1964 race riots in Singapore
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|1964 race riots in Singapore|
|Part of Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation|
|Date||21 July 1964
3 September 1964
|Location||Kallang, Geylang and various districts in Singapore|
|Causes||Political and religious tensions between ethnic Chinese and Malay groups|
|Result||Establishment of Article 12 of the Singapore Constitution after its independence in 1965|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
|Injuries and arrests|
|Injuries||454 (July riots)
106 (September riots) 
|Arrested||3,568 (July riots)
1,439 (September riots) 
|Charged||715 (July riots)
154 (September riots) 
|Islandwide curfew imposed on 21 July 1964; lifted on 2 August 1964.
Islandwide curfew imposed on 4 September 1964; lifted on 11 September 1964. 
Part of a series on the
|History of Singapore|
|Early history of Singapore (pre-1819)|
|Founding of modern Singapore (1819–26)|
|Straits Settlements (1826–67)|
|Crown colony (1867–1942)|
|Battle of Singapore (1942)|
|Japanese Occupation (1942–45)|
|Post-war period (1945–62)|
|Internal self-government (1955–62)|
|Merger with Malaysia (1962–65)|
|Republic of Singapore (1965–present)|
Part of a series on the
|History of Malaysia|
The 1964 race riots were a series of riots that took place in Singapore during two separate periods in July and September between Chinese and Malay groups. The first incident occurred on 21 July during a Malay procession marking the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. In total, the violence killed 36 people and injured another 556. About 3,000 people were arrested. At that time (1963–65), Singapore was a state in the Federation of Malaysia.
On 21 July 1964, about 25,000 Muslim Malays gathered at the Padang in Singapore to celebrate Muhammad's birthday with a religious procession. 212 Muslim organisations participated in the rally. At 2 pm the Yang di-Pertuan Negara (Singapore's head of state), Yusof bin Ishak, made a formal address. Muslims were urged to follow Islamic teachings and be "patient, forbearing and industrious". At 3:30 pm, the crowd was supposed to form a celebratory procession from the Padang to Saint Andrews Road, Beach Road, Arab Street, Victoria Street, Kallang Road, and eventually to Lorong 12, Geylang.
Goaded (allegedly) by ultra-nationalists of Singapore United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), who had been pressing for special rights[clarification needed] for the Malays in Singapore, the Islamic religious procession quickly turned violent. The riots were reported to have started at about 5:00 pm between Kallang and Geylang, near the former Kallang Gasworks. The government declared a curfew at 9:30 pm to restore order. In the first day of rioting, 23 people were killed and 454 injured.
The curfew was lifted at 6 am the next morning. However, with the situation remaining tense, the curfew was reimposed. It was only lifted for short periods to allow people to buy food. The curfew was not completely lifted until 2 August, 11 days after the start of the riots.
After the riots, the government set up goodwill committees, made up of community leaders from the various racial groups. The main job of these leaders was to help restore peace and harmony between the Malays and ethnic Chinese by addressing the concerns of the residents. There was significant damage to property and vehicles.
The government arrested about 3,000 people, including 600 secret society members and 256 people charged with possession of dangerous weapons. The rest were arrested for violating the curfew.
Singapore's Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew and several foreign observers attributed the riots to agitation by Syed Jaafar Albar and other elements of the ultra-nationalist faction in the UMNO. According to the Australian Deputy High Commissioner, W. B. Pritchett:
"...there can be no doubt that UMNO was solely responsible for the riots. Its members ran the communal campaign or allowed it to happen."
There are possible signs of the cause being religious in nature, with a minority Islamic section emboldened with a sense of security being so close to Malaysia (majority Islamic) trying to hit higher than their numbers in the majority Buddhist & Christian Singapore.
The riots occurred during the period when the People's Action Party (PAP) and UMNO relations were severely strained after the PAP challenged the UMNO in the March 1964 Malaysia federal election. PAP ran on the campaign slogan of Malaysian Malaysia, a political philosophy different from UMNO's pro-Malay or Malay-dominance political philosophy.[clarification needed]
A second race riot occurred just two months after the first, on 3 September. This time, a Malay trishaw-rider was found murdered in the Geylang neighbourhood. His attackers were believed to be a group of ethnic Chinese. The race riot ensued in the neighbourhoods of Geylang, Joo Chiat, and Siglap, and the government again imposed a curfew. In this incident, 13 people were killed and 106 people were injured. With the presence of troops and imposition of curfews, these tensions eased after a few days. Nearly 500 people were arrested.
Leaders in Malaysia and Singapore were surprised by the rapid escalation of racial violence and both sides made frequent appeals for calm. The riots exposed serious racial tension. The fear of further violence contributed to the UMNO-led Federal Government's decision to expel Singapore from the Federation of Malaysia in 1965, when both sides were unable to resolve their disputes. Three-quarters of Singapore's population was of Chinese descent. In contrast, the rest of Malaysia had a majority of Malays, who lived in mostly rural areas, with ethnic Chinese comprising about 37% of the population and ethnic Indians another 10% (census 1971).
During the riots, the government made numerous arrests under the Internal Security Act (ISA), for those involved in subversion and rioters who were members of secret societies. This helped to contain the violence, especially during the September riots. Both Singapore and Malaysia use the ISA to counter potential threats of communism or racial and religious violence.
- NLB Infopedia: 1964 Communal Race Riots
- Singapore And The Many-Headed Monster: A Look At Racial Riots Against A Socio-Historical Background (A New Perspective On The Riots Of 1950, 1964 And 1969) Conceicao, Joe
- Lai Ah Eng (2004). Beyond rituals and riots : ethnic pluralism and social cohesion in Singapore, Eastern Universities Press, ISBN 978-981-210-272-0
- Lau, Albert (2000). A Moment of Anguish: Singapore in Malaysia and the Politics of Disengagement, Times Academic Press, ISBN 978-981-210-134-1