The 1959 NCAA University Division Basketball Tournament involved 23 schools playing in single-elimination play to determine the national champion of men's NCAADivision Icollege basketball in the United States. It began on March 7, 1959, and ended with the championship game on March 21 in Louisville, Kentucky. A total of 27 games were played, including a third place game in each region and a national third place game.
For the second straight year, Freedom Hall in Louisville hosted the Final Four. The tournament saw two new venues, both used in the first round. The city of Portland hosted the tournament for the first time, hosting at the Pacific International Livestock Exposition. It would be the only time the building would host, as the Memorial Coliseum would open the next year. The state of New Mexico hosted the tournament for the first time, with New Mexico A&M hosting games at its home arena at the time, the Las Cruces High School Arena. This would mark the third time in three years a high school hosted the tournament, and the last time it would happen. The next time the Aggies would host the tournament would be at their own on-campus arena, the Pan American Center. All other venues, and all nine host cities, would host tournament games again in the future.