1977 Tour de France

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1977 Tour de France
Route of the 1977 Tour de France
Route of the 1977 Tour de France
Race details
Dates 30 June – 24 July
Stages 22 + Prologue, including five split stages
Distance 4,096 km (2,545 mi)
Winning time 115h 38' 30"
Results
Jersey awarded to the overall winner Winner  Bernard Thévenet (FRA) (Peugeot–Esso–Michelin)
  Second  Hennie Kuiper (NED) (TI–Raleigh)
  Third  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (Lejeune–BP)

Points  Jacques Esclassan (FRA) (Peugeot–Esso–Michelin)
Mountains  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) (Lejeune–BP)
Youth  Dietrich Thurau (GER) (TI–Raleigh)
  Sprints  Pierre-Raymond Villemiane (FRA) (Gitane–Campagnolo)
  Team TI–Raleigh
  Team Points Peugeot–Esso–Michelin
← 1976
1978 →

The 1977 Tour de France was the 64th edition of the Tour de France, taking place between 30 June and 24 July. The total race distance was 22 stages over 4,096 km (2,545 mi).

Lucien Van Impe, the winner of the previous year, wanted to repeat his victory. The main challenge came from Hennie Kuiper and Bernard Thévenet. Thévenet won with the smallest margin since the 1968 Tour de France.[1]

Teams[edit]

To ride the Tour, teams had to pay money. The other Grand Tours, the Giro d'Italia and the Vuelta a España, paid the teams money to start. For financial reasons, some teams chose to avoid the Tour, and only 100 cyclists started the race, divided in ten teams of ten cyclists each. One of the notable absentees was Michel Pollentier.[2]

The teams entering the race were:[1]

Pre-race favourites[edit]

Bernard Thévenet, the winner of 1975, was considered the main favourite, because the course of the race was considered suited to his talents. In March 1977, Thévenet had been penalized for a positive doping test in Paris–Nice.[3]

The winner of the 1976 edition, Lucien Van Impe, was specialized in climbing, so his chances in the 1977 edition with less mountains were slimmer. Two other contenders were team mates Raymond Delisle and Joop Zoetemelk, fourth and second in the 1976 edition. Hennie Kuiper, the reigning world champion, was also a favourite.[3]

Five-time winner Eddy Merckx was also competing, and was still considered an outsider for the victory, but he was no longer as dominant as before.

Route and stages[edit]

The 1977 Tour de France started on 30 June, and had two rest days, in Bordeaux and Freiburg.[4] The 1976 Tour had been focused around the mountains, with five hilltop finishes. In 1977, the climbing was de-emphasized, with only two hilltop finishes, and more emphasis on the time trials.[3]

The first stage from Fleurance to Auch was split in two parts: 140 km from Fleurance to Lectoure, directly followed by 97 km from Lectoure to Auch.[5] It was the first time a "flying stage" was used. It stage was split in two parts, but there was no stop in between. After the riders reached the finish line of the first part, they immediately continued for the next part; if a group was ahead of the rest, they kept this advantage. The first riders to reach the finish of the flying stage were given prizes and points for the points classification as if it was a normal stage; the general classification was not changed.[6]

Stage characteristics and winners[1][4][7]
Stage Date Course Distance Type Winner
P 30 June Fleurance 5 km (3.1 mi) Individual time trial  Dietrich Thurau (FRG)
1 1 July Fleurance to Auch 237 km (147 mi) Plain stage  Pierre-Raymond Villemiane (FRA)
2 2 July Auch to Pau 253 km (157 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Dietrich Thurau (FRG)
3 3 July Oloron-Sainte-Marie to Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain) 248 km (154 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  José Nazabal (ESP)
4 4 July Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain) to Seignosse le Penon 256 km (159 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Régis Delépine (FRA)
5a 5 July Morcenx to Bordeaux 139 km (86 mi) Plain stage  Jacques Esclassan (FRA)
5b Bordeaux 30 km (19 mi) Individual time trial  Dietrich Thurau (FRG)
6 July Bordeaux Rest day
6 7 July Bordeaux to Limoges 225 km (140 mi) Plain stage  Jan Raas (NED)
7a 8 July Jaunay-Clan to Angers 140 km (87 mi) Plain stage  Patrick Sercu (BEL)
7b Angers 4 km (2.5 mi) Team time trial  Fiat France
8 9 July Angers to Lorient 247 km (153 mi) Plain stage  Giacinto Santambrogio (ITA)
9 10 July Lorient to Rennes 187 km (116 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Klaus-Peter Thaler (FRG)
10 11 July Bagnoles-de-l'Orne to Rouen 174 km (108 mi) Plain stage  Fedor den Hertog (NED)
11 12 July Rouen to Roubaix 242 km (150 mi) Plain stage  Jean-Pierre Danguillaume (FRA)
12 13 July Roubaix to Charleroi (Belgium) 193 km (120 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Patrick Sercu (BEL)
13a 14 July Freiburg (West Germany) 46 km (29 mi) Plain stage  Patrick Sercu (BEL)
13b Altkirch to Besançon 160 km (99 mi) Plain stage  Jean-Pierre Danguillaume (FRA)
15 July Freiburg Rest day
14 16 July Besançon to Thonon-les-Bains 230 km (140 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Bernard Quilfen (FRA)
15a 17 July Thonon-les-Bains to Morzine 105 km (65 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Paul Wellens (BEL)
15b Morzine to Avoriaz 14 km (8.7 mi) Individual time trial  Lucien Van Impe (BEL)
16 18 July Morzine to Chamonix 121 km (75 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Dietrich Thurau (FRG)
17 19 July Chamonix to Alpe d'Huez 185 km (115 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Hennie Kuiper (NED)
18 20 July Rossignol Voiron to Saint-Étienne 199 km (124 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  no winner
19 21 July Saint-Trivier-sur-Moignans to Dijon 172 km (107 mi) Plain stage  Gerrie Knetemann (NED)
20 22 July Dijon 50 km (31 mi) Individual time trial  Bernard Thévenet (FRA)
21 23 July Montereau-Fault-Yonne to Versailles 142 km (88 mi) Plain stage  Gerrie Knetemann (NED)
22a 24 July Paris 6 km (3.7 mi) Individual time trial  Dietrich Thurau (FRG)
22b Paris (Champs-Élysées) 91 km (57 mi) Plain stage  Alain Meslet (FRA)
Total 4,096 km (2,545 mi)[8]

