1973 in science
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Astronomy and space exploration
- March 7 – Comet Kohoutek is discovered
- April 6 – Launch of Pioneer 11 spacecraft
- May 14 – Skylab, the United States' first space station, is launched.
- Solar eclipse of June 30, 1973 – Very long total solar eclipse visible in NE South America, the Atlantic, and central Africa. During the entire Second Millennium, only seven total solar eclipses exceeded seven minutes of totality. This was the last. Observers aboard a Concorde jet were able to stretch totality to about 74 minutes by flying along the path of the moon's umbra.
- July 25 – Soviet Mars 5 space probe launched.
- November 3 – Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 10 toward Mercury (on March 29, 1974 it became the first space probe to reach that planet).
- December 3 – Pioneer program: Pioneer 10 sends back the first close-up images of Jupiter.
- December 7 – The "Big Ear" at the Ohio State University Radio Observatory begins a full-time SETI radio survey, running continuously until 1995.
- A successful method of Vitamin B12 total synthesis is reported by the groups of Robert Burns Woodward and Albert Eschenmoser.
- October – Asymmetric key algorithms for public-key cryptography developed by James H. Ellis, Clifford Cocks and Malcolm Williamson at the United Kingdom Government Communications Headquarters.
- Derek Ager publishes The Nature of the Stratigraphical Record.
History of science
- May 5 – July 28 – BBC Television series The Ascent of Man, written and presented by Jacob Bronowski, first airs; there is also an accompanying bestselling book.
- Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first articulate the Black–Scholes mathematical model of a financial market containing certain derivative investment instruments.
Physiology and medicine
- David Rosenhan publishes the results of his experiment into the validity of psychiatric diagnosis.
- The American Psychiatric Association officially declares that homosexuality is not a mental disorder.
- April 3 – The first handheld mobile phone call is made by Martin Cooper of Motorola in New York City.
- Ichiro Kato, Waseda University, develops the world's first full-scale humanoid robot, Wabot-1.
- March 6 – The Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, founded as the Montenegrin Society for Science and Arts (Crnogorsko društvo za nauku i umjetnost), elects its first members.
- Nobel Prizes
- Turing Award – Charles W. Bachman
- October 5 – Cédric Villani, French mathematician
- November 19 – Nim Chimpsky (d. 2000), chimpanzee
- December 5 – Luboš Motl, Czech theoretical physicist
- February 11 – J. Hans D. Jensen (b. 1907), German nuclear physicist
- March 12 – David Lack (b. 1910), English ornithologist
- March 14 – Howard H. Aiken (b. 1900), American computing pioneer
- July 3 – Laurens Hammond (b. 1895), American inventor
- December 10 – Wolf V. Vishniac (b. 1922), American microbiologist
- Woodward, R. B. (1973). "The Total Synthesis of Vitamin B12". Pure and Applied Chemistry 33 (1): 145–178. doi:10.1351/pac197333010145. PMID 4684454. Retrieved 2012-01-13.
- Nicolaou, K. C.; Sorensen, E. J. (1996). Classics in Total Synthesis: Targets, Strategies, Methods. Wiley. ISBN 978-3-527-29231-8.
- Disclosed 1997. http://www.gchq.gov.uk/history/pke.html.[dead link]
- Black, Fischer; Scholes, Myron (May–June 1973). "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities". Journal of Political Economy (University of Chicago Press) 81 (3): 637–654. doi:10.1086/260062. JSTOR 1831029.
- Steinman, R. M.; Cohn, Z. A. (1973). "Identification of a Novel Cell Type in Peripheral Lymphoid Organs of Mice: I. Morphology, Quantitation, Tissue Distribution". Journal of Experimental Medicine 137 (5): 1142–62. doi:10.1084/jem.137.5.1142. PMC 2139237. PMID 4573839.
- Rosenhan, D. L. (January 1973). "On being sane in insane places". Science (New York) 179 (4070): 250–8. Bibcode:1973Sci...179..250R. doi:10.1126/science.179.4070.250. PMID 4683124. Archived from the original on 2004-11-17.
- "First Mobile Phone Call Was Placed Exactly 40 Years Ago". Mashable. 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-03.
- "History of Industrial Robots" (PDF). International Federation of Robotics. 2012. Retrieved 2013-04-03.
- "Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA)". IAP. 2013. Retrieved 2015-01-09.