1971 Indianapolis 500

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55th Indianapolis 500
Indianapolis Motor Speedway
Indianapolis 500
Sanctioning bodyUSAC
Season1971 USAC Trail
DateMay 29, 1971
WinnerAl Unser, Sr.
Winning teamVel's Parnelli Jones Racing
Average speed157.735 mph (253.850 km/h)
Pole positionPeter Revson
Pole speed178.696 mph (287.583 km/h)
Fastest qualifierPeter Revson
Rookie of the YearDenny Zimmerman
Most laps ledAl Unser, Sr. (103)
Pre-race ceremonies
National anthemPurdue Band
"Back Home Again in Indiana"Peter DePaolo
Starting commandTony Hulman
Pace carDodge Challenger
Pace car driverEldon Palmer
StarterPat Vidan[1]
Estimated attendance261,000[2]
TV in the United States
AnnouncersJim McKay, Jackie Stewart
Previous Next
1970 1972

The 55th 500 Mile International Sweepstakes was a motor race held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana on Saturday, May 29, 1971. Al Unser Sr. won for the second consecutive year, dominating most of the race.[3][4] Unser became the fourth driver to win the Indy 500 in back-to-back years, and it was his second of a record-tying four Indy victories.

The race was marred by a crash involving the pace car at the start. Eldon Palmer, a local Indianapolis-area Dodge dealer, lost control of the Dodge Challenger pace car at the south end of the pit area, and it crashed into a photographers' stand, injuring 29 people, two seriously.[5][6]

Peter Revson started on the pole with a record speed of 178.696 miles per hour (287.6 km/h), more than a mile per hour faster than any other qualifier, with defending Indy 500 winner and USAC National Champion Al Unser in the middle of the second row. Mark Donohue, who qualified in the middle of the front row, took the lead at the start of the race and led the first 50 laps. A mechanical issue ended his day, however, on lap 66, at which time Unser assumed the lead. He and Joe Leonard swapped the lead several times during the middle portion of the race, but Unser led for the final 83 laps, giving him a win for the second year in a row. He was the first to successfully defend his title since Bill Vukovich won in 19531954.

Unser became the first and only driver to-date to win the race on his birthday (32nd); which was also coincidentally the first time the race had ever been held on May 29, and he also became the first winner to celebrate in the new victory lane. The new winner's area, now featuring black and white checkered ramps, was moved from the south end of the pits to the "horseshoe" area immediately below the Master Control Tower, near the start/finish line.

The 1971 Indy 500 was part of the newly re-organized USAC Marlboro Championship Trail, in which dirt tracks were separated from the paved ovals and road courses. From then on, the Gold Crown championship schedule would consist solely of paved tracks (both ovals and road courses), giving the national championship a decidedly new look for the 1970s and beyond. In addition, with 500-mile races at Ontario and Pocono now on the schedule, Indy car racing formed its first "triple crown."

The city of Indianapolis celebrated its Sesquicentennial in 1971, and the occasion was reflected on the bronze and silver pit badges for the month of May.[7] During the week leading up to the race, Indianapolis was also the site of 1971 NATO International Conference of Cities.[8]

Race schedule[edit]

In the days leading up to the race, Speedway officials announced that female reporters would be allowed in the pit area and garage area for the first time.

For this race, and again in 1972, the race was scheduled for the Saturday of Memorial Day weekend. The Uniform Monday Holiday Act had taken effect in 1971, and the Speedway moved the race off of its original traditional fixed date of May 30. Through 1970, Memorial Day was a fixed date holiday observed on May 30 regardless of the day of the week. From 1911 to 1970, the race was scheduled for May 30, regardless of the day of the week, unless May 30 fell on a Sunday. In those cases, the race would be scheduled for Monday May 31. In 1973, it was scheduled for Monday (but rain delayed it until Wednesday), and from 1974 onward, it was scheduled for the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend.

