1963 in science
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Astronomy, astrophysics and space exploration
- January 4 – Soviet Luna reaches Earth orbit but fails to reach the moon.
- May 15 – Mercury program: NASA launches the last mission of the program Mercury 9. (On June 12 NASA Administrator James E. Webb tells Congress the program is complete.)
- July 26 – Roy Kerr submits for publication his discovery of the Kerr metric, an exact solution to the Einstein field equation of general relativity, predicting a rotating black hole.
- October 18 – Aboard the French Véronique AGI 47 sounding rocket, a bicolor cat designated C 341, later known as Félicette, becomes the first cat in space.
- November 1 – The Arecibo Observatory, with the world's largest single-dish radio telescope, officially opens in Arecibo, Puerto Rico.
- First definite identification of a radio source, 3C 48, with an optical object, later identified as a quasar, is published by Allan Sandage and Thomas A. Matthews; also Maarten Schmidt publishes significant observations on 3C 273.
- Geneticist J. B. S. Haldane coins the word "clone".
- Molecular biologist Emile Zuckerkandl and physical chemist Linus Pauling introduce the term paleogenetics.
- Konrad Lorenz publishes On Aggression (Das sogenannte Böse: Zur Naturgeschichte der Aggression).
- Niko Tinbergen poses his four questions to be asked of any animal behavior.
- Sydney Brenner proposes the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for the investigation primarily of neural development in animals.
- Ivan Sutherland writes the revolutionary Sketchpad program and runs it on the Lincoln TX-2 computer at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- September 7 – British geophysicists Fred Vine and Drummond Matthews publish proof of seafloor spreading on the Atlantic Ocean floor.
- November 14 – The Icelandic volcanic island of Surtsey appears above sea level.
History of science and technology
- April 1 – Industrial Monuments Survey for the Ministry of Public Building and Works (Great Britain) commenced by Rex Wailes.
- Kenneth Hudson's Industrial Archaeology: an introduction published in London.
- Derek J. de Solla Price's Little Science, Big Science published in New York.
- Paul Cohen uses forcing to prove that the continuum hypothesis and the axiom of choice are independent from Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory.
- Walter Feit and John G. Thompson state the Feit–Thompson theorem.
- Edward Lorenz publishes his discovery of the 'butterfly effect', significant in the development of chaos theory.
- June – Guy Alexandre performs the first kidney transplantation from a heart-beating, brain-dead donor, at Saint Pierre Hospital, Leuven, Belgium.
- Thomas Starzl performs the first liver transplantation, at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center.
- James D. Hardy performs the first lung transplantation.
- American endocrinologist Grant Liddle identifies Liddle's syndrome.
- The type species of the early dinosaur Herrerasaurus, Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis from the north of Argentina, is described by Osvaldo Reig.
- David H. Frisch and J. H. Smith prove radioactive decay of mesons is slowed by their motion. (See Einstein's special relativity and general relativity.)
- Stanley Milgram publishes the results of his shock experiment on obedience to authority figures.
- The term "contrafreeloading" was coined.
- Lava lamp invented by Edward Craven Walker.
- Mellotron Mark I electro-mechanical, polyphonic tape replay keyboard, developed and built in Aston, Birmingham, England, is marketed.
- Don Buchla begins to design an electronic music synthesizer in Berkeley, California.
- November 23 – First episode of science fiction television series Doctor Who broadcast by the BBC in the United Kingdom.
- Nobel Prizes
- January 4 – May-Britt Moser, Norwegian neuroscientist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
- February 9 – Brian Greene, American theoretical physicist.
- February 10 – Vivian Wing-Wah Yam, Hong Kong chemist working on OLEDs.
- August 14 – Saiful Islam, Pakistani-born materials chemisdt.
- August 30 – Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz, Polish-born developmental biologist.
- W. Tecumseh Fitch, American-born evolutionary biologist.
- Daniel Jackson, English-born American computer scientist.
