1977 NCAA Division I football season

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The 1977 NCAA Division I football season was one in which the top five teams finished with 11–1 records. Notre Dame, which beat top-ranked and undefeated Texas in the Cotton Bowl, became the national champion.[2][3]

The 1977 season was the last before NCAA's Division I was divided into I-A and I-AA. On the eve of a national playoff for the smaller programs that would be I-AA, the Sugar Bowl in 1977 became the fourth bowl game to sign a contract guaranteeing an appearance by a major conference champion. The result was that meetings between the media poll choices for the top two teams were less likely, unless those teams were in the Big Ten and Pac-8 (which met in the Rose Bowl), or one of the teams was not obligated to play in a particular bowl game.

Besides the Big Ten-Pac-8 matchup in the Rose Bowl, the Southwest champion played in the Cotton, the Big Eight titlist in the Orange, and the SEC champ in the Sugar. Top teams that had their choice of which bowl to play were either independent or in a conference outside the five major powers (such as the ACC or WAC).

During the 20th century, the NCAA had no playoff for major college football teams, which became Division I-A in 1978. The NCAA Football Guide, however, did note an "unofficial national champion" based on the top ranked teams in the final "wire service" (AP and UPI) polls. The "writers' poll" by Associated Press (AP) was the most popular, followed by the "coaches' poll" by United Press International) (UPI). The AP poll consisted of the votes of as many as 64 writers, though not all voted in each poll, and the UPI poll was taken of a 42-member board of coaches.

Conference and program changes[edit]

School 1976 Conference 1977 Conference
Chattanooga Mocs D-I Independent SoCon
East Carolina Pirates SoCon D-I Independent
Indiana State Sycamores D-I Independent Missouri Valley
Marshall Thundering Herd D-I Independent SoCon
Southern Illinois Salukis D-I Independent Missouri Valley
Western Carolina Catamounts D-I Independent SoCon
William & Mary Indians SoCon D-I Independent

September[edit]

In the preseason poll released on September 5, the AP ranked Oklahoma first, followed by Michigan, Notre Dame, USC, and Ohio State. Sixth was Alabama, and defending champion Pittsburgh (minus Tony Dorsett and Johnny Majors) was ranked seventh.

September 10 No. 1 Oklahoma opened its season at home against Vanderbilt, 2–9 the year before. Though the Sooners avoided an upset, their narrow 25–23 win didn't impress the pollsters, and OU dropped to fifth. No. 2 Michigan won 37–9 at Illinois, and No. 3 Notre Dame won 19–9 at Pittsburgh. No. 4 USC won 27–10 at Missouri, and No. 5 Ohio State beat visiting Miami (FL) 10–0. No. 6 Alabama beat Mississippi 34–13 at Birmingham. Although the top six teams all won their openers, The next poll shuffled the rankings (2-4-3-6-1-5): 1.Michigan 2.USC 3.Notre Dame 4.Alabama 5.Oklahoma 6. Ohio State.

September 17 No. 1 Michigan beat Duke 21–9 and No. 2 USC won at Oregon State, 17–10. A week after losing to Alabama, Mississippi stunned the nation with a 20–13 defeat of No. 3 Notre Dame on a humid 100 °F (38 °C) day in Jackson. The Irish dropped to eleventh, and as low as fourteenth the week after. No. 11 Maryland fell 24–16 to unranked West Virginia at home in College Park. No. 4 Alabama lost 31–24 at No. 14 Nebraska. No. 5 Oklahoma crushed visiting Utah, 62–24. No. 6 Ohio State and No. 10 Penn State which beat Minnesota 38–7 and Houston 31–14, respectively, reached the top five: 1.Michigan 2.USC 3.Oklahoma 4.Ohio State 5.Penn State

September 24 No. 1 Michigan beat Navy, 14–7. No. 2 USC beat visiting TCU 51–0. No. 3 Oklahoma and No. 4 Ohio State met in Columbus in the season's first big matchup. In a close game, the visiting Sooners won 29–28 after a touchdown, an onside kick recovery, and a last second field goal by Uwe von Schamann, and reclaimed first place in the next poll. No. 5 Penn State beat Maryland, 27–9. No. 6 Texas A&M, which won 33–17 at No. 7 Texas Tech, reached the top five: 1.Oklahoma 2.USC 3.Michigan 4.Penn State 5.Texas A&M

