1961 in aviation
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Years in aviation:||1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964|
|Centuries:||19th century · 20th century · 21st century|
|Decades:||1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s|
|Years:||1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964|
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1961:
- 1 Events
- 2 First flights
- 3 Entered service
- 4 References
- January 3 – Aero Flight 311 (Koivulahti air disaster): Douglas DC-3C OH-LCC of Finnish airline Aero crashes near Kvevlax (Koivulahti) on approach to Vaasa Airport in Finland killing all 25 on board, due to pilot error: an investigation finds that the captain and first officer were both exhausted for lack of sleep and had taken excessive alcohol at the time of the crash. It remains the deadliest air disaster to occur in the country.
- January 24 – A United States Air Force B-52G Stratofortress carrying two Mark 39 thermonuclear bombs breaks up in mid-air over Faro, North Carolina, and crashes, killing three of its eight-man crew. The bombs do not arm themselves and one bomb is recovered. Travelling at over 700 miles per hour (1,127 km/hr), the second bomb lands in a swamp and buries itself to a depth of over 75 feet (23 meters); flooding prevents its recovery.
- February 1 - Trans-Canada Air Lines becomes the first sustained operator of the Vickers Vanguard.
- February 3 - Operation Looking Glass commences, meaning that the US Air Force Strategic Air Command would have a permanent, airborne command post.
- February 15 - Sabena Flight 548, a Boeing 707, crashes at Brussels, Belgium. All 72 aboard (including the entire 18-member United States Figure Skating team), as well as one person on the ground, are killed. It is the first fatal accident involving the Boeing 707 and the deadliest accident in the history of Sabena.
- March 7 – Flying a North American X-15, U.S. Air Force Major Robert M. White becomes the first pilot to exceed Mach 4.
- March 14 – A U.S. Air Force B-52F Stratofortress carrying two nuclear weapons crashes in Sutter County, California, west of Yuba City. The weapons do not arm and the eight-man crew ejects safely, although a firefighter responding to the crash is killed and several people are injured in a road accident.
- March 28 – Air Afrique is formed.
- Seaboard & Western Airlines changes its name to Seaboard World Airlines.
- April 1
- VIASA – the flag carrier of Venezuela – commences operations.
- The United States Air Force redesignates its Air Research and Development Command as the Air Force Systems Command. It also redesignates the Air Materiel Command as the Air Force Logistics Command, with some of its functions transferred to the Air Force Systems Command.
- April 3 – In Chile's worst air disaster in history at the time, LAN Chile Flight 210, a Douglas DC-3 carrying 24 people, including eight members of the Chilean football (soccer) team Club de Deportes Green Cross, disappears over the Andes Mountains in Chile during a domestic flight from Osorno to Santiago. Its wreckage will remain undiscovered until February 2015.
- April 7 – Moisture condensing in a connector plug causes a GAR-8 Sidewinder air-to-air missile carried by a New Mexico Air National Guard F-100A Super Sabre of the 188th Fighter Interceptor Squadron to fire accidentally while the F-100A is practicing bomber interception tactics against the U.S. Air Force B-52B Stratofortress Ciudad Juarez of the Strategic Air Command's 95th Bombardment Wing. The missile blows off the B-52B's port wing, and the bomber crashes on Mount Taylor in New Mexico, killing three members of its crew.
- April 12 – Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin makes the first human spaceflight, orbiting the Earth once in 108 minutes in Vostok 1.
- April 15 – In Operation Puma, eight Douglas B-26B Invaders painted in Cuban Air Force markings manned by anti-Castro Cuban exiles of the Fuerza Aérea de Liberación ("Liberation Air Force") fly from Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, to attack airfields at San Antonio de los Baños and Ciudad Libertad, Cuba, and Antonio Maceo Airport at Santiago de Cuba. They destroy a mixture of Cuban Air Force aircraft – a C-47 Skytrain, a PBY Catalina, five B-26 Invaders, a Hawker Sea Fury, a T-33 Shooting Star, and two P-47 Thunderbolts, among others – and a number of civilian aircraft, including a Douglas DC-3. One attacking B-26 is shot down by antiaircraft fire at Havana and its crew is lost; two B-26s land in Florida, and one in the Cayman Islands and are not returned to the Cuban exiles.
