1976 Soviet nuclear tests

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1976
Information
Country Soviet Union
Test site Atyrau, Kazakhstan; Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan; Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan; NZ Area B, Matochkin Shar, Novaya Zemlya, Russia; Sakha, Russia; Sary-Uzen/Murzhik, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan
Period 1976
Number of tests 21
Test type underground shaft, underground tunnel
Max. yield 130 kilotonnes of TNT (540 TJ)
Test series chronology
Map all coordinates in "1976 Soviet nuclear tests" using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

The Soviet Union's 1976 nuclear test series[1] was a group of 21 nuclear tests conducted in 1976. These tests [note 1] followed the 1975 Soviet nuclear tests series and preceded the 1977 Soviet nuclear tests series.

Soviet Union's 1976 series tests and detonations
Name [note 2] Date time (UT) Local time zone [note 3][2] Location [note 4] Elevation + height [note 5] Delivery, [note 6]
Purpose [note 7]
Device [note 8] Yield [note 9] Fallout [note 10] References Notes
436 15 January 1976 04:46:59.97 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 115 49°48′43″N 78°09′27″E / 49.812°N 78.1576°E / 49.812; 78.1576 (436) 602 m (1,975 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
13 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
437 17 March 1976 02:57:00.0 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 608 49°45′18″N 78°05′33″E / 49.75496°N 78.09259°E / 49.75496; 78.09259 (437) 642 m (2,106 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
unknown yield Venting detected [1][3][5][6][7]
438 Galit A3.1 (Halite) 29 March 1976 07:00:00.2 SHET (5 hrs)
Atyrau, Kazakhstan: A-III-2 47°53′16″N 48°07′45″E / 47.88767°N 48.12925°E / 47.88767; 48.12925 (438 Galit A3.1 (Halite)) - 990 m (3,250 ft) underground shaft,
industrial
10 kt [1][5][6][7][8] Create reservoirs for gas storage. Reused cavity created by #352.
439 10 April 1976 05:03:00.0 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 609p 49°45′26″N 78°02′32″E / 49.75725°N 78.04221°E / 49.75725; 78.04221 (439) 715 m (2,346 ft) - 130 m (430 ft) underground tunnel,
weapons development
100 t Venting detected [1][3][5][6][7]
441 21 April 1976 04:58:00.16 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 101p 49°44′46″N 78°06′22″E / 49.7462°N 78.106°E / 49.7462; 78.106 (441) 650 m (2,130 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
7 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
440 21 April 1976 05:02:59.7 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1201 49°54′06″N 78°49′43″E / 49.90155°N 78.82874°E / 49.90155; 78.82874 (440) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
7 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
442 19 May 1976 02:57:00.2 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 163p 49°46′37″N 78°00′03″E / 49.777°N 78.0009°E / 49.777; 78.0009 (442) 749 m (2,457 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
3.7 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
443 9 June 1976 03:02:59.79 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1075 49°59′40″N 79°01′25″E / 49.99457°N 79.02372°E / 49.99457; 79.02372 (443) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
10 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
444 4 July 1976 02:56:59.99 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1062 49°54′15″N 78°53′58″E / 49.90417°N 78.89944°E / 49.90417; 78.89944 (444) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
65 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
445 23 July 1976 02:33:00.19 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 185 49°44′57″N 78°03′42″E / 49.7492°N 78.0617°E / 49.7492; 78.0617 (445) 394 m (1,293 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
7 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
446 Galit A4 (Halite) 29 July 1976 05:00:00.5 SHET (5 hrs)
Atyrau, Kazakhstan: A-IV 47°52′16″N 48°08′16″E / 47.87109°N 48.13768°E / 47.87109; 48.13768 (446 Galit A4 (Halite)) - 1,000 m (3,300 ft) underground shaft,
cavity excavation
58 kt [1][4][5][6][7] Create reservoirs for gas storage.
447 4 August 1976 02:57:00.0 ALMT (6 hrs)
Sary-Uzen/Murzhik, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 133 49°52′25″N 77°42′11″E / 49.87364°N 77.70297°E / 49.87364; 77.70297 (447) 460 m (1,510 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
900 t [1][3][4][5][6]
448 28 August 1976 02:57:00.04 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1202 49°58′10″N 78°56′20″E / 49.96948°N 78.93893°E / 49.96948; 78.93893 (448) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
53 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
449 - 1 29 September 1976 02:59:57.7 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area B, Matochkin Shar, Novaya Zemlya, Russia: A-14 73°21′36″N 54°52′16″E / 73.36°N 54.871°E / 73.36; 54.871 (449 - 1) 100 m (330 ft) - 400 m (1,300 ft) underground tunnel,
weapons development
130 kt Venting detected off site, 10 Ci (370 GBq) [1][4][5][6][9]
449 - 2 29 September 1976 02:59:57.7 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area B, Matochkin Shar, Novaya Zemlya, Russia: A-14 73°21′36″N 54°52′16″E / 73.36°N 54.871°E / 73.36; 54.871 (449 - 2) 100 m (330 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][5][6][7][8]
450 - 1 20 October 1976 07:59:58.07 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area B, Matochkin Shar, Novaya Zemlya, Russia: A-15 73°23′53″N 54°48′43″E / 73.398°N 54.812°E / 73.398; 54.812 (450 - 1) 100 m (330 ft) - 300 m (980 ft) underground tunnel,
weapons development
13 kt [1][4][5][6][9]
450 - 2 20 October 1976 07:59:58.1 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area B, Matochkin Shar, Novaya Zemlya, Russia: A-15 73°23′53″N 54°48′43″E / 73.398°N 54.812°E / 73.398; 54.812 (450 - 2) 100 m (330 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][5][6][7][8]
450 - 3 20 October 1976 07:59:58.1 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area B, Matochkin Shar, Novaya Zemlya, Russia: A-15 73°23′53″N 54°48′43″E / 73.398°N 54.812°E / 73.398; 54.812 (450 - 3) 100 m (330 ft) + underground tunnel,