October[edit]

October 1 No. 1 Oklahoma beat Kansas 24–9 and No. 2 USC was idle, but the Trojans were voted No. 1 anyway in a split vote (23 vs. 19 for OU and 16 for UM). No. 3 Michigan beat No. 5 Texas A&M 41–3. No. 4 Penn State lost 24–20 at Kentucky, and No. 6 Ohio State won 35–7 at SMU. No. 8 Texas defeated visiting Rice 72–15. With USC having a plurality of votes (23 vs. 19 for OU and 16 for UM), the poll was: 1.USC 2.Oklahoma 3.Michigan 4.Ohio State 5.Texas

October 8 In Los Angeles, No. 1 USC was beaten 21–20 by No. 7 Alabama; on a two-point conversion try by USC in the final minute, the Tide intercepted to seal the upset. Earlier in Dallas, No. 2 Oklahoma and No. 5 Texas met in their annual game, and Texas won 13–6. In Big Ten play, No. 3 Michigan won 24–14 at Michigan State and No. 4 Ohio State beat Purdue 46–0. No. 6 Colorado beat visiting Oklahoma State 29–13 to move to third, and the Wolverines returned to the top: 1.Michigan 2.Texas 3.Colorado 4.Alabama 5.Ohio State

October 15 No. 1 Michigan beat No. 14 Wisconsin 56–0, and No. 2 Texas won at No. 7 Arkansas, 13–9. No. 3 Colorado played at Kansas, a 17–17 tie. No. 4 Alabama beat Tennessee in Birmingham, 24–10. No. 5 Ohio State beat Iowa 27–6. No. 6 USC beat Oregon 33–15 to return to the top five: 1.Michigan 2.Texas 3.Alabama 4.Ohio State 5.USC

October 22 No. 1 Michigan (6–0) was shut out 16–0 at unranked Minnesota, and No. 2 Texas won 30–14 at SMU. No. 3 Alabama beat Louisville 55–6, and No. 4 Ohio State won 35–15 at Northwestern. No. 11 Notre Dame wore their green jerseys for the first time in decades and overwhelmed No. 5 USC 49–19. No. 7 Oklahoma beat No. 16 Iowa State 35-16 and returned to the top five, and the Longhorns became the fourth team to lead the poll: 1.Texas 2.Alabama 3.Ohio State 4.Oklahoma 5.Notre Dame

October 29 No. 1 Texas beat visiting No. 14 Texas Tech 26–0, and No. 2 Alabama beat Mississippi State 37–7 in Jackson. No. 3 Ohio State beat Wisconsin 42–0, No. 4 Oklahoma won 42–7 at Kansas State, and No. 5 Notre Dame beat Navy 43–10. Other than the Sooners' trade with the Buckeyes, the poll was stable: 1.Texas 2.Alabama 3.Oklahoma 4.Ohio State 5.Notre Dame

November[edit]

November 5 No. 1 Texas won 35–21 at Houston, and No. 2 Alabama defeated No. 18 LSU 24–3 in Baton Rouge. No. 3 Oklahoma won 61–28 at Oklahoma State, No. 4 Ohio State won 35–0 at Illinois, and No. 5 Notre Dame beat Georgia Tech 69–14. For the first time since the season began, the top five remained unchanged (in fact, the top nine were the same): 1.Texas 2.Alabama 3.Oklahoma 4.Ohio State 5.Notre Dame

November 12 No. 1 Texas beat TCU 44–14 and No. 2 Alabama beat the visiting Miami Hurricanes, 36–0. No. 3 Oklahoma routed Colorado 52–14, No. 4 Ohio State beat Indiana 35–7, and No. 5 Notre Dame won at No. 15 Clemson, 21–17. No. 6 Michigan won 40–7 at Purdue and returned to the top five: 1.Texas 2.Alabama 3.Oklahoma 4.Ohio State 5.Michigan

November 19 No. 1 Texas beat Baylor 29–7, while No. 2 Alabama and No. 3 Oklahoma were idle. Once again, the Big Ten title came down to a meeting between No. 4 Ohio State and No. 5 Michigan, 7–0 and 6–1 in conference play, respectively. Michigan won 14–6 at home and gained the trip to the Rose Bowl. No. 6 Notre Dame beat Air Force 49–0. The poll: 1.Texas 2.Alabama 3.Oklahoma 4.Michigan 5.Notre Dame

