1965 in poetry
- 1 Events
- 2 Works published in English
- 3 Works published in other languages
- 3.1 Denmark
- 3.2 Finland
- 3.3 French language
- 3.4 Hebrew
- 3.5 India
- 3.6 Italy
- 3.7 Portuguese
- 3.8 Spanish
- 3.9 Yiddish
- 3.10 Other
- 4 Awards and honors
- 5 Births
- 6 Deaths
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- June 11 – International Poetry Incarnation, a performance poetry event, is staged at the Royal Albert Hall in London before an audience of 7,000, with members of the Beat Generation featuring; Adrian Mitchell reads "To Whom It May Concern"
- Meic Stephens founds Poetry Wales
- Russian poet Anna Akhmatova is allowed to travel outside the Soviet Union to Sicily and England in order to receive the Taormina prize and an honorary doctoral degree from the University of Oxford
- The Belfast Festival at Queen's publishes pamphlets this year and next by some of the members of The Belfast Group of poets, including Seamus Heaney and Michael Longley, which attracts some notice
- In Spain, two new periodical reviews are founded:
- In the British Isles, the centenary of the birth of W. B. Yeats brings forth a number of critical works, prominent among them Thomas Parkinson's book, W. B. Yeats: The Later Poetry and Conor Cruise O'Brien's long essay which addresses Yeats' relationship to Fascism, published in In Excited Reverie, edited by A. N. Jeffares and K. G. Cross
- African American poet Dudley Randall founds Broadside Press in Detroit, which publishes many leading African American writers
- Paul Éluard's 1926 book of poems, Capitale de la douleur ("Capital of Pain"), influences Jean-Luc Godard's French film Alphaville (released May 5) which has quotations from the book
- The periodical Modern Poetry in Translation is launched by Ted Hughes, Daniel Weissbort and George Theiner in Britain
Works published in English
Listed by nation where the work was first published (and again by the poet's native land, if different); substantially revised works listed separately:
- Geoffrey Lehmann and Les Murray, The Ilex Tree, Australia
- John Thompson, editor, Australian Poetry, Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 76 pp
- Judith Wright, Preoccupations in Australian Poetry (scholarship), Australia
- John Glassco, editor, English Poetry in Quebec
- Daryl Hine, The Wooden Horse
- Lionel Kearns, Listen George
- C. F. Klinck and W. H. New, editors, Literary History of Canada, first of four volumes (fourth volume published in 1990, scholarship, Canada
- Irving Layton, Collected Poems
- Tom Marshall, The Beast with Three Backs, Quarry Press
- John Newlove, Moving in Alone, Contact Press
- Al Purdy, The Cariboo Horses, Canada
- Raymond Souster, Ten Elephants on Yonge Street
- Wilfred Watson, Naked Poems
- Phyllis Webb, Naked Poems
- Dom Moraes John Nobody ( Poetry in English )
- Nissim Ezekiel:
- P. Lal, "Charge!" They Said ( Poetry in English ), Calcutta: Writers Workshop, India .