fundamental science
unknown yield [1][5][6][7][8]
450 - 4 20 October 1976 07:59:58.1 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area B, Matochkin Shar, Novaya Zemlya, Russia: A-15 73°23′53″N 54°48′43″E / 73.398°N 54.812°E / 73.398; 54.812 (450 - 4) 100 m (330 ft) + underground tunnel,
safety experiment
1000 kg [1][5][6][7][8]
451 30 October 1976 04:57:00.21 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 143 49°49′43″N 78°03′06″E / 49.8285°N 78.0516°E / 49.8285; 78.0516 (451) 625 m (2,051 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapon effect
2.8 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
452 Oka (Neva) 5 November 1976 04:00:00.0 YAKT (9 hrs)
Sakha, Russia: 42 61°27′29″N 112°51′36″E / 61.458°N 112.86°E / 61.458; 112.86 (452 Oka (Neva)) - 1,525 m (5,003 ft) underground shaft,
oil stimulation
15 kt [1][4][5][6][7] 120 km SW Mirnyi.
453 23 November 1976 05:02:59.84 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1207bis 50°01′05″N 78°56′35″E / 50.01803°N 78.94319°E / 50.01803; 78.94319 (453) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
74 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
454 - 1 7 December 1976 04:56:59.98 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1304 49°56′40″N 78°50′18″E / 49.9445°N 78.83825°E / 49.9445; 78.83825 (454 - 1) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
54 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
454 - 2 7 December 1976 04:57:00.0 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1304 49°56′40″N 78°50′18″E / 49.9445°N 78.83825°E / 49.9445; 78.83825 (454 - 2) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][3][5][6][7]
455 7 December 1976 04:57:?? ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1209 49°54′01″N 78°47′08″E / 49.90019°N 78.78558°E / 49.90019; 78.78558 (455) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
95 kt [1][3][5][6][7]
456 - 1 30 December 1976 03:57:00.31 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 706p 49°46′07″N 78°01′59″E / 49.7686°N 78.0331°E / 49.7686; 78.0331 (456 - 1) 689 m (2,260 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
10 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
456 - 2 30 December 1976 03:57:00.3 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 706p 49°46′07″N 78°01′59″E / 49.7686°N 78.0331°E / 49.7686; 78.0331 (456 - 2) 689 m (2,260 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][3][5][6][7]
  1. ^ A bomb test may be a salvo test, defined as two or more explosions "where a period of time between successive individual explosions does not exceed 5 seconds and where the burial points of all explosive devices can be connected by segments of straight lines, each of them connecting two burial points and does not exceed 40 kilometers in length". Mikhailov, V. N., Editor in Chief. "Catalog of World Wide Nuclear Testing". Begell-Atom, LLC. 
  2. ^ The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China did not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions – Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 – 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
  3. ^ To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight saving time, add one additional hour. If the result is earlier than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it is 24:00 or later, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day. All historical timezone data are derived from here:
  4. ^ Rough place name and a latitude/longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
  5. ^ Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
  6. ^ Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
  7. ^ Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
  8. ^ Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
  9. ^ Estimated energy yield in tons, kilotons, and megatons. A ton of TNT equivalent is defined as 4.184 gigajoules (1 gigacalorie).
  10. ^ Radioactive emission to the atmosphere aside from prompt neutrons, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and "all" if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radioactivity released.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000). CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3) (Technical report). SMDC Monitoring Research. 
  2. ^ "Timezone Historical Database". iana.com. Retrieved March 8, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Khalturin, Vitaly I.; Rautian, Tatyana G.; Richards, Paul G. (2000). "Chemical explosions during 1961-1989 on the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan" (PDF). Pure and Applied Geophysics. 158: 143–171. doi:10.1007/pl00001153. Retrieved December 13, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Cochran, Thomas B.; Arkin, William M.; Norris, Robert S.; Sands, Jeffrey I. Nuclear Weapons Databook Vol. IV: Soviet Nuclear Weapons. New York, NY: Harper and Row. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Podvig, Pavel, ed. (2001). Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Retrieved January 9, 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests and Peaceful Nuclear Explosions 1949 through 1990. Sarov, Russia: RFNC-VNIIEF. 1996.  The official Russian list of Soviet tests.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Nuclear explosions in the USSR: The North Test Site reference material, version 4 (PDF) (Technical report). IAEA Dept. of Nuclear Safety and Security. December 1, 2004. Retrieved December 13, 2013. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Andrushkin, Vitaly V.; Leith, William (September 1, 2001). The containment of Soviet underground nuclear explosions (PDF) (Open File Report 01-312). USGS. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 9, 2013. Retrieved December 13, 2013. 
  9. ^ a b Kim, Won-Young; Richards, Paul G.; Andrushkin, Vitaly; Ovtchinnikov, Vladimir (April 1, 2001). Borovoye digital seismogram archive for underground nuclear tests during 1966-1996 (PDF) (Technical report). LDEO. Retrieved December 13, 2013.