1976 British Isles heat wave

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1976 British Isles heatwave
Lyme Regis Beach - geograph.org.uk - 717762.jpg
Lyme Regis Beach, Dorset, August 1976
AreasBritish Isles
Start date23 June 1976
End date27 August 1976[1]
Peak temperature35.9 °C (96.6 °F), recorded at Cheltenham, Gloucestershire on 3 July 1976

A period of unusually hot summer weather occurred in the British Isles during the summer of 1976. At the same time, there was a severe drought on the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.[2][3] It was one of the driest, sunniest and warmest summers (June/July/August) in the 20th century, although the summer of 1995 is now regarded as the driest. Only a few places registered more than half their average summer rainfall. In the CET record, it was the warmest summer in the series until being surpassed in the 21st century. It was the warmest summer in the Aberdeen area since at least 1864, and the driest summer since 1868 in Glasgow.[4]

The health effects of the heat contributed to mortality displacement during the year. Wildlife and vegetation effects were also observed. The British government implemented water rationing to mitigate the impact of the drought. It remains a reference point for unusually hot summers in the country.

Heatwave and drought effects[edit]

Heathrow had 16 consecutive days over 30 °C (86 °F) from 23 June to 8 July[5] and for 15 consecutive days from 23 June to 7 July temperatures reached 32.2 °C (90 °F) somewhere in England. Furthermore, five days saw temperatures exceed 35 °C (95 °F). On 28 June, temperatures reached 35.6 °C (96.1 °F) in Southampton, the highest June temperature recorded in the UK. The hottest day of all was 3 July, with temperatures reaching 35.9 °C (96.6 °F) in Cheltenham.[6]

The great drought was due to a very long dry period. The summer and autumn of 1975 were very dry, and the winter of 1975–76 was exceptionally dry, as was the spring of 1976; indeed, some months during this period had no rain at all in some areas.[citation needed]

The drought was at its most severe in August 1976 and in response Parliament passed the Drought Act 1976 to ration water.[7] Parts of the south west went 45 days without any rain in July and August. As the hot and dry weather continued, devastating heath and forest fires broke out in parts of Southern England. 50,000 trees were destroyed at Hurn Forest in Dorset. Crops were badly hit, with £500 million worth of crops failing. Food prices subsequently increased by 12%.[8]

In the last week of August 1976, days after Denis Howell was appointed 'Minister for Drought', severe thunderstorms brought rain to some places for the first time in weeks. September and October 1976 were both very wet months, bringing to an end the great drought of 1975–1976.

The Haweswater reservoir had only 10% of its water left; people walked dryshod on its bed 60 feet (18 m) below its normal water level. The site of the flooded village of Mardale Green was dry.[9] Ladybower reservoir in Derbyshire dried out and revealed the flooded villages of Ashopton and Derwent, it was possible to make out the village layout and garden walls.

In Ireland the temperature reached 32.5 °C (90.5 °F) in County Offaly on 29 June 1976.[10] There were also gorse fires in County Wicklow.

June 1976 GISS Surface Temperature Analysis Global Maps from GHCN v3 Data

Health impact[edit]

The 1976 heatwave is understood to have been the cause of 20% "excess deaths" and there was a significant increase in hospital emergency admissions from 24 June to 8 July 1976 than for the same period in 1975 or 1974.[11] This compares to 59% excess deaths for the 2003 heatwave.[12]

Ecological impact[edit]

Massive swarms of seven-spotted ladybirds (Coccinella septempunctata) occurred across the country, with the British Entomological and Natural History Society estimating that by late July 23.65 billion of them were swarming across the southern and eastern coasts of England. The population explosion occurred because a warm spring had meant there were many aphids, the ladybirds' food prey; as the hot weather dried the plants on which the aphids fed, the aphid populations collapsed, causing the ladybirds to swarm to try to find food elsewhere.[13]

The extensive fires paradoxically helped preserve many areas of heathland that had been becoming scrubland through natural succession because of reduced grazing pressure; the only long-term effect of the fires on Dorset heathlands was a change in the composition of scrub.[14] The impacts of the extended drought on mature trees, especially beech, were still evident in UK woodlands in 2013.[15]

Government response[edit]

Burrator Reservoir in Devon, July 1976. Many reservoirs, like this one, were at a very low level

The effect on domestic water supplies led to the passing of a Drought Act by Parliament[7] and Minister for Drought, Denis Howell, was appointed.[16] There was some water rationing and public standpipes in some affected areas.[citation needed] Reservoirs were at an extremely low level, as were some rivers. The rivers Don, Sheaf, Shire Brook and Meers Brook (all in Sheffield) all ran completely dry, without a drop of water in any of them, as well as Frecheville Pond and Carterhall Pond.