November 25–26 On Thanksgiving weekend, USC defeated UCLA 29–27 on a last-second field goal on Friday night to knock the Bruins out of the Rose Bowl and put Washington in. Earlier in the day, No. 3 Oklahoma beat No. 11 Nebraska 38–7 to go to 10–1. On Saturday, No. 1 Texas won 57–28 at No. 12 Texas A&M for an 11–0 record, the SWC title, and a trip to the Cotton Bowl. No. 2 Alabama closed its season in Birmingham, beating Auburn 48–21. The Crimson Tide was unbeaten (7–0) in SEC conference play, as was Kentucky (6–0, 10–1 overall), but ineligible for bowls because of NCAA probation. No. 4 Michigan (10–1) had completed its regular season, and No. 5 Notre Dame was idle until December 3, a 48–10 win at Miami. The final regular season poll had been released on November 28: 1.Texas 2.Oklahoma 3.Alabama 4.Michigan 5.Notre Dame

Rule changes[edit]

  • Offensive linemen will be allowed to charge downfield ahead of a screen pass, provided the pass is caught at or behind the line of scrimmage. Previously, this resulted in a five-yard ineligible receiver downfield penalty.

Conference standings[edit]

1977 ACC football standings
Conf     Overall
Team W   L   T     W   L   T
No. 17 North Carolina $ 5 0 1     8 3 1
No. 19 Clemson 4 1 1     8 3 1
NC State 4 2 0     8 4 0
Maryland 4 2 0     8 4 0
Duke 2 4 0     5 6 0
Virginia 1 5 0     1 9 1
Wake Forest 0 6 0     1 10 0
  • $ – Conference champion
Rankings from AP Poll
1977 Big 8 football standings
Conf     Overall
Team W   L   T     W   L   T
No. 7 Oklahoma $ 7 0 0     10 2 0
Iowa State 5 2 0     8 4 0
No. 12 Nebraska 5 2 0     9 3 0
Colorado 3 3 1     7 3 1
Missouri 3 4 0     4 7 0
Kansas 2 4 1     4 6 1
Oklahoma State 2 5 0     4 7 0
Kansas State 0 7 0     2 9 0
  • $ – Conference champion
Rankings from AP Poll
1977 Big Ten football standings
Conf     Overall
Team W   L   T     W   L   T
No. 9 Michigan + 7 1 0     10 2 0
No. 11 Ohio State + 7 1 0     9 3 0
Michigan State 6 1 1     7 3 1
Indiana 4 3 1     5 5 1
Minnesota 4 4 0     7 5 0
Purdue 3 5 0     5 6 0
Iowa 3 5 0     5 6 0
Wisconsin 3 6 0     5 6 0
Illinois 2 6 0     3 8 0
Northwestern 1 8 0     1 10 0
  • + – Conference co-champions
Rankings from AP Poll
1977 Ivy League football standings
Conf     Overall
Team   W   L         W   L  
Yale $   6 1         7 2  
Brown   5 2         7 2  
Harvard   4 3         4 5  
Penn   4 3         5 4  
Dartmouth   4 3         6 3  
Princeton   3 4         3 6  
Cornell   1 6         1 8  
Columbia   1 6         2 7  
  • $ – Conference champion
Rankings from AP Poll
1977 Mid-American Conference football standings
Conf     Overall
Team W   L   T     W   L   T
Miami (OH) $ 5 0 0     10 1 0
Ball State 5 1 0     9 2 0
Central Michigan 7 1 0     10 1 0
Bowling Green 4 3 0     5 7 0
Eastern Michigan 4 3 0     8 3 0
Kent State 5 4 0     6 5 0
Western Michigan 3 5 0     4 7 0
Northern Illinois 2 5 0     3 8 0
Toledo 2 7 0     2 9 0
Ohio 0 8 0     1 10 0
  • $ – Conference champion
Rankings from AP Poll
1977 Missouri Valley Conference football standings
Conf     Overall
Team   W   L         W   L  
West Texas A&M $ 4 1 0     6 4 1
Wichita State 3 1 0     5 6 0
New Mexico State 3 2 0     4 7 0
Tulsa 2 2 0     3 8 0
Drake 1 4 0     2 9 0
Southern Illinois 0 3 0     3 8 0
  • $ – Conference champion
1977 Pacific Coast Athletic Association football standings
Conf     Overall
Team W   L   T     W   L   T
Fresno State $ 4 0 0     9 2 0
Pacific (CA) 3 1 0     6 5 0
San Jose State 2 2 0     4 7 0
Long Beach State 1 3 0     4 6 0
Cal State Fullerton 0 4 0     4 7 0
  • $ – Conference champion
Rankings from AP Poll
1977 Pacific-8 football standings
Conf     Overall
Team   W   L         W   L  
No. 10 Washington $   6 1         8 4  
No. 15 Stanford   5 2         9 3  
No. 13 USC   5 2         8 4  
UCLA   5 2         7 4  
California   3 4         7 4  