- April 17 – Anti-Castro Cuban exiles invade Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. Five C-46 Commandos and one C-54 Skymaster drop a battaltion of their paratroopers into Cuba, losing one C-46, and later parachute supplies to exile troops ashore, while the remaining B-26 Invader bombers of their Fuerza Aérea de Liberación – some flown by Central Intelligence Agency contractors and personnel of the Alabama Air National Guard – provide close air support near the beachhead. The invading exiles shoot down two Cuban Sea Furies and two Cuban B-26 Invaders with antiaircraft fire. The Cuban Air Force has only six operational aircraft, but two of its Hawker Sea Furies sink two of the exiles' five ships and drive off the rest and its only two jets – T-33 Shooting Star trainers – shoot down four Fuerza Aérea de Liberación B-26 Invaders. The exiles' B-26s and C-54s continue to support the beachhead the following day. United States Navy ships supporting the exiles include the anti-submarine warfare carrier USS Essex (CVS-9) and the helicopter assault carrier USS Boxer (LPH-4), and the attack aircraft carrier USS Shangri-La (CVA-38) is active near the Cayman Islands, but their aircraft see no combat, limiting their activities to combat air patrol, reconnaissance, and search and rescue flights.
- April 19 – Six A4D-2 Skyhawk attack aircraft from Attack Squadron 34 (VA-34) aboard USS Essex fly a combat air patrol over the exiles' beachhead at the Bay of Pigs, to protect Fuerza Aérea de Liberación B-26 Invaders providing close air support there, but a mix-up over time zones leads two of the B-26s – manned by Central Intelligence Agency contractor personnel – to arrive after the Skyhawks have departed; they are shot down by two Cuban T-33 Shooting Stars, with their crews killed. The exiles in the beachhead surrender later in the day. The Cuban Air Force has suffered four aircraft shot down and at least five destroyed on the ground during the invasion, while the exiles have lost seven B-26 Invaders with the lost of 10 Cubans and four Americans aboard them, and one C-46 and its crew.
- April 24 – The Tupolev Tu-114 airliner makes its first passenger flight, a domestic Aeroflot flight in the Soviet Union from Moscow's Vnukovo Airport to Khabarovsk.
- May 1 – The first hijacking of an American airliner – and first inside the United States – takes place, when Antulio Ramirez Ortiz, armed with a gun and a steak knife, commandeers a National Airlines plane bound from Miami International Airport in Miami, Florida, to Key West, Florida, and forces it to fly to Havana, Cuba.
- May 3 – The Boeing Airplane Company changes its name to Boeing Company.
- May 4 – United States Navy Commander Malcolm Ross and Lieutenant Commander Victor A. Prather set a new world balloon altitude record while testing pressure suits, ascending to 113,740 feet (34,668 meters) over the Gulf of Mexico in a helium balloon before making a planned landing at sea. A helicopter retrieves Ross from the water and transports him safely to the anti-submarine warfare carrier USS Antietam (CVS-36), but Prather subsequently slips from a helicopter's sling and drowns after his pressure suit floods.
- May 18 – In Operation Sageburner, a United States Navy McDonnell F4H-1F Phantom II fighter (BuNo. 145316) is destroyed trying to set the low-altitude speed record, the aircraft coming apart at high speed due to a pitch bellows failure which cause a pilot-induced oscillation (PIO).
- May 22 or 24 – To celebrate the 50th anniversary of naval aviation in the United States, five United States Navy McDonnell F4H-1F Phantom II fighters fly across the United States in less than three hours in Operation LANA. The fastest, flown by Lieutenants Richard F. Gordon, Jr., (pilot) and Bobbie Long  (radar intercept officer), sets a new record for a transcontinental flight across the United States, flying from Ontario, California, to Floyd Bennett Field in New York City in 2 hours 47 minutes at an average speed of 869.74 mph (1,400.28 km/h) with three in-flight refuelings. They receive the 1961 Bendix Trophy for their flight.
- May 30 – Viasa Flight 897, a Douglas DC-8-53, crashes in the Atlantic Ocean during a flight from Lisbon, Portugal, to Santa Maria Island in the Azores, killing all 61 people on board.
- June 1 – United Air Lines absorbs Capital Airlines, completing a merger announced in July 1960. The largest airline merger in history at the tine, it makes United the largest airline in the Western world, with a fleet of 267 aircraft.
- June 6 – Air Congo is founded as the national airline of the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville).
- June 12 – KLM Flight 823, a Lockheed L-188 Electra, crashes on approach to Cairo International Airport in Egypt, killing 20 of the 36 people on board and injuring all 16 survivors.
- June 15 – El Al sets a world record for the longest non-stop commercial flight when one of its Boeing 707 airliners flies from New York City to Tel Aviv, covering 5,760 miles (9,270 kilometres) in 9 hours 33 minutes.
- June 21–22 – A Royal Air Force Avro Vulcan makes the first non-stop flight from England to Australia.
