1974 in science
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Astronomy and space exploration
- February 8 – After 84 days in space, the last crew of the temporary American space station Skylab return to Earth.
- February 13–15 – Sagittarius A*, thought to be the location of a supermassive black hole, is identified by Bruce Balick and Robert Brown using the baseline interferometer of the United States National Radio Astronomy Observatory.
- November 16 – Arecibo message transmitted from Arecibo Observatory (Puerto Rico) to Messier 13.
- Hawking radiation is predicted by Stephen Hawking.
- The Mark-8 microcomputer based on the Intel 8008 microprocessor is designed by Jonathan Titus. It is announced on the cover of the July 1974 issue of Radio-Electronics as "Your Personal Minicomputer".
History of science
- F. W. Winterbotham publishes The Ultra secret: the inside story of Operation Ultra, Bletchley Park and Enigma, the first popular account of cryptography carried out at Bletchley Park during World War II.
- September 25 – 1974 – The first "Tommy John surgery" for replacement of ulnar collateral ligament of elbow joint is performed by Frank Jobe in the United States.
- Identification of controlled trials in perinatal medicine, as advocated by Archie Cochrane, begins in Cardiff, Wales.
- Henry Heimlich describes the "Heimlich Maneuver" as a treatment for choking.
Paleoanthropology and paleontology
- November 24 – A group of paleoanthropologists discover remains of a 3.2-million-year-old skeleton of an Australopithecus afarensis in the Afar Depression of Ethiopia, nicknaming her "Lucy".
- May 18 – "Smiling Buddha", India's first nuclear test explosion takes place underground at Pokhran.
- "November Revolution": J/ψ meson, the first particle found to contain a charm quark, discovered by teams at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, led by Samuel Ting, and at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, led by Burton Richter.
- May – British neuroscientists John Hughes and Hans Kosterlitz announce their isolation of the peptides met- and leu-enkephalin.
- Civilized Man's Eight Deadly Sins is published by Konrad Lorenz.
- Leon Kamin demonstrates that Sir Cyril Burt's influential research into heritability of IQ using twin studies shows evidence of statistical falsification.
- June 26 – The Universal Product Code is scanned for the first time, to sell a package of Wrigley's chewing gum at the Marsh Supermarket in Troy, Ohio, the first use of barcode technology in American retailing.
- Stephen Salter invents the "Salter Duck", a wave energy converter.
- January 7 – Outbreak of 4-year Gombe Chimpanzee War in Tanzania, reported by Jane Goodall.
- Digital dermatitis in cattle identified in Italy by Cheli and Mortellaro.
- Fields Prize in Mathematics: Enrico Bombieri and David Mumford
- Nobel Prizes
- Turing Award – Donald Knuth
- March 10 – Biz Stone, American computing entrepreneur
- August 8 – Manjul Bhargava, Canadian-born mathematician
- August 11 – Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, English cognitive neuroscientist
- September 28 – Sunil Kumar Verma, Indian biologist
- February 4 – S. N. Bose, Indian physicist (b. 1894)
- April 12 – Cornelis Simon Meijer, Dutch mathematician (b. 1904)
- May 4 – Ludwig Koch, German-born British animal sound recordist (b. 1881)
- May 18 – Harry Ricardo, English mechanical engineer (b. 1885)
- May 22 – Irmgard Flügge-Lotz (b. 1903), German-American mathematician and aerospace engineer
- June 28 – Vannevar Bush, American science administrator (b. 1890)
- July 3 – Sergey Lebedev, Soviet Russian computer scientist (b. 1902)
- August 22 – Jacob Bronowski, Polish-born British scientific polymath (b. 1908)
- Melia, Fulvio (2007). The Galactic Supermassive Black Hole. Princeton University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-691-13129-0.
- Hawking, S. W. (1974-03-01). "Black hole explosions?" (PDF). Nature. 248 (5443): 30. Bibcode:1974Natur.248...30H. doi:10.1038/248030a0. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
- Hellegouarch, Yves (1974). "Points d'ordre 2ph sur les courbes elliptiques" (PDF). Acta Arithmetica. Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Matematyczny. 26 (3): 253–263. doi:10.4064/aa-26-3-253-263. ISSN 0065-1036. MR 0379507.
- "About the Cochrane Library". The Cochrane Library. Archived from the original on 2011-01-05. Retrieved 2011-01-25.
- Heimlich, H. (June 1974). "Pop Goes the Cafe Coronary". Emergency Medicine.
- "India's Nuclear Weapons Program – Smiling Buddha: 1974". Nuclear Weapon Archive. 2001. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
- Aubert, J. J.; et al. (2 December 1974). "Experimental Observation of a Heavy Particle J". Physical Review Letters. 33 (23): 1404–6. Bibcode:1974PhRvL..33.1404A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.33.1404.
- Augustin, J.-E.; et al. (2 December 1974). "Discovery of a Narrow Resonance in e+e− Annihilation". Physical Review Letters. 33 (23): 1406–8. Bibcode:1974PhRvL..33.1406A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.33.1406.
- Gillie, O. (1976-10-24). "Crucial data was faked by eminent psychologist". The Sunday Times. London.
- Kleinman, Zoe (2012-10-07). "Barcode birthday: 60 years since patent". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-06-29.
- Fotheringham, William (2007). Fotheringham's Sporting Pastimes. Anova Books. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-86105-953-6.