1963 Iranian referendum
|White Revolution referendum|
|"White Revolution of the Shah and the People":|
The ballots for 'Yes' were white, while were negative ones were green
|Date||26 January 1963|
|271,179 announced additional votes cast by women were counted separately but not considered in the official results|
A referendum was held in Iran on 26 January 1963 by the decree of Mohammad Reza Shah, with an aim to show popular support for him, asking voters to approve or veto the reforms of the White Revolution.
Women were not officially allowed to vote, but were set up to vote at their own balloting counters and dedicated boxes, at the suggestion of Ministry of Agriculture Hasan Arsanjani. The results gave Iranian women the right to vote.
Voters were asked six questions, but had only the option to vote yes or no to the total package.
Similar to the previous referendum, polling places lacked secrecy and there were two separate voting booths: one for the supporters and one for the opponents. "No sane man would enter the opposition booth", according to Mohammad Gholi Majd.
|Source: Nohlen et al. and Zonis|
Following the referendum dissension and riots outbroke in almost all major urban areas, most significantly in Tehran and the city of Qom. The Shah gave orders to immediate suppression of the opposition and National Front, Freedom Movement, Tudeh Party and religious activists were imprisoned. The unrest made Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini the regime's principal opponent in the minds of most Iranians.
- Majd, Mohammad Gholi (2000), Resistance to the Shah: Landowners and Ulama in Iran, University Press of Florida, pp. 260–261, ISBN 978-0813017310
- E. A. Bayne (1965), Four Ways of Politics: State and Nation in Italy, Somalia, Israel, Iran: The Dynamics of Political Participation as Exhibited in Four Countries Caught Up in the Process of Modernization, American Universities Field Staff, p. 260
- Lloyd Ridgeon (2005). Religion and Politics in Modern Iran: A Reader. I.B.Tauris. p. 173. ISBN 978-1-84511-073-4.
- Lois Beck and Guity Nashat, eds. (2004). Women in Iran from 1800 to the Islamic Republic. University of Illinois Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-252-07189-8.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
- Elton L. Daniel (2012). The History of Iran. ABC-CLIO. p. 157. ISBN 978-0313375095.
- Edward Willett (2003). Ayatollah Khomeini. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 42. ISBN 9780823944651.
- Nohlen, Dieter; Grotz, Florian; Hartmann, Christof (2001). "Iran". Elections in Asia: A Data Handbook. I. Oxford University Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-19-924958-9.
- Hiro, Dilip (2013). Iran Under the Ayatollahs (Routledge Revivals). Routledge. p. 104. ISBN 978-1135043810.
- Marvin Zonis (2015). Political Elite of Iran. Princeton University Press. pp. 75–77. ISBN 9781400868803.
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