1975 in paleontology

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List of years in paleontology
In science
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978

Paleontology or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1975.

Paleozoology[edit]

Arthropods[edit]

Insects[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Electrodryinus areolatus[2]

gen et sp nov

jr synonym

Ponomarenko

Eocene

Baltic amber

 Europe

A dryinid wasp, genus synonymized with Deinodryinus

"Palaeomyrmex"[3]

Gen et sp nov.

Jr synonym

Dlussky

Santonian

Taimyr amber

 Russia

A Sphecomyrminae ant. homonym of Palaeomyrmex Heer.
Moved to Dlusskyidris zherichini

Molluscs[edit]

Bivalves[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Fordillidae[4]

fam nov

Valid

Pojeta

Lower Devonian

worldwide

New family for Fordilla and Pojetaia

Conodonts[edit]

German paleontologist and stratigrapher Heinz Walter Kozur (1942-2013) and G.K. Merrill described the conodont genus Diplognathodus.[5]

Vertebrates[edit]

Dinosaurs[edit]

Newly named dinosaurs[edit]

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[6]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Abrictosaurus[7]

gen nov

Valid

Hopson

Early Jurassic

Upper Elliot Formation

 Lesotho

Bagaceratops[8]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Maryańska & Osmólska

Late Cretaceous

 Mongolia

Barapasaurus[9]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Jain, Kutty, Roy-Chowdhury, & Chatterjee

Lower Jurassic

Kota Formation

 India

Bradycneme[10]

Fam, gen, et sp nov

Nomen dubium

Harrison & C. A. Walker

Maastrichtian

Sânpetru Formation

 Romania

Possibly synonymous with Elopteryx.

Heptasteornis[10]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Harrison & C. A. Walker

Maastrichtian

Sânpetru Formation

 Romania

alvarezsaurid, originally described as an owl

Lanasaurus[11]

Gen nov

Valid

Gow

Hettangian to Sinemurian

Elliot Formation

 South Africa

"Yubasaurus"

Nomen nudum.

He

informal name for Yandusaurus.

Newly named birds[edit]
Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Anhinga grandis [12]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Larry D. Martin

Robert M. Mengel

Pliocene

Kimball Formation

 USA:

 Florida

An Anhingidae.

Botaurus hibbardi [13]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Carolyn Moseley

Alan Feduccia

Late Pliocene

Rexroad Formation

 USA:

 Kansas

An Ardeidae.

Bulweria bifax [14]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Pleistocene

 Saint Helena

A Procellariidae, Extinct after 1502 arrival of man

Dakotornis cooperi [15]

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Bruce R. Erickson

Paleocene

Tongue River Formation

 USA:

  North Dakota

Described in the Dakornithidae, now placed in the Graculavidae,
this is the type species of the new genus.

Dysmoropelia dekarchiskos [14]

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Middle Pleistocene

 Saint Helena

A Columbidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Falco antiquus [16]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Middle Pleistocene

MQ 2B

 France

A Falconidae.

Nannococcyx spix [14]

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

 Saint Helena

A Cuculidae, this is the type species of the new genus. Extinct at the start of the 16th century

Primapus lacki [17]

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Collin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Early Eocene

London Clay,

MP 8-9

 UK:

 England

An Apodiformes, Aegialornithidae Lydekker, 1891.

Pterodroma rupinarum [14]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Pleistocene

 Saint Helena

A Procellariidae, sometimes placed in the genus Pseudobulweria.
Extinct after 1502 due to deforestation

Puffinus pacificoides [14]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Pleistocene

 Saint Helena

A Procellariidae.

Spizaetus schultzi [18]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Larry D. Martin

Pliocene,

Kimballian

Kimball Formation

 USA:

 Nebraska

An Accipitridae.