- June 23 – U.S. Air Force Major Robert M. White becomes the first pilot to achieve hypersonic – speeds higher than Mach 5 – flight, reaching Mach 5.27 (3,603 mph; 5,802 km/h) in North American X-15 56-6671.
- June 29 – Air Congo begins flight operations.
- July 1 – The Royal Air Force deploys Hawker Hunter combat aircraft to reinforce Kuwait, which is under threat from Iraq. Simultaneously it deploys Canberras and Valiant aircraft to Malta.
- July 11 – United Airlines Flight 859, a Douglas DC-8, strikes several ground vehicles and catches fire while landing at Stapleton International Airport in Denver, Colorado. Of the 122 people on board, 18 are killed and 84 injured. One person on the ground also dies.
- July 19
- Trans World Airlines becomes the first airline to show regularly scheduled movies during its flights, presenting By Love Possessed to first-class passengers.
- Aerolíneas Argentinas Flight 644, a Douglas DC-6, encounters severe turbulence during climbout 30 minutes after takeoff from Buenos Aires, Argentina, and crashes 12 km (7.5 miles) west of Pardo, Buenos Aires, killing all 67 people on board.
- July 21 – Alaska Airlines Flight 779, a Douglas DC-6 cargo plane operating under contract to the United States Air Force's Military Air Transport Service, strikes an embankment just before landing at Shemya Air Force Base on Shemya in the Aleutian Islands in Alaska and crashes, killing the entire crew of six.
- July 24 – Deliveries of the McDonnell CF-101 Voodoo to the Royal Canadian Air Force commence.
- August 9 – The British Eagle Vickers 610 Viking 3B Lord Rodney, carrying a crew of three and taking 34 boys from a London school and two of their masters to a camping holiday crashes at Holta in Strand, Norway, killing all 39 people on board. It is the deadliest aviation accident in Norwegian history at the time.
- August 15 – Beagle Aircraft's first completely original design – the B.206X, an early prototype of the Beagle Basset – flies for the first time.
- August 21 – A Canadian Pacific Air Lines Douglas DC-8 sets two world records during a single test flight. First, it reaches 50,000 feet (15,240 meters) at a weight of 107,600 pounds (48,807 kg), a new altitude record for a loaded transport jet. Then, in a dive from that altitude, it reaches Mach 1.012 with a true air speed of 662.5 mph (1,066.8 km/h) at an altitude of 39,614 feet (12,074 meters), becoming the first airliner to break the sound barrier.
- August 28 – In Operation Sageburner, a United States Navy McDonnell F4H-1F Phantom II fighter (BuNo. 145307) sets a low-altitude speed record, averaging 902.769 mph (1,452.826 km/h) over a 3-mile (4.82-km) course flying below 125 feet (38.1 meters) at all times.
- August 29 – A French military aircraft clips a cable of the aerial tramway connecting Pointe Helbronner and the Aiguille du Midi in the French Alps. Three cars of the tramway fall, killing five people. The pilot lands his plane safely.
- August 31 – Chance Vought Incorporated and Ling-Temco Electronics merge to form Ling-Temco-Vought, Inc..
- September 1 – Trans World Airlines Flight 529, a Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation, crashes near Hinsdale, Illinois, shortly after takeoff from Midway Airport in Chicago, Illinois, killing all 78 people on board. It is the deadliest single-aircraft aviation accident in American history at the time.
- September 5 – President of the United States John F. Kennedy signs legislation making aircraft hijacking a federal crime in the United States.
- September 12
- September 14 – Two West German Air Force F-84F Thunderstreak fighters stray off course into East German airspace. Pursued by a large number of Soviet Air Force fighters, the two West German planes manage to evade them in heavy cloud cover and land in West Berlin unharmed.
- September 17 – Due to a maintenance error, Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 706, a Lockheed L-188 Electra, crashes on takeoff from O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Illinois, killing all 37 people on board.
- September 18 – On approach to Ndola Airport in Ndola in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, a United Nations Douglas DC-6B (registration SE-BDY) strikes trees at 4,357 feet (1,328 meters) above sea level and crashes in the jungle, killing all 16 people on board including Secretary General of the United Nations Dag Hammarskjöld. At the time, it is the deadliest aviation accident ever to have taken place in what would later become Zambia.
- September 23 – A Turkish Airlines Fokker F27 Friendship 100 crashes into the hill Karanlıktepe in Ankara Province while on approach to Esenboğa Airport in Ankara, Turkey, killing 28 of the 29 people on board.
- September 24 – During an air show at Wilmington, North Carolina, a United States Air Force C-123 Provider carrying members of the United States Army Parachute Team (the Golden Knights) crashes on take-off and burns. Three of the 15 servicemen on board die.