- Kamala Das, Summer of Calcutta: Fifty Poems ( Poetry in English ), Delhi: Rajinder Paul
- Roshen Alkazi, Seventeen Poems (see also Seventeen More Poems 1970); Calcutta: Writers Workshop, India
- Deb Kumar Das, Through A Glass Darkly: Poems ( Poetry in English ), Calcutta: Writers Workshop, India
- T. V. Datareyan, Silver Box and Other Poems ( Poetry in English ), Bombay: Strand
- Vinayaka Krishna Gokak, In Life's Temple ( Poetry in English ), Madras: Blackie and Son
- S. R. Mokashi-Punekar, The Captive ( Poetry in English ), preface by Herbert Read
- Denis Devlin, Collected Poems, Dublin: Dolmen Press
- Seamus Heaney, Northern Ireland native Irish poet with books published originally in the United Kingdom:
- Richard Murphy, Sailing to an Island, London: Faber and Faber; New York: Chilmark Press, Irish poet with books published originally in the United Kingdom
- Charles Brasch: (year uncertain, but thought to be this year) Twice Sixty, Wellington: Printed at the Wai-te-ata Press (Single poem; broadsheet)
- Charles Doyle, editor, Recent Poetry in New Zealand, anthology
- Kendrick Smithyman, A Way of Saying: A Study of New Zealand Poetry, Auckland & London: Collins, criticism
- Patrick Cullinan, North
- Ruth Miller (South African poet), Floating Island, Cape Town
- David Wright, Adam at Evening, London: Hodder and Stoughton, including "By the Effigy of St. Cecilia"; South African poet with works published originally in the United Kingdom
- Alan Bold, Society Inebrious
- George Mackay Brown, The Year of the Whale, Scottish poet
- Basil Bunting:
- Loquitur (Fulcrum Press)
- The Spoils (Morden Tower Bookroom)
- Christopher Caudwell, Poems
- Tony Connor, Lodgers London: Oxford University Press London: Chatto and Windus with Hogarth Press
- Donald Davie, The Poems of Doctor Zhivago
- C. Day-Lewis, The Room and Other Poems
- D. J. Enright, The Old Adam, London: Chatto and Windus with Hogarth Press
- Harry Fainlight, Sussicran, London: Turret Books
- Roy Fuller, Buff
- David Gascoyne, Collected Poems
- Robert Graves, Collected Poems (1965 version)
- Michael Hamburger, In Flashlight
- Seamus Heaney, Northern Ireland native published in the United Kingdom:
- John Heath-Stubbs, Selected Poems
- George MacBeth, A Doomsday Book, a mix of poems and poem-games, Lowestoft, Suffolk: Scorpion Press
- Norman MacCaig, Measures, London: Chatto and Windus with Hogarth Press
- Richard Murphy, Sailing to an Island, London: Faber and Faber; New York: Chilmark Press, Irish poet
- Sylvia Plath, Ariel, London: Faber and Faber (New York: Harper & Row, 1966), American poet in the United Kingdom
- Kathleen Raine, The Hollow Hill, and Other Poems 1960–4
- Alan Ross, North from Sicily
- Vernon Scannell, Walking Wounded
- Jon Silkin, Nature with Man
- C. H. Sisson, Numbers
- Sir Osbert Sitwell, Poems about People or England Reclaimed (collected from three previous volumes)
- Iain Crichton Smith, The Law and the Grace
- Bernard Spencer, Collected Poems
- Stephen Spender, Selected Poems
- John Wain, Wildtrack, Wildtrack, London: Macmillan
- Ted Walker, Fox on a Barn Door
- Hugo Williams, Symptoms of Loss: Poems, Oxford University Press
- David Wright, Adam at Evening, London: Hodder and Stoughton, including "By the Effigy of St. Cecilia"; South African poet with works published originally in the United Kingdom
- P. L. Brent, editor, Young Commonwealth Poets 1965
- Matthew Hodgart, The Faber Book of Ballads
- I. M. Parsons, Men Who March Away (poems of World War I)
- Robin Skelton, Poetry of the Thirties
- James Reeves, The Cassell Book of English Poetry
- C. V. Wedgwood, editor, New Poems 1965: A PEN Anthology, London: Hutchinson
Criticism and scholarship in the United Kingdom
- Bernard Bergozi, Heroes' Twilight on the literature of World War I
- Anthony Burgess, Here Comes Everybody on the work of James Joyce
- Donald Davie, Ezra Pound: Poet as Sculptor
- Patricia Hutchins, Ezra Pound's Kensington: An Exploration 1885–1913
- Conor Cruise O'Brien, a long essay which addressed W. B. Yeats' relationship to Fascism, published in In Excited Reverie, edited by A. N. Jeffares and K. G. Cross.
