology".
- John Gurdon clones a frog using somatic-cell nuclear transfer from a Xenopus tadpole.
- Anne McLaren, with John D. Biggers, reports the first mammals, a litter of mice, grown from embryos developed in vitro and transferred to a surrogate mother.
- Denatonium, the bitterest chemical compound known (used as an aversive agent), is discovered during research on local anesthetics by Macfarlan Smith of Edinburgh, Scotland, and registered under the trademark Bitrex.
- May 27–June 2 – A joint meeting of the ACM and GAMM at ETH Zurich agrees to produce the International Algebraic Language, which will become the programming language ALGOL.
- Friedrich L. Bauer and other members of the ZMMD-Group build a working ALGOL 58 compiler.
- John McCarthy specifies the Lisp programming language.
History of science
- Society for the History of Technology established.
- School Mathematics Study Group, directed by Edward G. Begle, established to develop a new school mathematics curriculum for the United States; it is influential in the promotion of New Math.
- May 22 – Jérôme Lejeune, working with Marthe Gautier in Raymond Turpin's French laboratory, discovers that the genetic cause of Down syndrome is an extra copy of chromosome 21.
- June 7 – Ian Donald publishes an article in The Lancet which describes the diagnostic use of ultrasound.
- Engineer Earl Bakken (U.S.) produces the first wearable external artificial pacemaker, for a patient of Dr. C. Walton Lillehei.
- The first clinical implantations into a human of fully implantable artificial pacemakers takes place at the Karolinska Institute in Solna, Sweden, using a pacemaker designed by Rune Elmqvist and surgeon Åke Senning. The patient, Arne Larsson (1915–2001), survives until age 86, having been fitted with 22 pacemakers throughout his life.
- B. Eiseman and colleagues from Colorado first describe fecal microbiota transplantation.
- Denis Parsons Burkitt first describes Burkitt's lymphoma.
- January 28 The classic Lego brick is patented in Denmark.
- April 1 – The BBC Radiophonic Workshop is established in London.
- September 12 – Jack Kilby demonstrates the first integrated circuit.
- December 15 – Arthur L. Schawlow and Charles H. Townes of Bell Laboratories publish a paper in Physical Review Letters setting out the principles of the optical laser.
- Dutch rally driver Maus Gatsonides introduces his first roadside automobile speed measurement device.
- Fields Prize in Mathematics: Klaus Roth and René Thom
- Nobel Prizes
- January 15 – Debi Prasad Sarkar, Indian biochemist
- February 26 – Susan J. Helms, American astronaut
- July 15 – Monica Grady, British meteorite scientist
- October 5 – Neil deGrasse Tyson, American astrophysicist
- Anthony Atala, Peruvian-born American regenerative medicine practitioner
- February 1 – Clinton Davisson (born 1888), American physicist (Nobel Prize in Physics 1937)
- February 11 – Ernest Jones (born 1879), Welsh psychoanalyst
- April 16 – Rosalind Franklin (born 1920), English crystallographer
- August 14 – Frédéric Joliot-Curie (born 1900), French physicist (Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935)
- August 27 – Ernest Lawrence (born 1901), American nuclear physicist (Nobel Prize in Physics 1939)
- October 2 – Marie Stopes (born 1880), Scottish-born paleobotanist and pioneer of birth control
- November 17 – Yutaka Taniyama (born 1927), Japanese mathematician (suicide)
- December 12 – Milutin Milanković (born 1879), Serbian geophysicist
- December 15 – Wolfgang Pauli (born 1900), Austrian theoretical physicist
- Australian Antarctic Data Centre. "Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains". Australian Government, Antarctic Division. Archived from the original on 2007-09-20. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- As of 2012. "Solar Storm Warning". Science@NASA. 2006-03-10. Retrieved 2012-03-30.
- Crick, F. H. C. (1958). "On Protein Synthesis". In Saunders, F. K. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology, Number XII: The Biological Replication of Macromolecules. Cambridge University Press. pp. 138–163.
- Gurdon, J. B.; Elsdale, T. R.; Fischberg, M. (1958). "Sexually Mature Individuals of Xenopus laevis from the Transplantation of Single Somatic Nuclei". Nature. 182 (4627): 64–65. Bibcode:1958Natur.182...64G. doi:10.1038/182064a0. PMID 13566187.
- Gurdon, J. B. (1962). "The developmental capacity of nuclei taken from intestinal epithelium cells of feeding tadpoles". Journal of Embryology and Experimental Morphology. 10: 622–640. PMID 13951335.
- Gurdon, J. B.; Byrne, J. A. (2003). "The first half-century of nuclear transplantation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (14): 8048–8052. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.8048G. doi:10.1073/pnas.1337135100.
- Gurdon, J. B. (2006). "From Nuclear Transfer to Nuclear Reprogramming: The Reversal of Cell Differentiation". Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 22: 1–22. doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.22.090805.140144. PMID 16704337.
- Gurdon, J. B.; Melton, D. A. (2008). "Nuclear Reprogramming in Cells". Science. 322 (5909): 1811–1815. Bibcode:2008Sci...322.1811G. doi:10.1126/science.1160810. PMID 19095934.
- Kain, K. (2009). "The birth of cloning: An interview with John Gurdon". Disease Models and Mechanisms. 2 (1–2): 9–10. doi:10.1242/dmm.002014. PMC . PMID 19132124.
- Williams, R. (2008). "Sir John Gurdon: Godfather of cloning". The Journal of Cell Biology. 181 (2): 178–179. doi:10.1083/jcb.1812pi. PMC . PMID 18426972.
- Gurdon, J. (2003). "John Gurdon". Current Biology. 13 (19): R759–R760. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2003.09.015. PMID 14521852.
- Gurdon, J. (2000). "Not a total waste of time. An interview with John Gurdon. Interview by James C Smith". The International journal of developmental biology. 44 (1): 93–99. PMID 10761853.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – 2012 Press Release". Nobel Media AB. 2012-10-08. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- McLaren, Anne; Biggers, J. D. (27 September 1958). "Successful Development and Birth of Mice cultivated in vitro as Early Embryos" (PDF). Nature. 182 (4639): 877–8. Bibcode:1958Natur.182..877M. doi:10.1038/182877a0. Retrieved 2011-08-11.
- "Bitrex®". Johnson Mathey Macfarlan Smith. Retrieved 2012-03-30.
- Klein, David (2003). "A Brief History of American K-12 Mathematics Education in the 20th Century". Retrieved 2011-10-14.
- Lejeune, Jérôme; Gautier, Marthe; Turpin, Raymond (1959). "Les chromosomes humains en culture de tissus". Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences. 248: 602–603. Retrieved 2014-11-25.
- Lejeune, Jérôme; Gautier, Marthe; Turpin, Raymond (1959). "Étude des chromosomes somatiques de neuf enfants mongoliens". Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences. 248 (11): 1721–1722. Retrieved 2014-11-25.
- "Ian Donald's paper in The Lancet in 1958". Archived from the original on 12 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-27.
- Eiseman, B.; Silen, W.; Bascom, G. S.; et al. (1958). "Fecal enema as an adjunct in the treatment of pseudomembranous enterocolitis". Surgery. 44 (5): 854–859. PMID 13592638.
- synd/2511 at Who Named It?
- Burkitt, D. (1958). "A sarcoma involving the jaws in African children". The British Journal of Surgery. 46: 218–23. doi:10.1002/bjs.18004619704. PMID 13628987.
- "Gatso History". Haarlem: Gatsometer BV. Retrieved 2011-12-16.