- Prompted by the dissolution of the United Arab Republic, Syria ends its association with United Arab Airlines (the future EgyptAir), and a new Syrian airline, Syrian Arab Airways, begins operating the route network that its predecessor Syrian Airways had operated before its March 1958 merger into United Arab Airlines.
- October 7 – The Derby Aviation Douglas Dakota IV G-AMSW crashes on Pic de Canigou in the Catalan Pyrenees in southern France, killing all 34 people on board.
- The U.S. Air Force begins its Farm Gate counterinsurgency training mission in South Vietnam, teaching South Vietnamese Air Force personnel at Bien Hoa Air Base to fly T-28 Trojan trainer aircraft.
- November 1 – The first Hawker Siddeley 748 to be built in India flies for the first time. It has been assembled at Kanpur by the Indian Air Force's Aircraft Manufacturing Depot as India seeks to replace its fleet of Douglas Dakotas.
- November 8 – The crew of Imperial Airlines Flight 201/8, a Lockheed L-1049 Constellation chartered by the United States Army to carry new recruits to Columbia, South Carolina, for training, mishandles fuel flow problems to the aircraft's starboard engines, then attempts an emergency landing at Byrd Field in Richmond, Virginia, where it crashes. Although all 79 people on board survive the impact, all but the captain and flight engineer die of carbon monoxide poisoning after they are trapped in the fuselage during a post-crash fire.
- November 9
- A North American X-15 flown by U.S. Air Force test pilot Major Robert M. White becomes the first airplane to exceed Mach 6, achieving Mach 6.04 (4,094 mph, 6,593 km/h) at an altitude of 102,000 feet (31,090 meters) during a flight of under 8 minutes between Mud Lake, Nevada, and Edwards Air Force Base, California.
- Flying the SUMPAC (Southampton University Man-Powered Aircraft) at Lasham Airfield in Hampshire, England, Derek Piggott makes the first officially documented takeoff and landing in a human-powered aircraft. During the flight – which also is the first flight of the SUMPAC – Piggott covers a distance of 70 yards (64 meters) and reaches an altitude of 6 feet (1.8 meters).
- November 14 – A Zantop Air Transport Douglas DC-4 cargo aircraft on final approach to Greater Cincinnati Airport in Hebron, Kentucky, crashes in a wooded area near the airport. Two of the three-man crew are injured.
- November 22
- The first aircraft carrier designed as such to be completed in France, Clemenceau, is completed at the Brest Arsenal at Brest.
- In Operation Skyburner, United States Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Robert B. "Bob" Robertson sets a new world absolute speed record for a non-rocket-powered aircraft of 1,606.3 mph (2,585.1 km/h) in a McDonnell F4H-1 Phantom II.
- November 23 – Aerolíneas Argentinas Flight 322, a de Havilland DH 106 Comet 4, strikes eucalyptus trees immediately after takeoff from Viracopos-Campinas International Airport in Campinas, Brazil, and crashes. Its fuel tanks explode, and all 52 people on board die.
- November 25 – The U.S. Navy commissions its first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, USS Enterprise (CVA(N)-65).
- November 30 – Ansett-ANA Flight 325, a Vickers Viscount Type 720, crashes into Botany Bay just after takeoff from Sydney, Australia, killing all 15 people on board.
- December 5 – A U.S. Navy McDonnell F4H-1 Phantom II sets a sustained altitude record of 66,443.8 feet (20,252.1 meters).
- December 11 – The first American military aircraft are based in Vietnam, as the U.S. Army's 8th and 57th Transportation Companies (Light Helicopter), arrive at Saigon, South Vietnam. They are equipped with 32 H-21C Shawnee transport helicopters.
- December 22 – U.S. Army helicopters engage in their first combat operation in Vietnam as the 8th Transportation Company makes several airlfits of South Vietnamese ground troops to landing zones in South Vietnam south of Saigon.
- December 23 – In Operation Chopper, U.S. Army helicopters airlift 1,000 South Vietnamese paratroopers to attack a suspected Viet Cong headquarters in South Vietnam 10 miles (16 km) west of Saigon.