For 1971, the traditional Carburetion Day practice, held on Wednesday May 26, was officially open to the public for the first time.[9]

Race schedule — May, 1971
Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat






Pole Day
Time Trials
Time Trials
Bump Day
Carb Day
Indy 500
Memorial Day





Color Notes
Green Practice
Dark Blue Time trials
Silver Race day
Red Rained out*
Blank No track activity

* Includes days where track
activity was significantly
limited due to rain

Time trials[edit]

For the first time, USAC firmed up the rules regarding pole day qualifying. As had been done in previous years, a blind draw would be held to determine the order of qualifying on pole day. However, starting in 1971, all drivers/cars in the original qualifying draw order would be allowed the opportunity to make at least one attempt in the pole round regardless if rain halted the session and pushed it off to another day.[10] Previously, if rain interrupted the qualifying line on pole day, any cars left in the original qualifying order at the time the track closed because of weather or the track closing at 6:00 p.m. were deemed to qualify on the next round.

During practice, McLaren arrived at the track with the new M16 chassis, drawing attention and some controversy due to presence of a large rear wing affixed to the engine cover. USAC rules through 1971 required that any aerodynamic devices were to be an integral part of the bodywork.[11] After inspection, officials ultimately approved the device, as McLaren argued it was part of the engine cover. The engine cover was not much more than a flat, plate-like shape that ran along the top of the engine, with the wing affixed to the rear.[12] As practice began, the McLaren entries quickly established themselves as favorites for the pole position.

Pole Day - Saturday May 15[edit]

McLaren M16 cars dominated qualifying during a record-shattering afternoon. The chassis took 1st, 2nd, and 4th starting positions, but the results were not without some surprise. Mark Donohue in the Penske-owned McLaren had broken the 180 mph barrier during practice on Thursday, establishing himself as the favorite for the pole. Donohue lucked out with an early draw on Pole Day, going out third in line. He posted a four-lap average of 177.087 mph to sit on the provisional pole. It was a new track record, but a little disappointing compared to the 180 mph lap he had two days earlier.

Later in the day, Peter Revson, driving a works McLaren, bumped Donohue from the pole with a four-lap average of 178.696 mph.[13] The pole position far out of reach for the rest of the field. Donohue reportedly suffered handling problems with his car during his run, purportedly as a result of his crew refusing to dial it in as he requested. Donohue then confided with his friend Revson, who then clandestinely borrowed Donohue's chassis set-up advice to knock him off the pole.[14] Bobby Unser in an Eagle chassis, squeezed between the three McLaren cars by qualifying third.

Second Day - Sunday May 16[edit]

Three drivers completed runs, with Bud Tingelstad (170.156 mph) the fastest of the afternoon. Mike Mosley returned after two crashes the previous day, and qualified solidly over 169 mph.[1]

Third Day - Saturday May 22[edit]

A busy day saw the field filled to 33 cars car. The day concluded with Steve Krisiloff bumping out rookie Sam Posey.[2] [3]

Bump Day - Sunday May 23[edit]

Strong winds kept speeds down, and only three drivers successfully bumped their way into the field. The windy conditions led to six crashes, and hopefuls waited until the final 45 minutes before they took to the track. The session started out with Mel Kenyon bumping out Carl Williams. Bob Harkey bumped Dick Simon, and Art Pollard got back into the field by bumping Jim McElreath.[4]

Jim Hurtubise once again tried to qualify his front-engined roadster, but on his second lap, hit the outside wall at the head of the main stretch. His first two laps would not have been fast enough to bump his way in. The day ended as Dick Simon (waved off) and Jerry Grant (waved off) made unsuccessful attempts.

After qualifying, car owner Dick Simon announced he was going to take over the machine qualified by John Mahler. By rule, the car must move to the rear of the grid (33rd) on race day.

Pace car crash[edit]

The repaired 1971 Dodge Challenger pace car.

For 1971, none of the Big Three auto manufacturers chose to supply a pace car for the Indianapolis 500, as the muscle car market had dried up and marketing efforts were shifted elsewhere. Four local Indianapolis-area Dodge dealers, spearheaded by Eldon Palmer, stepped up to supply the fleet of pace cars. The vehicle chosen was the Dodge Challenger 383-4V.[15] Palmer was chosen to drive the pace car at the start of the race.

