From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of
aviation-related events from 1961:
January [ edit ]
February [ edit ]
Seaboard & Western Airlines changes its name to
Seaboard World Airlines. April 1 –
VIASA – the flag carrier of Venezuela – commences operations. April 3 – In
Chile's worst air disaster in history at the time, LAN Chile Flight 210, a Douglas DC-3 carrying 24 people, including eight members of the Chilean football (soccer) team Club de Deportes Green Cross, disappears over the Andes Mountains in Chile during a domestic flight from Osorno to Santiago. Its wreckage will remain undiscovered until February 2015. [2 ] April 7 – Moisture condensing in a connector plug causes a
GAR-8 Sidewinder air-to-air missile carried by a New Mexico Air National Guard F-100A Super Sabre of the 188th Fighter Interceptor Squadron to fire accidentally while the F-100A is practicing bomber interception tactics against the U.S. Air Force B-52B Stratofortress Ciudad Juarez of the Strategic Air Command 's 95th Bombardment Wing. The missile blows off the B-52B 's port wing, and the bomber crashes on Mount Taylor in New Mexico, killing three members of its crew. [3 ] April 12 –
Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin makes the first human spaceflight, orbiting the Earth once in 108 minutes in Vostok 1. April 15 – In Operation Puma, eight
Douglas B-26B Invaders painted in Cuban Air Force markings manned by anti- Castro Cuban exiles of the Fuerza Aérea de Liberación ("Liberation Air Force") fly from Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, to attack airfields at San Antonio de los Baños and Ciudad Libertad, Cuba, and Antonio Maceo Airport at Santiago de Cuba. They destroy a mixture of Cuban Air Force aircraft – a C-47 Skytrain, a PBY Catalina, five B-26 Invaders, a Hawker Sea Fury, a T-33 Shooting Star, and two P-47 Thunderbolts, among others – and a number of civilian aircraft, including a Douglas DC-3. One attacking B-26 is shot down by antiaircraft fire at Havana and its crew is lost; two B-26s land in Florida, and one in the Cayman Islands and are not returned to the Cuban exiles. [4 ] April 17 – Anti-Castro Cuban exiles
invade Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. Five C-46 Commandos and one C-54 Skymaster drop a battaltion of their paratroopers into Cuba, losing one C-46, and later parachute supplies to exile troops ashore, while the remaining B-26 Invader bombers of their Fuerza Aérea de Liberación – some flown by Central Intelligence Agency contractors and personnel of the Alabama Air National Guard – provide close air support near the beachhead. The invading exiles shoot down two Cuban Sea Furies and two Cuban B-26 Invaders with antiaircraft fire. The Cuban Air Force has only six operational aircraft, but two of its Hawker Sea Furies sink two of the exiles ' five ships and drive off the rest and its only two jets – T-33 Shooting Star trainers – shoot down four Fuerza Aérea de Liberación B-26 Invaders. The exiles ' B-26s and C-54s continue to support the beachhead the following day. [5 ] United States Navy ships supporting the exiles include the anti-submarine warfare carrier USS and the Essex (CVS-9) helicopter assault carrier USS , and the Boxer (LPH-4) attack aircraft carrier USS is active near the Shangri-La (CVA-38) Cayman Islands, but their aircraft see no combat, limiting their activities to combat air patrol, reconnaissance, and search and rescue flights. April 19 – Six