- Jin Li, Chinese geneticist.
- January 28 – Jean Piccard (born 1884), Swiss-born American chemist and explorer.
- February 5 – Barnum Brown (born 1873), American paleontologist.
- April 6 – Otto Struve (born 1897), Russian astronomer.
- May 11 – Herbert Spencer Gasser (born 1888), American physiologist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
- May 19 – Walter Russell (born 1871), American polymath.
- June 16 – Eleanor Williams (born 1884), Australian bacteriologist and serologist.
- August 30 – Marietta Pallis (born 1882), British ecologist.
- October 13 – Alan A. Griffith (born 1893), English stress engineer.
- October 2 – Olga Lepeshinskaya (born 1871), Soviet Lysenkoist biologist.
- October 25 – Karl von Terzaghi (born 1883), Austrian "father of soil mechanics".
- Kerr, R. P. (1963). "Gravitational field of a spinning mass as an example of algebraically special metrics". Physical Review Letters. 11 (5): 237–238. Bibcode:1963PhRvL..11..237K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.11.237.
- Matthews, Thomas A.; Sandage, Allan R. (1963). "Optical Identification of 3c 48, 3c 196, and 3c 286 with Stellar Objects". The Astrophysical Journal. 138: 30–56. Bibcode:1963ApJ...138...30M. doi:10.1086/147615.
- Schmidt, Maarten (1963). "3C 273: a star-like object with large red-shift". Nature. 197 (4872): 1040. Bibcode:1963Natur.197.1040S. doi:10.1038/1971040a0.
- Pauling, L.; Zuckerkandl, E. (1963). "Chemical paleogenetics: molecular restoration studies of extinct forms of life". Acta Chemica Scandinavica. 17: 89. doi:10.3891/acta.chem.scand.17s-0009.
- Tinbergen, Niko (1963). "On Aims and Methods in Ethology" (PDF). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie. 20 (4): 410–433. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1963.tb01161.x.
- Snyder, John P. (1993). Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-76747-5.
- The Hutchinson Factfinder. Helicon. 1999. ISBN 978-1-85986-000-7.
- Vine, F. J.; Matthews, D. H. (1963). "Magnetic Anomalies Over Oceanic Ridges". Nature. 199 (4897): 947–949. Bibcode:1963Natur.199..947V. doi:10.1038/199947a0.
- Feit, Walter; Thompson, John G. (1963). "Solvability of groups of odd order". Pacific Journal of Mathematics. 13 (3): 775–1029. doi:10.2140/pjm.1963.13.775. MR 0166261.
- Lorenz, Edward N. (March 1963). "Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow". Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 20 (2): 130–141. Bibcode:1963JAtS...20..130L. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1963)020<0130:DNF>2.0.CO;2.
- Machado, Calixto (2005). "The first organ transplant from a brain-dead donor". Neurology. 64 (11): 1938–42. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000163515.09793.cb. PMID 15955947.
- Christy, Nicholas P. (1993). "Grant W. Liddle". Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association. 104: xliii–xlv. PMC 2376630. PMID 1343432.
- Reig, O. A. (1963). "La presencia de dinosaurios saurisquios en los "Estratos de Ischigualasto" (Mesotriásico Superior) de las provincias de San Juan y La Rioja (República Argentina)". Ameghiniana (in Spanish). 3 (1): 3–20.
- American Journal of Physics 31: 342-355.
- Milgram, S (October 1963). "Behavioral Study of Obedience". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 67 (4): 371–378. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.599.92. doi:10.1037/h0040525. PMID 14049516.
- "Edward Craven Walker | British inventor". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 978-0-14-102715-9.
- Howe, David J.; Stammers, Mark; Walker, Stephen James (1994). The Handbook: The First Doctor — The William Hartnell Years 1963–1966. London: Virgin Books. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-426-20430-5.
- "An Unearthly Child". Doctor Who: The Classic Series. BBC. 1995–2003. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 11 March 2019.