Washington State   3 4         6 5  
Oregon   1 6         2 9  
Oregon State   0 7         2 9  
  • $ – Conference champion
  • † – UCLA forfeited 7 wins (5 conference wins) due to ineligible players. Record reflected by NCAA and Pac-12 record books is on-field
Rankings from AP Poll
1977 SEC football standings
Conf     Overall
Team W   L   T     W   L   T
No. 2 Alabama $ 7 0 0     11 1 0
No. 6 Kentucky 6 0 0     10 1 0
LSU 4 2 0     8 4 0
Auburn 4 2 0     5 6 0
Florida 3 3 0     6 4 1
Georgia 2 4 0     5 6 0
Mississippi State 2 4 0     5 6 0
Ole Miss 2 5 0     5 6 0
Tennessee 1 5 0     4 7 0
Vanderbilt 0 6 0     2 9 0
  • $ – Conference champion
  • Kentucky ineligible for SEC championship due to NCAA probation. Mississippi State later forfeited all 1977 wins due to NCAA violations.
Rankings from AP Poll
1977 Southern Conference football standings
Conf     Overall
Team   W   L         W   L  
Chattanooga + 4 1 0     9 1 1
VMI + 4 1 0     7 4 0
The Citadel 3 2 0     5 6 0
Furman 3 2 1     4 5 2
Western Carolina 2 2 1     6 4 1
Appalachian State 1 4 0     2 9 0
Marshall 0 5 0     2 9 0
  • + – Conference co-champions
1977 Southland Conference football standings
Conf     Overall
Team W   L   T     W   L   T
Louisiana Tech $ 4 0 1     9 1 2
Southwestern Louisiana 2 1 2     6 4 2
Texas–Arlington 3 2 0     5 6 0
Arkansas State 2 3 0     7 4 0
McNeese State 1 3 1     5 5 1
Lamar 1 4 0     2 9 0
  • $ – Conference champion
Rankings from AP Poll
1977 NCAA Division I Independents football records
Conf     Overall
Team W   L   T     W   L   T
No. 1 Notre Dame           11 1 0
No. 5 Penn State           11 1 0
Colgate           10 1 0
No. 16 San Diego State           10 1 0
Tennessee State           8 1 1
No. 14 Florida State           10 2 0
North Texas State           10 1 0*
No. 8 Pittsburgh           9 2 1
East Carolina           8 3 0
Rutgers           8 3 0
Army           7 4 0
Louisville           7 4 1
Boston College           6 5 0
Cincinnati           5 4 2
Georgia Tech           6 5 0
Memphis           6 5 0
Northwestern State           6 5 0
Syracuse           6 5 0
William & Mary           6 5 0
Southern Miss           6 5 0
Temple           5 5 1
Hawaii           5 6 0
Navy           5 6 0
West Virginia           5 6 0
South Carolina           5 7 0
Utah State           4 7 0
Villanova           4 7 0
Illinois State           3 7 1
Virginia Tech           3 7 1
Indiana State           3 7 0
Miami (FL)           3 8 0
Richmond           3 8 0
Tulane           3 8 0
Air Force           2 8 1
Holy Cross           2 8 0
Northeast Louisiana           2 9 0
  • North Texas State (originally 9–2–0) awarded a forfeit win after UCLA was found to be using an ineligible player.[5]
Rankings from AP Poll
1977 SWAC football standings
Conf     Overall
Team W   L   T     W   L   T
Grambling State $ 6 0 0     10 1 0
Jackson State 5 1 0     8 3 0
Texas Southern 3 2 1     6 4 1
Mississippi Valley State 2 4 0     5 5 0
Alcorn State 2 4 0     3 8 0
Southern 1 4 1     3 7 1
Prairie View A&M 1 5 0     3 8 0
  • $ – Conference champion
Rankings from AP Poll
1977 Southwest Conference football standings
Conf     Overall
Team W   L   T     W   L   T
No. 4 Texas $ 8 0 0     11 1 0
No. 3 Arkansas 7 1 0     11 1 0
Texas A&M 6 2 0     8 4 0
Houston 4 4 0     6 5 0
Texas Tech 4 4 0     7 5 0
Baylor 3 5 0     5 6 0
SMU 3 5 0     4 7 0
TCU 1 7 0     2 9 0
Rice 0 8 0     1 10 0
  • $ – Conference champion
Rankings from AP Poll
1977 WAC football standings
Conf     Overall
Team W   L   T     W   L   T
No. 20 BYU + 6 1 0     9 2 0
No. 18 Arizona State + 6 1 0     9 3 0
Colorado State 5 2 0     9 2 1
Wyoming 4 3 0     4 6 1
Arizona 3 4 0     5 7 0
New Mexico 2 5 0     5 7 0
Utah 2 5 0     3 8 0
UTEP 0 7 0     1 10 0
  • + – Conference co-champions
Rankings from AP Poll

