1960 in science

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List of years in science (table)

The year 1960 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

Astronomy and space exploration[edit]

  • August 11 – The return capsule of the U.S. Discoverer 13 Corona mission is successfully recovered from the Pacific Ocean, the first time any man-made object has been recovered successfully from orbit.[1]
  • September – A Soviet SS-2 Sibling missile is successfully launched in a suborbital test from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, the first Chinese spaceflight.
  • October 4 – The U.S. Army Courier 1B, the world's first active communications repeater satellite, is launched into low earth orbit.

Biology[edit]

Computer science[edit]

Earth sciences[edit]

Exploration[edit]

Mathematics[edit]

Medicine[edit]

Meteorology[edit]

Metrology[edit]

Paleontology[edit]

Physics[edit]

Technology[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Discoverer 13". NASA. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  2. ^ Perutz, M. F.; et al. (13 February 1960). "Structure of Hæmoglobin: A Three-Dimensional Fourier Synthesis at 5.5-Å. Resolution, Obtained by X-Ray Analysis" (PDF). Nature. 185 (4711): 416–22. Bibcode:1960Natur.185..416P. doi:10.1038/185416a0. PMID 18990801. Retrieved 2011-06-23. 
  3. ^ Kendrew, J. C.; et al. (13 February 1960). "Structure of Myoglobin: A Three-Dimensional Fourier Synthesis at 2 Å. Resolution" (PDF). Nature. 185 (4711): 422–7. Bibcode:1960Natur.185..422K. doi:10.1038/185422a0. PMID 18990802. Retrieved 2011-06-23. 
  4. ^ Hardy, Alister (1960-03-17). "Was man more aquatic in the past?" (PDF). New Scientist. 7: 642–645. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-26. Retrieved 2013-03-05. . More legible PDF at Elaine Morgan's The Aquatic Ape Theory website.
  5. ^ Woodward, R. B.; et al. (1960). "The Total Synthesis of Chlorophyll" (PDF). Journal of the American Chemical Society. 82: 3800–3802. doi:10.1021/ja01499a093. Retrieved 2011-06-23. 
  6. ^ Hurwitz, Jerard (December 2005). "The Discovery of RNA Polymerase" (PDF). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (52): 42477–85. doi:10.1074/jbc.X500006200. PMID 16230341. Retrieved 2011-06-23. 
  7. ^ "Climatron Conservatory – History and Architecture". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2011-08-17. 
  8. ^ Kruseman Aretz, F.E.J. (2003-06-30). "The Dijkstra-Zonneveld ALGOL 60 compiler for the Electrologica X1". Software Engineering (PDF). History of Computer Science. Amsterdam: Centrum Wiskunde; Informatica. 
  9. ^ Daylight, E. G. (2011). "Dijkstra's Rallying Cry for Generalization: the Advent of the Recursive Procedure, late 1950s–early 1960s". The Computer Journal. 54: 1756–1772. doi:10.1093/comjnl/bxr002. 
  10. ^ McCarthy, John (1960). "Recursive Functions of Symbolic Expressions and Their Computation by Machine". Communications of the ACM. 3 (4): 184–195. doi:10.1145/367177.367199. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  11. ^ Hess, H. H. (1960), Evolution of Ocean Basins, Report to Office of Naval Research. Contract No. 1858(10), NR 081-06 
  12. ^ Hess, H. H. (1962-11-01). "History of Ocean Basins" (PDF). In Engel, A. E. J.; James, Harold L.; Leonard, B. F. Petrologic Studies: a volume in honor of A. F. Buddington. Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America. pp. 599–620. 
  13. ^ Bilinski, S. (1960), "Über die Rhombenisoeder", Glasnik Mat. Fiz. Astr., 15: 251–263, Zbl 0099.15506 .
  14. ^ Suzuki, Michio (1960). "A new type of simple groups of finite order". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. United States. 46: 868–870. Bibcode:1960PNAS...46..868S. doi:10.1073/pnas.46.6.868. ISSN 0027-8424. JSTOR 70960. MR 0120283. PMC 222949Freely accessible. PMID 16590684. 
  15. ^ Ree, Rimhak (1960). "A family of simple groups associated with the simple Lie algebra of type (G2)". Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. 66: 508–510. doi:10.1090/S0002-9904-1960-10523-X. ISSN 0002-9904. MR 0125155. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  16. ^ Feit, Walter; Thompson, John G.; Hall, Marshall, Jr. (1960). "Finite groups in which the centralizer of any non-identity element is nilpotent". Mathematische Zeitschrift. 74: 1–17. doi:10.1007/BF01180468. MR 0114856. 
  17. ^ Adam, John (1999-02-05). "Making Hearts Beat". InnovativeLives. Lemelson Center. Retrieved 2011-09-29. 
  18. ^ Dee, R. (2003). "Who Assisted Whom?". Texas Heart Institute Journal. 30 (1): 90. PMC 152850Freely accessible. PMID 12638685. 
  19. ^ Haller, J. D.; Olearchyk, A. S. (2002). "Cardiology's 10 Greatest Discoveries". Texas Heart Institute Journal. 29 (4): 342–4. PMC 140304Freely accessible. PMID 12484626. 
  20. ^ "Smoking is Linked to Heart Disease". The New York Times. June 7, 1960. p. 36. 
  21. ^ "History of Kidney Transplantation in Edinburgh". EdREN. Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. 2001. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  22. ^ International Bureau of Weights and Measures (2006). Le Système international d'unités (SI) – The International System of Units (SI) (PDF) (8th ed.). p. 110. ISBN 92-822-2213-6. 
  23. ^ 11th CGPM (1960): Resolution 12.
  24. ^ Leakey, Richard E. (1981). The Making of Mankind. Elsevier-Dutton Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 65–66. ISBN 0-525-15055-2. 
  25. ^ U.S. Patent 3,243,634.Bellis, Mary. "History of Lighting and Lamps". About.com. Retrieved 2011-12-19. 
  26. ^ At Photokina.