A4D-2 Skyhawk attack aircraft from Attack Squadron 34 (VA-34) aboard USS Essex fly a combat air patrol over the exiles ' beachhead at the Bay of Pigs, to protect Fuerza Aérea de Liberación B-26 Invaders providing close air support there, but a mix-up over time zones leads two of the B-26s – manned by Central Intelligence Agency contractor personnel – to arrive after the Skyhawks have departed; they are shot down by two Cuban T-33 Shooting Stars, with their crews killed. The exiles in the beachhead surrender later in the day. The Cuban Air Force has suffered four aircraft shot down and at least five destroyed on the ground during the invasion, while the exiles have lost seven B-26 Invaders with the lost of 10 Cubans and four Americans aboard them, and one C-46 and its crew. [6 ]
May 1 – The first
hijacking of an American airliner – and first inside the United States – takes place, when Antulio Ramirez Ortiz, armed with a gun and a steak knife, commandeers a National Airlines plane bound from Miami International Airport in Miami, Florida, to Key West, Florida, and forces it to fly to Havana, Cuba. [7 ] [8 ] May 3 – The
Boeing Airplane Company changes its name to Boeing Company. [9 ] May 18 – In
Operation Sageburner, a United States Navy McDonnell F4H-1F Phantom II fighter (BuNo. 145316) is destroyed trying to set the low-altitude speed record, the aircraft coming apart at high speed due to a pitch bellows failure which cause a pilot-induced oscillation (PIO). May 22
or 24 – To celebrate the 50th anniversary of [10 ] naval aviation in the United States, five United States Navy McDonnell F4H-1F Phantom II fighters fly across the United States in less than three hours in Operation LANA. The fastest, flown by Lieutenants Richard F. Gordon, Jr., (pilot) and Bobbie Long ( [11 ] radar intercept officer), sets a new record for a transcontinental flight across the United States, flying from Ontario, California, to Floyd Bennett Field in New York City in 2 hours 47 minutes at an average speed of 869.74 mph (1,400.28 km/h) with three in-flight refuelings. They receive the 1961 [10 ] Bendix Trophy for their flight. May 30 –
Viasa Flight 897, a Douglas DC-8-53, crashes in the Atlantic Ocean during a flight from Lisbon, Portugal, to Santa Maria Island in the Azores, killing all 61 people on board.
June 1 –
United Air Lines absorbs Capital Airlines, completing a merger announced in July 1960. The largest airline merger in history at the tine, it makes United the largest airline in the Western world, with a fleet of 267 aircraft. June 6 –
Air Congo is founded as the national airline of the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville). June 12 –
KLM Flight 823, a Lockheed L-188 Electra, crashes on approach to Cairo International Airport in Egypt, killing 20 of the 36 people on board and injuring all 16 survivors. June 15 –
El Al sets a world record for the longest non-stop commercial flight when one of its Boeing 707 airliners flies from New York City to Tel Aviv, covering 5,760 miles (9,270 kilometres) in 9 hours 33 minutes. [12 ] June 21–22 – A
Royal Air Force Avro Vulcan makes the first non-stop flight from England to Australia. June 23 – U.S. Air Force Major
Robert M. White becomes the first pilot to achieve hypersonic – speeds higher than Mach 5 – flight, reaching Mach 5.27 (3,603 mph; 5,802 km/h) in North American X-15 56-6671. [1 ] June 29 – Air Congo begins flight operations.