In preparation for the race, Palmer or an aide supposedly set up an orange flag (sometimes reported as an orange traffic cone) in the pit lane to provide himself with a braking reference point. However, there has been some dispute regarding the existence of the marker at all.[16] One account claimed it had not been there for several days.[17] During the parade and pace lap, Tony Hulman, ABC broadcaster Chris Schenkel, and John Glenn served as passengers in the car. Palmer practiced the run the day before the race.

As the field came down the main stretch for the start, Palmer pulled into the pits and accelerated down the pit lane. Palmer continued to accelerate, under the impression that he was required to cross the start/finish line in the pit area prior to, or at the same time, as the race cars doing so out on the track.[17] His reference flag (or cone) had been removed and he missed his planned braking spot. Moving upwards of perhaps 125 miles per hour (201 km/h), Palmer realized he was going too fast, and rather than perilously veering back on to the racing surface, he braked heavily and lost control. Palmer had refused to blame the car, stating afterwards that "the equipment was good, disc brakes. I just didn't have enough track to stop."[18] However, testimony during a 1974 civil trial stated that the pace car was supposed to be ordered with power disc brakes, but was built and delivered to the track with only manual drum brakes.[17][19] Furthermore, Palmer's attorney added that a security guard running out of the way effectively blocked the exit to the pits.[17]

The car swerved and skidded to the end of the pit lane, and crashed into a photographers' stand.[20] The stand toppled and collapsed, injuring 29 people, but no one was killed. Dr. Vicente Alvarez, a freelance photographer from Argentina, was one of two on the stand who were seriously injured. Alvarez survived, and died in the late 1990s.[21] Tony Hulman suffered a sprained ankle, and a shaken Schenkel sat out the remainder of the ABC broadcast.

Palmer maintained possession of the car, and eventually it was repaired and restored. Ultimately, Palmer himself was largely exonerated.[22] Indiana businessman Steven Cage purchased the vehicle in 2006, and it currently is displayed at his RPM Collection in Fishers, Indiana.[23] Reactions of the accident were very critical afterwards, and for the next several years, the pace car drivers selected were either former Indy drivers or people with racing experience.

Race details[edit]

First half[edit]

Despite the pace car crash near the exit of the pits, the green light came on, and the race continued underway. Mark Donohue grabbed the lead from the middle of the front row.

On lap 12, Steve Krisiloff blew an engine, spilling oil in turn three. Mel Kenyon slid in the oil making contact with the turn three wall. Gordon Johncock and Mario Andretti continued to race each other through three yellow lights. When they arrived at turn three, track workers were on the scene beside the Kenyon machine. Having not heeded the yellow lights, both Johncock and Andretti slid in the oil with Johncock crashing into the Kenyon car, running over the top of it and destroying both cars. Kenyon, fortunately, had seen Johncock coming and dropped back down into the cockpit of his race car. Johncock's car left a tire mark on the top of Kenyon's helmet. The only injury received by Kenyon was a small cut on his shin from the dash board being pushed down onto his legs.[24] All four cars were out of the race, and the yellow light was on for 19 minutes to clean up the accident.

Donohue led the first 50 laps, then the lead traded hands during pit stops between Joe Leonard, Bobby Unser, as well as Al Unser. After leading a total of 52 laps, Mark Donohue dropped out on lap 66 with broken gears. He came to a stop in turn four, and parked the car in the infield, just north of the entrance to the pits.

Lloyd Ruby led at the halfway point.

Second half[edit]

On lap 111, David Hobbs blew an engine on the main stretch. Rick Muther spun in the oil, his car veered to the inside wall, then bounced across the track, hitting Hobbs, and lifting up on two wheels. Hobbs' car was pushed head-on into the wall, but he was not seriously injured. Both cars slid down the main stretch, and came to a rest just beyond the start/finish line. The track was blocked except for a narrow portion on the inside where other cars were able to skirt by. The incident happened right in front of Al Unser, who was the leading the race at the moment. The yellow light came on for 12 minutes to clean up the crash.

