1964 in science

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List of years in science (table)

The year 1964 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

Astronomy and space exploration[edit]

  • Spring – First recognition of cosmic microwave background radiation as a detectable phenomenon.[1]
  • March 20 – The precursor of the European Space Agency, ESRO (European Space Research Organization) is established (under an agreement of June 14, 1962).
  • July 31 – Ranger program: Ranger 7 sends back the first close-up photographs of the Moon; images are 1,000 times clearer than anything ever seen from Earth-bound telescopes.
  • October 12 – The Soviet Union launches the Voskhod 1 into Earth orbit as the first spacecraft with a multi-person crew and the first flight without space suits (the crew wouldn't fit in the space capsule otherwise).

Biology[edit]

Computer science[edit]

Earth sciences[edit]

History of science and technology[edit]

Mathematics[edit]

Medicine[edit]

Paleontology[edit]

Physics[edit]

Psychology[edit]

Technology[edit]

Publications[edit]

Awards[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ In a brief paper by Soviet astrophysicists A. G. Doroshkevich and Igor Novikov. Penzias, A. A. (2006). "The origin of elements" (PDF). Nobel lecture. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2006-10-04. 
  2. ^ "Largest Earthquakes in the World Since 1900". U.S. Geological Survey. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-05. 
  3. ^ "Mission & History". National Museum of American History. Retrieved 2014-01-08. 
  4. ^ Crilly, T. (2007). 50 Mathematical Ideas you really need to know. Quercus. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-84724-008-8. 
  5. ^ Tits, J. (1964). "Algebraic and abstract simple groups". Annals of Mathematics. Second Series 80 (2): 313–329. doi:10.2307/1970394. JSTOR 1970394. MR 0164968. 
  6. ^ Dotter, C. T.; Judkins, M. P. (1964). "Transluminal Treatment of Arteriosclerotic Obstruction: Description of a New Technic and a Preliminary Report of Its Application" (PDF). Circulation 30 (5): 654–670. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.30.5.654. PMID 14226164. 
  7. ^ Rösch, J.; Keller, F. S.; Kaufman, J. A. (2003). "The Birth, Early Years, and Future of Interventional Radiology". Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 14 (7): 841–853. doi:10.1097/01.RVI.0000083840.97061.5b. PMID 12847192. 
  8. ^ Epstein, M. A.; Achong, B. G.; Barr, Y. M. (1964-03-28). "Virus particles in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt's lymphoma" (PDF). The Lancet 1 (7335): 702–703. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(64)91524-7. PMID 14107961. Retrieved 2014-02-19. 
  9. ^ Martins, F. A. (30 June 2009). "O Endoscópio". Fernando Alves Martins' Blog (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2012-02-07. 
  10. ^ Ostrom, J. H. (1969). "Osteology of Deinonychus antirrhopus, an unusual theropod from the Lower Cretaceous of Montana". Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin 30: 1–165. 
  11. ^ Englert, F.; Brout, R. (1964). "Broken Symmetry and the Mass of Gauge Vector Mesons". Physical Review Letters 13 (9): 321–323. Bibcode:1964PhRvL..13..321E. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.321. 
  12. ^ Brout, R.; Englert, F. (1998). "Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Gauge Theories: A Historical Survey". arXiv:hep-th/9802142 [hep-th]. 
  13. ^ Higgs, P. W. (1964). "Broken Symmetries and the Masses of Gauge Bosons". Physical Review Letters 13 (16): 508–509. Bibcode:1964PhRvL..13..508H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.508. 
  14. ^ Guralnik, G. S.; Hagen, C. R.; Kibble, T. W. B. (1964). "Global Conservation Laws and Massless Particles". Physical Review Letters 13 (20): 585–587. Bibcode:1964PhRvL..13..585G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.585. 
  15. ^ Guralnik, G. S. (2009). "The History of the Guralnik, Hagen and Kibble development of the Theory of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Gauge Particles". International Journal of Modern Physics A 24 (14): 2601–2627. arXiv:0907.3466. Bibcode:2009IJMPA..24.2601G. doi:10.1142/S0217751X09045431. 
  16. ^ Kibble, T. W. B. (2009). "Englert–Brout–Higgs–Guralnik–Hagen–Kibble mechanism". Scholarpedia 4 (1): 6441. doi:10.4249/scholarpedia.6441. 
  17. ^ Physical Review Letters 50th Anniversary Milestone Papers.
  18. ^ Bjørken, B. J.; Glashow, S. L. (1964). "Elementary particles and SU(4)". Physics Letters 11 (3): 255–257. Bibcode:1964PhL....11..255B. doi:10.1016/0031-9163(64)90433-0. 
  19. ^ Bell, John S. (1964). "On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen Paradox" (PDF). Physics 1 (3): 195–200. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  20. ^ Moog, R. A. (1965). "Voltage-Controlled Electronic Music Modules". Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 13 (3): 200–206. 
  21. ^ Yale University Press.