August 9 – The
British Eagle Vickers 610 Viking 3B Lord Rodney, carrying a crew of three and taking 34 boys from a London school and two of their masters to a camping holiday crashes at Holta in Strand, Norway, killing all 39 people on board. It is the deadliest aviation accident in Norwegian history at the time. August 15 –
Beagle Aircraft 's first completely original design – the B.206X, an early prototype of the Beagle Basset – flies for the first time. [14 ] August 21 – A
Canadian Pacific Air Lines Douglas DC-8 sets two world records during a single test flight. First, it reaches 50,000 feet (15,240 meters) at a weight of 107,600 pounds (48,807 kg), a new altitude record for a loaded transport jet. Then, in a dive from that altitude, it reaches Mach 1.012 with a true air speed of 662.5 mph (1,066.8 km/h) at an altitude of 39,614 feet (12,074 meters), becoming the first airliner to break the sound barrier. [15 ] August 28 – In
Operation Sageburner, a United States Navy McDonnell F4H-1F Phantom II fighter (BuNo. 145307) sets a low-altitude speed record, averaging 902.769 mph (1,452.826 km/h) over a 3-mile (4.82-km) course flying below 125 feet (38.1 meters) at all times. August 29 – A French military aircraft clips a cable of the
aerial tramway connecting Pointe Helbronner and the Aiguille du Midi in the French Alps. Three cars of the tramway fall, killing five people. The pilot lands his plane safely. [16 ] August 31 – Chance Vought Incorporated and
Ling-Temco Electronics merge to form Ling-Temco-Vought, Inc.. [17 ]
September [ edit ]
September 1 –
Trans World Airlines Flight 529, a Lockheed L-049 Constellation, crashes near Hinsdale, Illinois, shortly after takeoff from Midway Airport in Chicago, Illinois, killing all 78 people on board. It is the deadliest single-aircraft aviation accident in American history at the time. September 5 –
President of the United States John F. Kennedy signs legislation making aircraft hijacking a federal crime in the United States. [18 ] September 12
September 14 – Two
West German Air Force F-84F Thunderstreak fighters stray off course into East German airspace. Pursued by a large number of Soviet Air Force fighters, the two West German planes manage to evade them in heavy cloud cover and land in West Berlin unharmed. September 17 – Due to a maintenance error,
Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 706, a Lockheed L-188 Electra, crashes on takeoff from O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Illinois, killing all 37 people on board. September 23 – A
Turkish Airlines Fokker F27 Friendship 100 crashes into the hill Karanlıktepe in Ankara Province while on approach to Esenboğa Airport in Ankara, Turkey, killing 28 of the 29 people on board. September 24 – During an
air show at Wilmington, North Carolina, a United States Air Force C-123 Provider carrying members of the United States Army Parachute Team (the Golden Knights) crashes on take-off and burns. Three of the 15 servicemen on board die. [19 ] [20 ]
October [ edit ]
November [ edit ]
The U.S. Air Force begins its
Farm Gate counterinsurgency training mission in South Vietnam, teaching South Vietnamese Air Force personnel at Bien Hoa Air Base to fly T-28 Trojan trainer aircraft. [21 ] November 1 – The first
Hawker Siddeley 748 to be built in India flies for the first time. It has been assembled at Kanpur by the Indian Air Force 's Aircraft Manufacturing Depot as India seeks to replace its fleet of Douglas Dakotas. [22 ] November 8 – The crew of
Imperial Airlines Flight 201/8, a Lockheed L-1049 Constellation chartered by the United States Army to carry new recruits to Columbia, South Carolina, for training, mishandles fuel flow problems to the aircraft 's starboard engines, then attempts an emergency landing at Byrd Field in Richmond, Virginia, where it crashes. Although all 79 people on board survive the impact, all but the captain and flight engineer die of carbon monoxide poisoning after they are trapped in the fuselage during a post-crash fire. November 9 – A
North American X-15 flown by U.S. Air Force test pilot Major Robert M. White becomes the first airplane to exceed Mach 6, achieving Mach 6.04 (4,094 mph, 6,593 km/h) at an altitude of 102,000 feet (31,090 meters) during a flight of under 8 minutes between Mud Lake, Nevada, and Edwards Air Force Base, California. [23 ] November 14 – A
Zantop Air Transport Douglas DC-4 cargo aircraft on final approach to Greater Cincinnati Airport in Hebron, Kentucky, crashes in a wooded area near the airport. Two of the three-man crew are injured. November 22
November 23 –
Aerolíneas Argentinas Flight 322, a de Havilland DH 106 Comet 4, strikes eucalyptus trees immediately after takeoff from Viracopos-Campinas International Airport in Campinas, Brazil, and crashes. Its fuel tanks explode, and all 52 people on board die. November 25 – The
U.S. Navy commissions its first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, USS . Enterprise (CVA(N)-65) November 30 –
Ansett-ANA Flight 325, a Vickers Viscount Type 720, crashes into Botany Bay just after takeoff from Sydney, Australia, killing all 15 people on board.