No. 1 and No. 2 progress[edit]

WEEKS No. 1 No. 2 Event
PRE Oklahoma Michigan Michigan 37, Illinois 9 (Sept 10)
1-2 Michigan USC Oklahoma 29, Ohio State 28 (Sept 24)
3 Oklahoma USC
4 USC Oklahoma Alabama 21, USC 20 (Oct 8)
5-6 Michigan Texas Minnesota 16, Michigan 0 (Oct 22)
7-11 Texas Alabama Oklahoma 38, Nebraska 7 (Nov 25)
12-Bowls Texas Oklahoma Notre Dame 38, Texas 10 (Jan 2)
Final Notre Dame Alabama Notre Dame 38, Texas 10 (Jan 2)

Polls[edit]

Bowl games[edit]

Major bowls[edit]

Monday, January 2, 1978

BOWL
Cotton No. 5 Notre Dame Fighting Irish 38 No. 1 Texas Longhorns 10
Sugar No. 3 Alabama Crimson Tide 35 No. 9 Ohio State Buckeyes 6
Rose No. 13 Washington Huskies 27 No. 4 Michigan Wolverines 20
Orange No. 6 Arkansas Razorbacks 31 No. 2 Oklahoma Sooners 6

Two former NFL head coaching failures became college football successes, upsetting the No. 1 and No. 2 teams. Dan Devine had been unspectacular at Green Bay before succeeding Ara Parseghian at Notre Dame in 1975, while Lou Holtz had coached the New York Jets to a 3–11 finish in 1976 before taking over at Arkansas.

The Sugar Bowl was a matchup of coaching legends Bear Bryant and Woody Hayes; Bryant's No. 3 Alabama squad easily handled No. 8 Ohio State, 35–6.

The largest crowd in Cotton Bowl history (76,701) turned out in Dallas to watch the unbeaten No. 1 Texas Longhorns to attempt to finalize a national championship. Notre Dame's defense forced five turnovers, which set up five scores. Running back Vagas Ferguson scored three touchdowns, including one on a pass from Joe Montana in a 38–10 win. For Texas, both Earl Campbell and Johnny Lam Jones were injured. Devine changed his mind about resigning his Irish coaching job.[6]

Following Texas' loss in the Cotton Bowl, No. 4 Michigan hoped an impressive win over the Washington might vault them to a possible national championship. However, the Huskies, led by Rose Bowl MVP Warren Moon, raced to a 24–0 lead in the third quarter and held on for a 27–20 upset.

With No. 1 Texas and No. 4 Michigan out of the way, No. 2 Oklahoma was in a position to claim the championship with a win over No. 6 Arkansas in the nightcap in Miami. The Razorbacks had finished behind Texas in SWC play and had settled for the Orange Bowl. The week of the game, Holtz suspended the Hogs' top rusher, Ben Cowins, and the top receiver, Donny Bobo for violating team rules. The Sooners were 18-point favorites but Cowins' backup Roland Sales rushed for two touchdowns and over 200 yards as the Razorbacks shut down the Sooners' ground game en route to a 24–0 lead after three quarters and a massive 31–6 upset.[7]