- March 4 - Armstrong Whitworth AW.660 Argosy - Argosy C.1 for RAF
- March 18 – Tupolev Tu-28
- March 28 - Stewart Headwind
- April 5 – Dassault Mirage IIIE
- April 16 – Beagle Airedale G-ARKE
- April 27 - Legrand-Simon LS.60
- April 29 - Potez 840
- June 1 - Breguet 941
- June 17 – HAL Marut
- June 21 – Aviation Traders Carvair G-ANYB
- June 22 – Beechcraft Queen Air Model 80
- August 15 – Beagle B.206X, five-seat early prototype of the Beagle Basset
- August 16 – YUH-1D (Bell Model 205), prototype of the UH-1D Iroquois
- August 17 – Handley Page HP.115
- September 7 – PZL M-4 Tarpan
- September 9 – Bölkow Bo 103
- September 21 – Boeing CH-47 Chinook
- October 12 – Dassault Mirage IVA pre-series (second prototype)
- October 21 – Breguet Atlantic
- October 23 – Beech Model 23 Musketeer
- November 2 – Bensen B-12
- November 9 – SUMPAC (Southampton University Man-Powered Aircraft)
- November 16 – HMPAC Puffin
- February 1 - Vickers Vanguard
- North American A3J-1 Vigilante (redesignated A-5A Vigilante in 1962) with United States Navy Heavy Attack Squadron 3 (VAH-3)
- Sikorsky HSS-2 Sea King (redesignated SH-3 Sea King in 1962) with United States Navy Antisubmarine Helicopter Squadrons 3 (HS-3) and 10 (HS-10)
- McDonnell F4H-1 Phantom II (redesignated F-4B Phantom II in 1962) with United States Navy Fighter Squadron 74 (VF-74)
- Hallion, Richard P., "Across the Hypersonic Divide," Aviation History, July 2012, p. 41.
- Anonymous, "Chile mountaineers: We found plane missing for half century," Associated Press, February 8, 2015.
- Hollway, Don, "'One of My Missiles is Loose!'", Aviation History, March 2013, p. 60.
- Mets, David R., Land-Based Air Power in Third World Crises, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press, July 1986, no ISBN number, p. 72.
- Mets, David R., Land-Based Air Power in Third World Crises, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press, July 1986, no ISBN number, pp. 72-76, 79-80.
- Mets, David R., Land-Based Air Power in Third World Crises, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press, July 1986, no ISBN number, pp. 81-83.
- "Today in History," The Washington Post Express, May 1, 2012, Page 34.
- McCabe, Scott, "Crime History," The Washington Examiner, May 1, 2013, Page 8.
- Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 66.
- Ross, Malcolm; Edwards, Walter (November 1961). "Balloon Ride to the Edge of Space". National Geographic Magazine. Washington, D.C.: The National Geographic Society. 120 (5): 671–685.
- Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 311.
- Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 311, claims the radar inytercept officer's name was B. R. Young.
- "History of El Al". El Al. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- Today in History, The Washington Post Express, July 19, 2011, Page 37.
- Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 94.
- Wilkinson, Stephan, "The First Airliner to Go Supersonic," Aviation History, September 2011, p. 13.
- "21 Dead in French Cable Car Crash," The Guardian, 1 July 1999 11:10 EDT
- Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 978-0-517-56588-9, pp. 429-430.
- "Today in History," The Washington Post Express, September 5, 2012, p. 28.
- Aviation Safety Network Accident Description
- Famous People Who Died in Aviation Accidents: 1960s
- "3 Killed as Plane Crashes in Air Show". The New York Times. September 25, 1961. Retrieved 17 September 2009.
- "100,000 See 3 Die in Crash at Air Show". The Los Angeles Times. September 25, 1961. Retrieved 17 September 2009.
- Chinnery, Philip D., Vietnam: The Helicopter War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 978-1-55750-875-1, p. 6.
- Mondey, David, ed., The Complete Illustrated History of the World's Aircraft, Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc., 1978, ISBN 0-89009-771-2, p. 74.
- Hallion, Richard P., "Across the Hypersonic Divide," Aviation History, July 2012, pp. 36-37.
- Gardiner, Robert, Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1947–1982, Part One: The Western Powers, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1983, ISBN 0-87021-918-9, p. 28.
- Chinnery, Philip D., Vietnam: The Helicopter War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 978-1-55750-875-1, p. 7.
- Chinnery, Philip D., Vietnam: The Helicopter War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 978-1-55750-875-1, p. 8.
- Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 274.
- Taylor 1961, p. 2.
- Duffy and Kandalov 1996, p. 138.
- Taylor 1961, p. 158.
- Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 74.
- Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 101.
- Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 90.
- David, Donald, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Nobles Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 110.
- Taylor 1962, p. 2.
- Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 97.
- Polmar, Norman, "Historic Aircraft: The King of the Sea", Naval History, February 2012, p. 12.
- Duffy, Paul and Andrei Kandalov. Tupolev The Man and His Aircraft. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife, 1996. ISBN 1-85310-728-X.
- Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1961–62. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, Ltd., 1961.
- Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1962–63. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, Ltd., 1962.