After a series of pit stops by the leaders under the yellow, the green eventually came back out with Al Unser leading.

With less than 40 laps to go, Al Unser continued to lead, with Peter Revson second, Bobby Unser third, and A. J. Foyt fourth.

On lap 167, Mike Mosley lost a wheel in turn 4. He smacked the outside wall in turn four hard, then bounced across the track and hit the inside wall. Leader Al Unser was ahead of the crash, and second place Peter Revson just slipped by. Third place Bobby Unser spun to avoid Mosley, and hit the outside wall. Mosley's car then crashed into the parked cars of Mark Donohue and Steve Krisiloff, that were sitting near the entrance to the pits. A fire broke out, at which time 8th running[25] Gary Bettenhausen stopped his car, and ran to the scene to help. Fire crews quickly doused the flames, and Mosley suffered a broken leg. Bill Vukovich II also spun to avoid the crash, but he was able to continue. The yellow remained on for 22 minutes to clean up the crash.

The green light came back on with less than 20 laps to go. Al Unser held a comfortable lead, and won his second 500 in a row. Despite four yellows for 53 minutes (about 48 laps), the average speed of 157.735 mph was a new record at the time. Bettenhausen, who finished 10th, was given a cheer at the finish for stopping to help Mosley and Unser on lap 164.[26]

Race results[edit]

Finish Start No Name Chassis Engine Qual Rank Laps Status
1 5 1 United States Al Unser  W  Colt Ford 174.621 5 200 157.735 mph
2 1 86 United States Peter Revson McLaren Offenhauser 178.695 1 200 +23.8[27]
3 6 9 United States A. J. Foyt  W  Coyote Ford 174.317 6 200 Lead lap
4 10 42 United States Jim Malloy Eagle Offenhauser 171.838 11 200 Lead lap
5 11 32 United States Bill Vukovich II Brabham Offenhauser 171.674 12 200 Lead lap
6 20 84 United States Donnie Allison Coyote Ford 171.903 10 199 +1 lap
7 17 58 United States Bud Tingelstad Brabham Offenhauser 170.156 24 198 +2 laps
8 28 43 United States Denny Zimmerman  R  Vollstedt Offenhauser 169.755 27 189 +11 laps
9 22 6 United States Roger McCluskey Kuzma Ford 171.241 15 188 +12 laps
10 13 16 United States Gary Bettenhausen Gerhardt Offenhauser 171.233 16 178 +22 laps
11 7 12 United States Lloyd Ruby Mongoose Ford 173.821 7 174 Gears
12 3 2 United States Bobby Unser  W  Eagle Offenhauser 175.816 3 164 Crash T4
13 19 4 United States Mike Mosley Eagle Watson Ford 169.579 29 159 Crash T4
14 33 44 United States Dick Simon Vollstedt Ford 170.165 23 151 Flagged
15 29 41 United States George Follmer Kingfish Offenhauser 169.205 32 147 Piston
16 14 21 United States Cale Yarborough Mongoose Ford 170.770 19 140 Cam Cover
17 4 85 New Zealand Denis Hulme McLaren Offenhauser 174.910 4 137 Valve
18 24 18 United States Johnny Rutherford Eagle Offenhauser 171.152 18 128 Flagged
19 8 15 United States Joe Leonard Colt Ford 172.761 8 123 Turbocharger
20 16 68 United Kingdom David Hobbs  R  Lola Ford 169.571 30 107 Crash FS
21 18 38 United States Rick Muther Brawner Offenhauser 169.972 25 85 Crash FS
22 32 99 United States Bob Harkey Gerhardt Offenhauser 169.197 33 77 Gears
23 15 95 United States Bentley Warren  R  Eagle Offenhauser 169.627 28 76 Gears
24 23 22 United States Wally Dallenbach Sr. Kuzma Offenhauser 171.159 17 69 Valve
25 2 66 United States Mark Donohue McLaren Offenhauser 177.087 2 66 Gears
26 31 64 United States Art Pollard Scorpion Ford 169.499 31 45 Valve
27 25 98 United States Sammy Sessions Lola Ford 170.357 20 43 Valve
28 26 45 United States Larry Dickson Kingfish Offenhauser 170.285 21 33 Engine
29 12 7 United States Gordon Johncock McLaren Offenhauser 171.388 14 11 Crash T3
30 9 5 United States Mario Andretti  W  McNamara Ford 172.612 9 11 Crash T3
31 27 20 United States Steve Krisiloff  R  McNamara Ford 169.835 26 10 Oil Leak
32 30 23 United States Mel Kenyon Kuzma Ford 170.205 22 10 Crash T3
33 21 80 United States George Snider Eagle Offenhauser 171.600 13 6 Stalled