The national championship was disputed as there were six teams with one loss: Alabama, Arkansas, Notre Dame, Texas, Penn State, and Kentucky (prohibited from playing in a bowl due to NCAA probation). Notre Dame had lost to Mississippi, who lost to Alabama, who lost to Nebraska, who lost to Oklahoma, who lost to Arkansas, who lost to Texas who lost to Notre Dame. Penn State lost to Kentucky and Kentucky lost to Baylor who had lost to Texas, Arkansas, and Nebraska. Amidst this confusion, there were several good choices for a champion; giant killers Notre Dame and Arkansas, and third-ranked Alabama, and Texas. Notre Dame, on the strength of its lopsided win over No. 1 Texas, vaulted over Texas, Oklahoma (who lost in the Orange Bowl), Alabama (who won in the Sugar Bowl), and Michigan (who lost in the Rose Bowl). Alabama fans cried foul as they assumed, as the No. 3 team before the bowls, that if No. 1 Texas and No. 2 Oklahoma lost (which they did), they would rise to No. 1 with a win over Ohio State. Some believe Alabama was granted a share of the national title in 1978 despite its loss to the team it shared it with (USC) to make up for 1977.

In the final polls, the electors for AP and UPI were expectedly divided, but a majority in each picked Notre Dame.[2][3] With one AP writer naming all three schools as number one, the writers poll was 37⅓ for Notre Dame, 19⅓ for Alabama and 5⅓ for Arkansas.[8] UPI had 23 for Notre Dame, 13 for Alabama and 2 for Arkansas.[9] Devine, who had followed in the footsteps of both Vince Lombardi and Parseghian, reversed his earlier plans and continued as head coach in 1978.[6]

Other bowls[edit]

Bowl City State Date Winner Score Runner-up
Fiesta Tempe Arizona December 25 No. 8 Penn State 42–30 No. 15 Arizona State
Sun El Paso Texas December 31 Stanford 24–14 LSU
Gator Jacksonville Florida December 30 No. 10 Pittsburgh 34–3 No. 11 Clemson
Tangerine Orlando Florida December 23 No. 19 Florida State 40–17 Texas Tech
Astro-Bluebonnet Houston Texas December 31 No. 20 USC 47–28 No. 17 Texas A&M
Liberty Memphis Tennessee December 19 No. 12 Nebraska 21–17 No. 14 North Carolina
Peach Atlanta Georgia December 31 NC State 24–14 Iowa State
Independence Shreveport Louisiana December 17 Louisiana Tech 24–14 Louisville
Hall of Fame Birmingham Alabama December 22 Maryland 17–7 Minnesota

Heisman Trophy[edit]

  1. Earl Campbell, RB – Texas, 1,547 points
  2. Terry Miller, RB – Oklahoma State, 812
  3. Ken MacAfee, TE – Notre Dame, 343
  4. Doug Williams, QB – Grambling State, 266
  5. Ross Browner, DE – Notre Dame, 213
  6. Guy Benjamin, QB – Stanford, 111
  7. Matt Cavanaugh, QB – Pittsburgh, 86
  8. Rick Leach, QB – Michigan, 59
  9. Charles Alexander, RB – LSU, 54
  10. Wes Chandler, WR – Florida, 50

Source:[10][11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.appollarchive.com/football/ap/seasons.cfm?appollid=466
  2. ^ a b "AP, UPI agree – it's Notre Dame". St. Petersburg Times. Florida. AP, UPI. January 4, 1978. p. 1C. 
  3. ^ a b "It might not add up, but Irish are clearly No. 1". Eugene Register-Guard. Oregon. AP, UPI. January 4, 1978. p. 3C. 
  4. ^ http://www.sports-reference.com/cfb/years/1977-standings.html
  5. ^ http://www.sports-reference.com/cfb/years/1977-standings.html
  6. ^ a b "Notre Dame corrals Longhorns by 38-10", Daily Herald (Chicago), Jan. 3, 1978, p4-1
  7. ^ "Holtz' hot Hogs make Sales pitch", Syracuse Herald Journal, Jan 3, 1978, p39
  8. ^ [appollarchive.com]
  9. ^ Galveston County News, Jan 4, 1978, p27
  10. ^ "Earl Campbell". Heisman Trophy. 1977. Retrieved January 13, 2017. 
  11. ^ "Heisman to Texas back". Spokane Daily Chronicle. Washington. Associated Press. December 9, 1977. p. 34.