December [ edit ]
First flights [ edit ]
January [ edit ]
February [ edit ]
September [ edit ]
October [ edit ]
November [ edit ]
Entered service [ edit ]
February [ edit ]
September [ edit ]
Sikorsky HSS-2 Sea King (redesignated
SH-3 Sea King in 1962) with United States Navy Antisubmarine Helicopter Squadrons 3 (HS-3) and 10 (HS-10) [37 ]
October [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ a b Hallion, Richard P., "Across the Hypersonic Divide," Aviation History, July 2012, p. 41.
^ Anonymous, "Chile mountaineers: We found plane missing for half century," Associated Press, February 8, 2015.
^ Hollway, Don, "'One of My Missiles is Loose!'", Aviation History, March 2013, p. 60.
^ Mets, David R., Land-Based Air Power in Third World Crises, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press, July 1986, no ISBN number, p. 72.
^ Mets, David R., Land-Based Air Power in Third World Crises, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press, July 1986, no ISBN number, pp. 72-76, 79-80.
^ Mets, David R., Land-Based Air Power in Third World Crises, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press, July 1986, no ISBN number, pp. 81-83.
^ "Today in History," The Washington Post Express, May 1, 2012, Page 34.
^ McCabe, Scott, "Crime History," The Washington Examiner, May 1, 2013, Page 8.
^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 66.
^ a b c Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 311.
^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 311, claims the radar inytercept officer's name was B. R. Young.
^ "History of El Al". El Al . Retrieved . 2007-05-07
^ Today in History, The Washington Post Express, July 19, 2011, Page 37.
^ a b Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 94.
^ Wilkinson, Stephan, "The First Airliner to Go Supersonic," Aviation History, September 2011, p. 13.
^ "21 Dead in French Cable Car Crash," The Guardian, 1 July 1999 11:10 EDT
^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 978-0-517-56588-9, pp. 429-430.
^ "Today in History," The Washington Post Express, September 5, 2012, p. 28.
^ "3 Killed as Plane Crashes in Air Show". The New York Times. September 25, 1961 . Retrieved . 17 September 2009
^ "100,000 See 3 Die in Crash at Air Show". The Los Angeles Times. September 25, 1961 . Retrieved . 17 September 2009
^ Chinnery, Philip D., Vietnam: The Helicopter War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 978-1-55750-875-1, p. 6.
^ Mondey, David, ed., The Complete Illustrated History of the World 's Aircraft, Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc., 1978, ISBN 0-89009-771-2, p. 74.
^ Hallion, Richard P., "Across the Hypersonic Divide," Aviation History, July 2012, pp. 36-37.
^ Gardiner, Robert, Conway 's All the World 's Fighting Ships 1947-1982, Part One: The Western Powers, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1983, ISBN 0-87021-918-9, p. 28.
^ Chinnery, Philip D., Vietnam: The Helicopter War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 978-1-55750-875-1, p. 7.
^ a b Chinnery, Philip D., Vietnam: The Helicopter War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 978-1-55750-875-1, p. 8.
^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 274.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Taylor 1961, p. 2.
^ Duffy and Kandalov 1996, p. 138.
^ Taylor 1961, p. 158.
^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 74.
^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 101.
^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 90.
^ David, Donald, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Nobles Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 110.
^ a b c d e f g Taylor 1962, p. 2.
^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 97.
^ Polmar, Norman, "Historic Aircraft: The King of the Sea", Naval History, February 2012, p. 12.
Duffy, Paul and Andrei Kandalov.
Tupolev The Man and His Aircraft. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife, 1996. ISBN 1-85310-728-X.
Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1961–62. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, Ltd., 1961. Taylor, John W. R.
Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1962–63. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, Ltd., 1962.