1965 in science
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Astronomy and space exploration
- February 20 – Ranger 8 crashes into the Moon after a successful mission of photographing possible landing sites for the Apollo program astronauts.
- March 23 – NASA launches Gemini 3, the United States' first two-person space flight (crew: Gus Grissom and John Young).
- November 16 – Venera program: The Soviet Union launches the Venera 3 space probe from Baikonur, Kazakhstan toward Venus. (On March 1, 1966 it becomes the first spacecraft to reach the surface of another planet).
- November 26 – At the Hammaguira launch facility in the Sahara Desert, France launches a Diamant-A rocket with its first satellite, Asterix-1 on board, becoming the third country to enter space.
- Discovery of NML Cygni, a red hypergiant and the largest star known, at about 1,650 times the Sun's radius.
- February 4 – Trofim Lysenko is removed from his post as director of the Institute of Genetics at the Academy of Sciences in the Soviet Union and Lysenkoist theories subjected to criticism.
- Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling name their concept of the molecular clock.
- The Parma wallaby, thought for around 70 years to be extinct, is rediscovered on Kawau Island (near Auckland).
- W. Keble Martin publishes The Concise British Flora in Colour.
- Kevlar high-strength para-aramid synthetic fiber is developed by Stephanie Kwolek at DuPont.
- Peter Hirsch, Archibald Howie, Robin Nicholson, D. W. Pashley and Michael J. Whelan publish Electron Microscopy of Thin Crystals.
- March 22 – Digital Equipment Corporation launch the 12-bit PDP-8, the first successful commercial minicomputer, which will sell more than 50,000 systems, the most of any computer up to this date.
- April 19 – Gordon Moore describes the exponential growth trend in computing power which will become known as Moore's law.
History of science
- Ralph Lapp publishes The New Priesthood: The Scientific Elite and the Uses of Power in the United States.
- James Ax and Simon B. Kochen make the first proof of the Ax–Kochen theorem.
- Lotfi Zadeh develops fuzzy logic.
Physiology and medicine
- English paediatrician Harry Angelman first describes Angelman syndrome.
- Frank Pantridge installs the first portable defibrillator, in a Belfast ambulance.
- January – Bryan Whitby and S. C. Cummins file a United Kingdom patent application for mobile ice cream producing equipment with the soft serve units powered off the ice cream van's drive mechanism (rather than a separate generator), which becomes a global standard.
- Nobel Prizes
- Order of Merit: Dorothy Hodgkin
- June 21 – Yang Liwei, Chinese astronaut.
- October 11 – Juan Ignacio Cirac Sasturain, Spanish physicist.
- August 28 – Giulio Racah (born 1909), Israeli physicist.
- September 4 – Albert Schweitzer (born 1875), Alsatian medical missionary.
- October 12 – Paul Hermann Müller (born 1899), Swiss chemist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1948.
- November 11 – Ronald Hatton (died 1886), English pomologist.
- Cohen, Barry M. (1965). "The descent of Lysenko". The Journal of Heredity 56 (5): 229–233.
- Joravsky, David (1970). The Lysenko Affair. Russian Research Center studies, 61. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-53985-0.
- Zuckerkandl, E.; Pauling, L. (1965). "Evolutionary Divergence and Convergence in Proteins". In Bryson, B.; Vogel, H. (ed). Evolving Genes and Proteins. New York: Academic Press. pp. 97–166.
- Morgan, Gregory J. (1998). "Emile Zuckerkandl, Linus Pauling, and the Molecular Evolutionary Clock, 1959-1965". Journal of the History of Biology 31: 155–178. doi:10.1023/A:1004394418084. PMID 11620303.
- Kwolek, Stephanie; Mera, Hiroshi; Takata, Tadahiko (2002). "High-Performance Fibers". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a13_001.
- "Wholly Aromatic Carbocyclic Polycarbonamide Fiber". 1974-06-25. Archived from the original on 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2012-03-02. US patent #3819587.
- Jones, Douglas W. "The Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-8". Retrieved 2012-05-08.
- Moore, Gordon E. (19 April 1965). "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits" (PDF). Electronics 38 (8). Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- "Excerpts from A Conversation with Gordon Moore: Moore’s Law" (PDF). Intel. 2005. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- "1965 – "Moore's Law" Predicts the Future of Integrated Circuits". Computer History Museum. 2007. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- "Ever more from Moore". The Economist. 18 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- Ax, James; Kochen, Simon (1965). "Diophantine problems over local fields, I". American Journal of Mathematics 87: 605–630.
- Crilly, Tony (2007). 50 Mathematical Ideas You Really Need to Know. London: Quercus. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-84724-008-8.
- Angelman, Harvey (1965). "'Puppet' Children: A report of three cases". Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 7 (6): 681–688. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.1965.tb07844.x.
- "History". Crewe: Whitby Morrison. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
- Whitby, Stuart; Earnshaw, Alan (1999). Fifty Years of Ice Cream Vehicles, 1949–99. Appleby: Trans-Pennine. ISBN 978-1-903016-08-4.