Failed to Qualify[edit]

Race statistics[edit]

Tire participation chart
Supplier No. of starters
Goodyear 15 
Firestone 18*
* - Denotes race winner

Qualifying chronology[edit]

Time Car
Driver Laps Qual
Rank Start Comment
Saturday, May 15, 1971
1   4 Mike Mosley 0 accident
2   9 A. J. Foyt 4 3:26.52 174.317 6 6  
3   66 Mark Donohue 4 3:23.29 177.087 2 2  
4   32 Billy Vukovich II 4 3:29.70 171.674 12 11  
5   10 Dick Simon 4 3:33.14 168.903 Bumped by #99
6   14 Jim McElreath 3 Waved off
7   16 Gary Bettenhausen 4 3:30.24 171.233 16 13  
8   68 David Hobbs 4 3:32.30 169.571 30 16  
9   1 Al Unser 4 3:26.16 174.622 5 5  
10   7 Gordon Johncock 4 3:30.05 171.388 14 12  
11   42 Jim Malloy 4 3:29.50 171.838 11 10  
12   86 Peter Revson 4 3:21.46 178.696 1 1  
13   77 Carl Williams 1 Waved off
14   8 Art Pollard 3 Waved off
15   18 Johnny Rutherford 0 Blown engine
16   15 Joe Leonard 4 3:28.38 172.761 8 8  
17   2 Bobby Unser 4 3:24.76 175.816 3 3  
18   83 Donnie Allison 1 Waved off
19   28 Bill Simpson 4 3:33.94 168.271 Bumped by #45
20   12 Lloyd Ruby 4 3:27.11 173.821 7 7  
21   5 Mario Andretti 4 3:28.56 172.612 9 9  
22   85 Denis Hulme 0 Pulled off
23   45 Larry Dickson 3 Accident
24   14 Jim McElreath 3 Waved off
25   83 Donnie Allison 4 3:34.12 168.130 Withdrawn 5/22
26   85 Denis Hulme 4 3:25.82 174.910 4 4  
27   92 Jerry Grant 4 3:33.66 168.492 Bumped by #78
28   21 Cale Yarborough 4 3:30.81 170.770 19 14  
29   14 Jim McElreath 4 3:34.52 167.817 Bumped by #6; Reinstated by #83; Bumped by #84
30   38 Rick Muther 3 Blown engine
31   77 Carl Williams 4 3:33.29 168.784 Bumped by #23
32   8 Art Pollard 4 3:33.82 168.366 Bumped by #46
33   95 Bentley Warren 4 3:32.23 169.627 28 15  
Sunday May 16, 1971
34   4 Mike Mosley 0 3:32.29 169.579 29 19  
35   38 Rick Muther 0 3:31.80 169.972 25 18  
36   58 Bud Tingelstad 0 3:31.57 170.156 24 17  
Saturday May 22, 1971
37   80 George Snider 4 3:29.79 171.600 13 21  
38   43 Denny Zimmerman 4 3:32.07 169.755 27 28  
39   44 John Mahler 3  
40   98 Sam Sessions 4 3:31.32 170.358 20 25  
41   22 Wally Dallenbach 4 3:30.33 171.160 17 23  
42   94 Bruce Walkup 2 Waved off
43   45 Larry Dickson 3 Waved off
44   41 George Follmer 4 3:32.76 169.205 32 29  
45   44 John Mahler 4 3:31.56 170.164 23 33 Replaced by Dick Simon
46   18 Johnny Rutherford 4 3:30.34 171.151 18 24  
47   6 Roger McCluskey 2 Out of fuel
48   6 Roger McCluskey 4 3:30.23 171.241 15 22 Bumps #14
49   20 Steve Krisiloff 0 Pulled off
50   84 Donnie Allison 4 3:29.42 171.903 10 20 Bumps #14
51   45 Larry Dickson 4 3:31.41 170.285 21 26 Bumps #28
52   46 Jim McElreath 4 3:32.81 169.165 Bumps #8; Bumped by #64
53   94 Bruce Walkup 1 Pulled off
54   78 Sam Posey 4 3:33.30 168.776 Bumps #92; Bumped by #20
55   20 Steve Krisiloff 4 3:31.97 169.835 26 27 Bumps #78
Sunday May 23, 1971
56   23 Mel Kenyon 4 3:31.51 170.205 22 30 Bumps #77
57   99 Bob Harkey 4 3:32.77 169.197 33 32 Bumps #10
58   17 Jerry Grant 1 Waved off
59   64 Art Pollard 4 3:32.39 169.500 31 31 Bumps #46
60   56 Jim Hurtubise 2 Accident
61   33 Dick Simon 1 Waved off
62   17 Jerry Grant 1 Waved off