- Harold Owen, Journey from Obscurity, Volume III, autobiography by the brother of poet Wilfred Owen, giving "a few interesting glimpses of the poet", according to William Leslie Webb, literary editor of The Guardian
- Thomas Parkinson, W.B. Yeats: The Later Poetry
- A.R. Ammons:
- George Barker, Collected Poems, New York: October House
- Ted Berrigan, Living With Chris
- Elizabeth Bishop, Questions of Travel (Farrar, Straus, and Giroux)
- Hayden Carruth, Nothing for Tigers
- Edgar Bowers, The Astronomers
- Louis Coxe, The Last Hero
- E.E. Cummings, Fairy Tales (posthumous)
- Ed Dorn:
- Robert Duncan, Roots and Branches
- Paul Engle, A Woman Unashamed
- Jean Garrigue, Country Without Maps, including "Pays Perdu"
- Allen Ginsberg, Jukebox All'Idrogeno, Milan: Arnoldo Mondadori Editore
- Donald Hall, A Roof of Tiger Lilies
- John Hollander, Visions from the Ramble
- Lee Harwood, title illegible (sic) published by Bob Cobbing's Writers Forum
- Paul Horgan, Songs After Lincoln
- David Ignatow, Figures of the Human
- Randall Jarrell:
- John Knoepfle, Rivers into Islands
- Philip Larkin, The Whitsun Weddings
- Stanley McNail, Something Breathing
- Gabriela Mistral, Selected Poems translated from Spanish
- Samuel French Morse, The Changes
- Howard Moss, Finding Them Lost, New York: Scribners
- Edwin Muir, Collected Poems, New York: Oxford University Press
- Mary Oliver, No Voyage, and Other Poems (expanded from first edition in 1963)
- George Oppen, This in Which
- Sylvia Plath, Ariel, including "Daddy", (posthumous)
- David Ray, X-Rays
- Charles Reznikoff, the first of his Testimony collections
- David Shapiro, January
- Jon Silkin, Nature with Man
- Clark Ashton Smith, Poems in Prose
- Hollis Summers, Seven Occasions
- Melvin Tolson, Harlem Gallery
- Mona Van Duyn, A Time of Bees
- Theodore Weiss, The Medium: New Poems, New York: Macmillan
- Samuel Yellen, New and Selected Poems
- Marya Zaturenska, Collected Poems
- Louis Zukofsky, ALL: The Collected Short Poems, 1923–1958 (Norton)
Criticism and scholarship in the United States
- Theodore Roethke, On the Poet and his Craft (published posthumously)
- Chard Powers Smith, Where the Light Falls, about Edward Arlington Robinson
Other in English
- P. L. Brent, editor, Young Commonwealth Poets 1965 (anthology published in the United Kingdom)
- A. L. Hendriks, On This Mountain (Caribbean)
- Frank Kobina Parkes, Songs from the Wilderness (Ghanaian living in the United Kingdom)
- Derek Walcott, The Castaway (Caribbean)
Works published in other languages
Listed by language and often by nation where the work was first published and again by the poet's native land, if different; substantially revised works listed separately:
- Jørgen Gustava Brandt, Etablissementet
- Klaus Rifbjerg, Amagerdigle ("Amager Poems")
- Ivan Malinovski, Poetomatic
- Poul Borum, editor, a volume of modern poetry
- Torben Brostrøm, Den nye poesi, a volume of modern poetry (a new version, first published in 1962)
- Jess Ørnsbo, editor, a volume of modern poetry
- Pertti Nieminen, Silmissä maailman maismat ("The World in his Eyes"), colorful, humorous fables in the form of poetry
- Arvo Turtainen, translation of Leaves of Grass
- Pentti Saarikoski, Kuljen missä kuljen ("Traveling Man")
- Jacques Brault, Mémoire
- Paul Chamberland, L'Afficheur hurle
- Gilbert Choquette, L'Honneur de vivre
- Cécile Cloutier, Cuivre et soìes
- Paul-Marie Lapointe, Pour les âmes
- Fernand Oulette, Le Soleil sous la mort
- Yves Bonnefoy, Pierre écrite
- Andrée Chedid, Double-Pays
- Roger Giroux, L'Arbre le temps, which won the Max Jacob Prize
- Edmond Jabès, Le Retour au Livre
- Pierre Jean Jouve:
- R. Lorno, Légendaire, a book of verses in a style vaguely like Verlaine; the book won the Apollinaire Prize.