Upupa antaios [14]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

 Saint Helena

An Upupidae. Extinct before or around 1502

Pterosaurs[edit]

New taxa[edit]
Name Status Authors Notes

Puntanipterus

Valid

Bonaparte Sanchez, T.M

Quetzalcoatlus

Valid

Lawson, Douglas A.[19]

Incertae sedis[edit]

New taxa[edit]
Name Status Authors Notes

Gluteus minimus

Valid

Richard Arnold Davis & Holmes A. Semken, Jr.[20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
  2. ^ Guglielmino, A.; Olmi, M. (2011). "Revision of fossil species of Deinodryinus, with description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Dryinidae)". ZooKeys. 130: 495–504. doi:10.3897/zookeys.130.1326. PMC 3260777Freely accessible. PMID 22259295. 
  3. ^ Grimaldi, D.; Agosti, D.; Carpenter, J. M. (1997). "New and rediscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships." (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 3208: 1–43. 
  4. ^ Elicki, O.; Gürsu, S. (2009). "First record of Pojetaia runnegari Jell, 1980 and Fordilla Barrande, 1881 from the Middle East (Taurus Mountains, Turkey) and critical review of Cambrian bivalves" (PDF). Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 83 (2): 267–291. doi:10.1007/s12542-009-0021-9. 
  5. ^ Kozur, H. & Merrill, G.K. 1975. Genus Diplognathodus. In : Kozur, H. Beiträge zur Conodontenfauna des Perm. Geologisch-Paläontologische Mitteilungen, Innsbruck, pages 9-10
  6. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  7. ^ Hopson, J.A. 1975. On the generic separation of the ornithischian dinosaurs Lycorhinus and Heterodontosaurus from the Stormberg Group (Upper Triassic) of South Africa. South African Journal of Science 71: pp. 302–305.
  8. ^ Maryanska, T. and H. Osmólska, H. 1975. Protoceratopsidae (Dinosauria) of Asia. Palaeontol. Polonica 33: pp. 133-182.
  9. ^ Jain, S.L., T.S. Kutty, T. Roychowdhury, S. Chatterjee. 1975. The sauropod dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic Kota Formation of India. Proc. R. Soc. London 2 A 188: pp. 221-228.
  10. ^ a b Harrison, C.J.O., C.A. Walker. 1975. The Bradycnemidae, a new family of owls from the Upper Cretaceous of Romania. Palaeontology 18: pp. 563-570.
  11. ^ Gow, C.E. 1975. A new heterodontosaurid from the Red Beds of South Africa showing evidence of tooth replacement. Zool. Linnaean Soc. London 57: pp. 335-339.
  12. ^ Larry D. Martin & Robert M. Mengel (1975). "A New Species of Anhinga (Anhingidae) from the Upper Pliocene of Nebraska" (PDF). Auk. 92 (1): 137–140. doi:10.2307/4084425. 
  13. ^ Carolyn Moseley & Alan Feduccia (1975). "Upper Pliocene Herons and Ibises from North America". University Michigan Museum Paleontology, Papers on Paleontology. 12: 71–74. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f Storrs L. Olson (1975). "Paleornithology of St. Helena Island, South Atlantic Ocean" (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 23: 1–60. doi:10.5479/si.00810266.23.1. 
  15. ^ Bruce R. Erickson (1975). "Dakotornis cooperi, a New Paleocene Bird from North Dakota". Scientific Publications of the Science Museum of Minnesota (new series). 3: 1–7. 
  16. ^ Cécile Mourer-Chauviré (1975). "Les Oiseaux du Pléistocène Moyen et Supérieur de France". Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie de la Faculté des Sciences de Lyon. 64: 1–624. 
  17. ^ Collin J. O. Harrison & Cyril A. Walker (1975). "A New Swift from the Lower Eocene of Britain". Ibis. 117 (2): 162–164. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919x.1975.tb04203.x. 
  18. ^ Larry D. Martin (1975). "A New Species of Spizaetus from the Pliocene of Nebraska" (PDF). Wilson Bulletin. 87 (3): 413–416. 
  19. ^ Lawson, Douglas A. 1975. "Pterosaur from the Latest Cretaceous of West Texas: Discovery of the Largest Flying Creature." Science, 187: 947-948.
  20. ^ Richard Arnold Davis & Holmes A. Semken, Jr. (1975). "Fossils of uncertain affinity from the Upper Devonian of Iowa". Science. 187 (4173): 251–254. doi:10.1126/science.187.4173.251. JSTOR 1739069. PMID 17838783.