The race was carried live on the IMS Radio Network. It was carried on over 1,200 affiliates, including shortwave transmission to Europe, Asia, and Vietnam. The broadcast reached an estimated 100 million listeners worldwide. Sid Collins served as chief announcer and Len Sutton served as "driver expert." At the conclusion of the race, Lou Palmer reported from victory lane.

The entire on-air crew remained mostly consistent from 1966 to 1970. Bob Forbes was assigned as "wireless" microphone, covering the garages and roving reports. The pre-race coverage was 30 minutes long. In a departure from previous years, Sid Collins decided to eliminate booth interviews with celebrities during the race. The only exception was an interview with Hugh Downs, but that was during the post-race coverage. In addition, Luke Walton interviewed Evel Knievel in the pit area during the early stages of the race. Knievel was making his first visit to the 500, as a guest of the A. J. Foyt team.

Indianapolis Motor Speedway Radio Network
Booth Announcers Turn Reporters Pit/garage reporters

Chief Announcer: Sid Collins
Driver expert: Len Sutton
Statistician: John DeCamp
Historian: Donald Davidson

Turn 1: Mike Ahern
Turn 2: Howdy Bell
Backstretch: Doug Zink
Turn 3: Ron Carrell
Turn 4: Jim Shelton

Chuck Marlowe (north)
Luke Walton (center)
Lou Palmer (south)
Bob Forbes (wireless)


For the first time, the race was carried in the United States the same day the race was held, on ABC Sports on a same-day tape delay basis. The race was held in the afternoon, and the broadcast aired in prime time later in the day.

The broadcast totaled two hours, and came on-air at 8:30 p.m. (eastern). Among the notable appearances, was David Letterman, at the time employed by then-ABC Indianapolis affiliate WLWI, who served as a roving turn reporter. Letterman interviewed Mario Andretti after he dropped out of the race.

Chris Schenkel began what would be a decade-long tenure as host, while Jim McKay anchored the broadcast as play-by-play announcer. But Schenkel's day as host was short. Riding in (and broadcasting from) the pace car at the start of the race, he was slightly injured when the pace car crashed after coming into the pits at the start of the race.

The broadcast was re-aired numerous times on ESPN Classic from February 2002 until the network's shutdown at the end of 2021.