- Loys Masson, La Dame de Pavoux
- Saint-John Perse, Pour Dante, Paris: Gallimard
- Marcelin Pleynet, Comme
- Francis Ponge:
- Robert Sabatier, Les Poisons délectables
- Jean Tortel, Les Villes découvertes
- Maurice Chappaz, Chant de la Grande Dixence
- N. Alterman, Hagigat Kayitz ("Summer Celebration")
- Yonathan Ratosh, Shirai Memesh ("Poems of Tangibility")
- Mattityahu Shoham, Ketavim ("Writings")
- Moshe Dor, Sirpad Umatehet ("Briar and Metal")
- I. Pincas, Aruhat Erev be-Ferrara ("Supper in Ferrara")
- A. Broides, le-Eretz ha-Moked ("Toward the Blazing Land")
- Moses Feinstein, a book of poems and sonnets
- G. Preil, Mivhar Shirim ("A Selection of Poems"), introduction by A. Shabatay
- Yaffa Eliach, Eishet ha-Dayag ("Fisherman's Wife"), a long, narrative poem
- A. Zeitlin, Hazon ve-Hazon Medinah ("A State and a State Envisioned")
Listed in alphabetical order by first name:
- Chandiroor Divakaran, Radha, Malayalam-language
- Nilmani Phookan, Nirjanatar Sabda, Guwahati, Assam: Dutta Barua; Assamese-language
- Nirendranath Chakravarti, Nirokto Korobi, Kolkata: Surabhi Prokashoni; Bengali-language
- Kunwar Narain, Atmajayee, a short epic poem, New Delhi: Bharatiya Jnanpith; Hindi-language
- Umashankar Joshi, Mahaprasthan, a "dialogue-poem"; Gujarati-language
- Alfredo Giuliani:
- Roberto Roversi, Dopo Campoformio, collection
- Carlo Villa, Siamo esseri antichi
- Vittorio Sereni, Gli strumenti umani
- Giovanni Giudici, La vita in versi
- Carlos Drummond de Andrade, complete works
- Cassiano Ricardo, Jeremias sem chorar
- Mauro Mota, Canto au meio
- Ramón Garciasol, Fuente serena
- Diego Jesús Jiménez, La ciudad, winner of the Premio Adonais prize
- José Hierro, El libro de las alucinaciones
- Justo Jorge Padrón, Trazos de un paréntesis
- Victor García Robles, Oíd Mortales (Argentina), winner of the Cuban Casa de las Américas Prize in poetry
- J. Bañuelos, O. Oliva, J. A. Shelley, E. Zepeda, and J. Labastida (all in Mexico), Ocupación de la palabra, a collection of their poems
- Carlos Medellín, El aire y las colinas (Colombia)
- José Emilio Pacheco, Poesía mexicana del siglo XIX, which Jose Francisco Vazquez-Amaral called (in 1966) "the first reliable work of its kind to deal with that important period of Mexican poetry".
- editor(s) not known, Horizons, a poetry anthology published in the Soviet Union
- Kadye Molodovski, Light from the Thorn Tree
- Berish Vaynshteyn, Destined Poems
- Robert Frost, a volume of his poems in Yiddish (published in Israel), translated by Meyer-Ziml Tkatsh
- L. Olitski, a book of poems (published in Israel)
- A. Shamri, a book of poems (published in Israel)
- M. Yungman, a book of poems (published in Israel)
- Leyzer Aykhenrand, a book of poems (published in Israel)
- Malke Tuzman, a book of poems (published in Israel)
- Dritëro Agolli, Shtigje malesh dhe trotuare ("Mountain paths and sidewalks") (Albania)
- Majken Johansson, Liksom överlämnad (Sweden), her first volume in seven years
- Bengt Emil Johnson, Gubbdrunkning (Sweden)
- Lo Fu (Luo Fu),Death of a Stone Cell Chinese (Taiwan)
- Alexander Mezhirov, Ладожский лёд ("Ice of Lake Ladoga"), Russia, Soviet Union
- Boris Pasternak, collected poems published in the Soviet Union, not as complete as the collection published by the University of Michigan in 1961, but the closest to complete available to Soviet readers
- Einar Skjæraasen, "Sang i september" the first poem to appear since 1956 from one of Norway's most popular poets
Awards and honors
- See 1965 Governor General's Awards for a complete list of winners and finalists for those awards.