Longer term, the UK Department of the Environment realised it needed more information about the storage capacity and other properties of British aquifers, as sources of groundwater.[citation needed]

Comparisons[edit]

Graph showing Central England temperature dataset, 1659 to 2014.

The highest temperature during the 1976 heat wave was 35.9 °C (96.6 °F), 0.8 °C below the record at the time of 36.7 °C (98.1 °F) set on 9 August 1911.[17] As of 2022, 1976 has the 13th hottest day in UK history.[18] In the Central England Temperature series, 1976 is the hottest summer for more than 350 years. The average temperature over the whole summer (June, July, August) was 17.77 °C (63.99 °F), compared to the average for the unusually warm years between 2001–2008 of 16.30 °C (61.34 °F).[19] As of 2022, the hottest years in the series are 2003, 2006 and 2014.[20]

The summer became embedded in the national psyche, with subsequent heatwaves in 1995,[21] 1997,[22] 2003, 2006[23] and 2022,[24][25] all using 1976 as a benchmark. The 1976 heatwave was a rarity within its decade. Heatwaves worldwide, have since become more frequent and intense due to climate change.[18][24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Trevor Harley Home Page weather consciousness language dreams". Archived from the original on 4 September 2018. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  2. ^ "The drought of 1976". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  3. ^ Cox, Evelyn Cox (1978). The Great Drought of 1976. Hutchinson, Readers Union Group.
  4. ^ "1975 - 1999". Booty.org.uk. Archived from the original on 3 October 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  5. ^ "Hot spell - August 2003". Met Office. Archived from the original on 5 April 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  6. ^ "Hottest June day since summer of 1976 in heatwave". BBC News. 21 June 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2022.
  7. ^ a b http://politicsuk.net Archived 5 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine (full text)
  8. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20090708200802/http://archive.thisiswiltshire.co.uk/2001/7/4/214711.html. Archived from the original on 8 July 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2008. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ Ian, Harrison (2008). Britain from Above. London: Pavilion Books. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-862058-34-7.
  10. ^ "Ireland's Hottest Day". RTÉ Archives. Archived from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  11. ^ "Mortality and Morbidity in Birmingham during the 1976 Heatwave". QJM. 1 January 1980. Archived from the original on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  12. ^ Johnson, Helen; Kovats, Sari; McGregor, Glenn; Stedman, John; Gibbs, Mark; Walton, Heather; Cook, Lois; Black, Emily (Spring 2005). "The impact of the 2003 heat wave on mortality and hospital admissions in England" (PDF). Health Statistics Quarterly. 25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 June 2015.
  13. ^ "Could the ladybird plague of 1976 happen again?". BBC News Online. 5 March 2016. Archived from the original on 16 October 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  14. ^ "UK: The Role of Fire in the Ecology of Heathland in Southern Britain (IFFN No. 18 - January 1998)". Fire.uni-freiburg.de. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  15. ^ "UK forests still feeling the impacts of 1976 drought - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. 24 July 2013. Archived from the original on 27 May 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  16. ^ Longman, Phil (17 March 2004). "Was 1976 all it's cracked up to be?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  17. ^ "Hot spell August 1990" (PDF). Met Office. 30 October 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 July 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  18. ^ a b "UK heatwave: How do temperatures compare with 1976?". BBC News. 18 July 2022. Archived from the original on 19 July 2022. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  19. ^ [1] Archived 7 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "Met Office Hadley Centre observations datasets". www.metoffice.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 19 July 2022. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  21. ^ "The summer of '76". BBC News. 20 March 1998. Archived from the original on 24 February 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  22. ^ "Government warns of water shortages". BBC News. 4 November 1997. Archived from the original on 5 January 2003. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  23. ^ Coughlan, Sean (14 July 2006). "Is 2006 the new 1976". BBC News. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  24. ^ a b Simons, Paul (18 July 2022). "This UK heatwave is not like the summer of 1976. We've never seen anything like it". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Archived from the original on 19 July 2022. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  25. ^ Gilbert, Ella (19 July 2022). "Yes, Britain had a heatwave in 1976. No, it was nothing like the crisis we're in now". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 July 2022. Retrieved 19 July 2022.

Bibliography[edit]

  • The Great Drought of 1976. Evelyn Cox (1978). Hutchinson, Readers Union Group, ISBN 978-0091332006