ABC Television
Booth Announcers Pit/garage reporters

Host: Chris Schenkel
Announcer: Jim McKay
Color: Jackie Stewart

Chris Economaki
Bill Flemming
Keith Jackson
David Letterman (turns)


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Fox, Jack C. (1994). The Illustrated History of the Indianapolis 500 1911-1994 (4th ed.). Carl Hungness Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 0-915088-05-3.
  2. ^ Marquette, Ray (May 30, 1971). "Defending Champion Garners Biggest Birthday Gift-$$$". The Indianapolis Star. p. 1. Retrieved June 2, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.open access
  3. ^ "Unser triumphs again". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). Associated Press. May 30, 1971. p. 1B.
  4. ^ Woolford, Dave (May 30, 1971). "Al Unser captures second 500 in a row". Toledo Blade. p. B1.
  5. ^ "Pace car accident mars Indy race; Al Unser first". The Bulletin. (Bend, Oregon). UPI. May 29, 1971. p. 1.
  6. ^ Jones, Robert F. (June 7, 1971). "Johnny Lightning drives through the wreckage". Sports Illustrated. p. 26.
  7. ^ "National Indy 500 Collectors Club: Indianapolis 500 Pit Badges 1970-1979". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2014-03-18.
  8. ^ "NATO'S Third Dimension". Archived from the original on 2014-03-18. Retrieved 2014-03-18.
  9. ^ "Pit Pass". The Indianapolis Star. May 24, 1971. p. 26. Retrieved March 7, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.open access
  10. ^ "The Talk of Gasoline Alley" 1070 WIBC, May 11, 2002
  11. ^ The Talk of Gasoline Alley. May 17, 2003. 1070 WIBC-AM.
  12. ^ The Talk of Gasoline Alley. May 10, 2007. 1070 WIBC-AM.
  13. ^ "The Rochester Sentinel - Google News Archive Search".
  14. ^ The Talk of Gasoline Alley. May 25, 2001. 1070 WIBC-AM.
  15. ^ Piurkowski, Eugene. "The 1971 Dodge Challenger Pace Car". allpar.com. Retrieved 2012-05-10.
  16. ^ The Talk of Gasoline Alley. May 11, 2010. WFNI.
  17. ^ a b c d Ito, Craig S. (January 16, 1974). "1971 Indy 500 - Pace Car crash - Newspapers.com". The Indianapolis Star. p. 3. Retrieved December 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.open access
  18. ^ George, Vecsey (1971-05-30). "Crash at Start: 20 Injured". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-08-14.
  19. ^ Ito, Craig S. (February 8, 1974). "1971 Indy 500 Pace Car Crash - Newspapers.com". The Indianapolis Star. p. 24. Retrieved December 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.open access
  20. ^ "The 1971 Challenger Pace Car Crash at the Indianapolis 500". The 1970 Hamtramck Registry. Retrieved 2012-05-10.
  21. ^ "Al Blixt Auto Racing History". Retrieved 2012-05-10.
  22. ^ "Clipping from The Indianapolis Star - Newspapers.com". The Indianapolis Star. February 17, 1974. p. 61. Retrieved December 10, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.open access
  23. ^ "Collector Recounts Pace Car Crash 40 Years Later". rtv6. 2011-05-27. Archived from the original on 2011-07-31. Retrieved 2012-05-10.
  24. ^ Mel Kenyon
  25. ^ Barnet, Bob (May 30, 1971). "For the Unsers - Victory and Survival". The Star Press. p. 1C. Retrieved 2017-07-11 – via Newspapers.com.
  26. ^ UPI (May 30, 1971). "He Deserves a Cheer - And Crowd Gave It!". The Star Press. p. C1. Retrieved 2017-07-11 – via Newspapers.com.
  27. ^ Ritter, Paul (May 30, 1971). "Parnelli Wins At Indy, Sorta". The Cincinnati Enquirer. p. 2-C. Retrieved 2017-07-11 – via Newspapers.com.
  28. ^ "1971 International 500 Mile Sweepstakes". ChampCarStats.com. Retrieved 27 June 2015.

Works cited[edit]

1970 Indianapolis 500
Al Unser
1971 Indianapolis 500
Al Unser
1972 Indianapolis 500
Mark Donohue
Preceded by
156.867 mph
(1969 Indianapolis 500)
Record for the fastest average speed
157.735 mph
Succeeded by