- Eric Gregory Award: John Fuller, Derek Mahon, Michael Longley, Norman Talbot
- Queen's Gold Medal for Poetry: Philip Larkin
- Bollingen Prize: Horace Gregory
- Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress (later the post would be called "Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress"): Stephen Spender appointed this year.
- National Book Award for Poetry: Theodore Roethke, The Far Field
- Pulitzer Prize for Poetry: John Berryman: 77 Dream Songs
- Fellowship of the Academy of American Poets: Marianne Moore
- Danish Academy 1965 literature prize: Erik Knudsen, poet and dramatist
- June 1 – Adeena Karasick, Canadian poet and performance artist
- September 6 – Christopher Nolan (died 2009), Irish poet and author
- November 1 – Kirsten Hammann, Denmark
- November 18 – Michael Crummey, Canadian novelist and poet
- November 23 – Marcel Beyer, German
Birth years link to the corresponding "[year] in poetry" article:
- January 4 – T. S. Eliot, 76, American/British poet
- January 28 – Motokichi Takahashi 高橋元吉 (born 1893), Japanese, Taishō and Showa period poet
- February 2 – Richard Blackmur, 61, American literary critic and poet
- March 17 – Nancy Cunard, 69, English writer, editor and publisher
- June 5 – Eleanor Farjeon, 84, English poet and author
- July 10 – Jacques Audiberti 66, French playwright, poet and novelist and exponent of the Theatre of the Absurd
- August 17:
- August 24 – Fuyue Anzai 安西 冬衛 (born 1898) Japanese poet and co-founder of the magazine Shi To Shiron ("Poetry and Poetics")
- October 15 or October 14 – Randall Jarrell, 51, American author, writer and poet, in a highway accident;
- June 22 – Joseph Auslander, 67, American poet, of a heart attack
- September 2 – Johannes Bobrowski (born 1917), German poet, narrative writer, adaptor and essayist
- November 28 – Aslaug Vaa (born 1889), Norway
- Britannica Book of the Year 1966 (covering "Events of 1965"), 1966, published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.
- "Les Murray". The Poetry Archive. Retrieved 2007-10-15.
- "Thompson, John, Australian Poetry 1965" [web page]. International League of Antiquarian Booksellers. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
- Preminger, Alex; Brogan, T. V. F.; et al., eds. (1993). "Australian Poetry". The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Princeton University Press; MJF Books. p. 108 (Anthologies section).
- Gustafson, Ralph (1967). The Penguin Book of Canadian Verse (Revised ed.). Baltimore, Maryland: Penguin Books.
- Preminger, Alex; Brogan, T. V. F.; et al., eds. (1993). "Canadian Poetry". The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Princeton University Press; MJF Books. p. 164 (English "Anthologies" section).
- Roberts, Neil, ed. (2003). A Companion to Twentieth-century Poetry, Part III, Chapter 3, "Canadian Poetry", by Cynthia Messenger, Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4051-1361-8. Retrieved via Google Books 2009-01-03.
- Mehrotra, Arvind Krishna, ed. (2003). A History of Indian literature in English. Columbia University Press. p. 250. ISBN 0-231-12810-X. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
- Lal, P., Modern Indian Poetry in English: An Anthology & a Credo, p 193, Calcutta: Writers Workshop, second edition, 1971 (however, on page 597 an "editor's note" states contents "on the following pages are a supplement to the first edition" and is dated "1972").
- Vinayak Krishna Gokak, The Golden Treasury Of Indo-Anglian Poetry (1828–1965), p 323, New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi (1970, first edition; 2006 reprint), ISBN 81-260-1196-3, retrieved August 10, 2010
- Lal, P., Modern Indian Poetry in English: An Anthology & a Credo, p 581, Calcutta: Writers Workshop, second edition, 1971 (however, on page 597 an "editor's note" states contents "on the following pages are a supplement to the first edition" and is dated "1972").
- Naik, M. K., Perspectives on Indian poetry in English, p. 230, (published by Abhinav Publications, 1984, ISBN 0-391-03286-0, ISBN 978-0-391-03286-6), retrieved via Google Books, June 12, 2009
- Lal, P., Modern Indian Poetry in English: An Anthology & a Credo, p 12, Calcutta: Writers Workshop, second edition, 1971 (however, on page 597 an "editor's note" states contents "on the following pages are a supplement to the first edition" and is dated "1972").
- Lal, P., Modern Indian Poetry in English: An Anthology & a Credo, p 116, Calcutta: Writers Workshop, second edition, 1971 (however, on page 597 an "editor's note" states contents "on the following pages are a supplement to the first edition" and is dated "1972").
- Lal, P., Modern Indian Poetry in English: An Anthology & a Credo, p 339, Calcutta: Writers Workshop, second edition, 1971 (however, on page 597 an "editor's note" states contents "on the following pages are a supplement to the first edition" and is dated "1972").
- Rosenthal, M. L. (1967). "Selected Bibliography: Individual Volumes by Poets Discussed". The New Poets: American and British Poetry Since World War II. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 334–340.
- Cox, Michael, ed. (2004). The Concise Oxford Chronology of English Literature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860634-6.
- "Charles Brasch". New Zealand Literature File. University of Auckland Library. Archived from the original on 2006-09-28. Retrieved 2008-04-26.
- Preminger, Alex; Brogan, T. V. F.; et al., eds. (1993). "New Zealand Poetry". The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Princeton University Press; MJF Books. p. 837 ("History and Criticism" section).
- "Women Writing Africa – A Bibliography of Anglophone Women Writers – A selection of titles proposed by Tony Simoes da Silva, University of Wollongong, Australia" [web page] at Discipline of European Languages and Studies, French, The University of Western Australia [website]. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
- Lal, P., Modern Indian Poetry in English: An Anthology & a Credo, p 594, Calcutta: Writers Workshop, second edition, 1971 (however, on page 597 an "editor's note" states contents "on the following pages are a supplement to the first edition" and is dated "1972").
- "Archive: Edward Dorn (1929-1999)". Poetry Foundation. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
- Williams, Emily Allen, ed. (2002). "Selected Timeline of Anglophone Caribbean Poetry". Anglophone Caribbean Poetry, 1970-2001: An Annotated Bibliography. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. xvii & ff. ISBN 978-0-313-31747-7. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- Preminger, Alex; Brogan, T. V. F.; et al., eds. (1993). "Danish Poetry". The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. New York: MJF Books/Fine Communications. pp. 270–274.
- Brée, Germaine (1983). Twentieth-Century French Literature, translated by Louise Guiney. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Auster, Paul, ed. (1982). The Random House Book of Twentieth-Century French Poetry: with Translations by American and British Poets. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-52197-8.
- "Saint-John Perse: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1960: Bibliography" at the Nobel Prize Website, retrieved July 20, 2009. Archived 2009-07-24.
- "Nilmani Phookan". Poetry International. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- "Nirendranath Chakravarti". Poetry International. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
- "Kunwar Narain". Poetry International. Retrieved 2010-07-12.
- Mohan, Sarala Jag (1996). "Chapter 4: Twentieth-Century Gujarati Literature". In Natarajan, Nalini; Nelson, Emanuel Sampath. Handbook of Twentieth-century Literatures of India. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-28778-7. Retrieved 2008-12-10.
- Balcom, John. "Lo Fu". Poetry International. Retrieved 2008-11-22.
- Shrayer, Maxim (2007). "Aleksandr Mezhirov". An Anthology of Jewish-Russian Literature: Two Centuries of Dual Identity in Prose and Poetry. M.E. Sharpe. p. 879. ISBN 978-0-7656-0521-4. Retrieved 2009-05-27.
- Associated Press (2009-02-25). "Christopher Nolan dies at 43; Irish poet and novelist". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- Lambæk Nielsen, Michael, translated by Russell Dees. (2005). "Author Profile: Kirsten Hammann". Danish Arts Agency Literature Centre. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- Hofmann, Michael, ed. (2006). Twentieth-Century German Poetry: An Anthology. Macmillan/Farrar, Straus and Giroux.