Race overview[edit]

Bernard Thévenet (pictured in 1978), winner of the general classification

The prologue was won by Dietrich Thurau, who made his debut in the Tour. Thurau wanted to be the leader when the Tour would enter his native Germany in stage 13. In the second stage, big mountains were scheduled, unusually early in the race, and Thurau saw this as the biggest threat to this goal. When Van Impe, Thevenet and Kuiper were away leaving Thurau behind, Thurau worked together with Merckx, and they were able to get reach the leaders, and Thurau was able to win the sprint.[3] The second part of the fifth stage was a time trial. Eddy Merckx, at that moment only 8 seconds behind Thurau, was expected to win enough time on Thurau to become the new leader, but surprisingly Thurau won the time trial, and extended his lead.[3]

Thurau was able to keep control of the race for the next stages, and when the Tour entered Germany, he was still leading the race, 51 seconds ahead of Merckx.[3] The second part of the fifteenth stage was an individual mountain time trial, won by Zoetemelk. It was later revealed that Zoetemelk failed a doping test on that stage, so he was given a penalty of 10 minutes.[9] Second placed Van Impe was declared the winner of the stage in his stead. Thevenet became second in the stage, and took over the lead in the general classification, 11 seconds ahead of Thurau now in second place.[3] Thurau was initially dropped in the sixteenth stage, but fought his way back to the main group, and won the sprint.

In the seventeenth stage, Van Impe attacked. Van Impe was only 33 seconds behind in the general classification, so was a direct threat to Thevenet. Thevenet chased him, followed by Kuiper and Zoetemelk, who let Thevenet do all the work. Van Impe was then hit by a television car, and needed a new rear wheel. While he was waiting for this, Kuiper escaped and passed Van Impe, followed by Thevenet. Kuiper won the stage, and decreased his margin to Thevenet to 8 seconds. Thevenet was angry at Zoetemelk and Kuiper for having him do the chase on Van Impe. The riders had gone so fast on that stage, that 30 cyclists finished outside the time limit, and were expelled from the race.[3]

The eighteenth stage was initially won by Agostinho, but he failed the doping test. The second placed cyclist, Menendez, also failed the doping test. The third placed cyclist was Merckx, but he had not been tested, so could not be given the stage victory. As a result, nobody is credited as the stage's winner. At that point, there was only serious opportunities for Kuiper to win back time on Thevenet, the time trial of stage 20. Instead of winning back time, Kuiper lost 28 seconds, and only bad luck could stop Thevenet from winning the race.[3]

The last stages went without problems for Thevenet. The final time trial was won by Thurau, who thus won five stages in his debut Tour. Thevenet won some more seconds on Kuiper, and ended only 48 seconds ahead of Kuiper, the smallest margin since 1968.[1]

Doping[edit]

Every day, five cyclists were tested for doping: the leader in the general classification, the winner of the stage, the runner-up of the stage, and two randomly selected cyclists, for a total of 110 tests.[10] Six cyclists tested positive for doping:[11]

  • Joop Zoetemelk (Pemoline in the 15th stage[12])
  • Sebastien Pozo (Pemoline in the 16th stage[13])
  • Antonio Menendez (Pemoline in the 17th and 18th stage[12])
  • Joaquim Agostinho (Pemoline in the 18th stage[12])
  • Fernando Mendes (Pemoline in the 18th stage[12])
  • Luis Ocaña (Pemoline in the 18th stage[12])

Sebastien Pozo was unable to provide urine within two hours for the doping control after the prologue, which is treated as a positive result.[10]

All were fined with 1000 Swiss Francs, received one month of provisional suspension, were set back to the last place in the stage and penalized with 10 minutes in the general classification.[12]

Directly after the Tour, there were rumours about Thevenet and Kuiper having used doping. The Tour officials came together, and made a statement that Thevenet was officially the winner of the Tour. Some months later, when Thevenet was in hospital, he admitted having used cortisone. His popularity plunged after that, and Thevenet was never again able to compete for the general classification.[9]

Classification leadership[edit]

There were several classifications in the 1977 Tour de France, four of them awarding jerseys to their leaders. The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.[14]

Additionally, there was a points classification, where cyclists got points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.[14]

There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorized some climbs as either first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorized climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a polkadot jersey.[14]

Another classification was the young rider classification. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only neo-professionals were eligible, and the leader wore a white jersey.[15]

The fifth individual classification was the intermediate sprints classification. This classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints. In 1977, this classification had no associated jersey.[16]

For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that lead this classification wore yellow caps.[17]

The combativity award was given to Gerrie Knetemann.[4]

Final standings[edit]

Legend
A yellow jersey. Denotes the winner of the general classification A green jersey. Denotes the winner of the points classification
A white jersey with red polka dots. Denotes the winner of the mountains classification A white jersey. Denotes the winner of the young rider classification

General classification[edit]

Final general classification (1–10)[1]
Rank Rider Team Time
1  Bernard Thévenet (FRA) A yellow jersey. Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 115h 38' 30"
2  Hennie Kuiper (NED) TI–Raleigh + 0' 48"
3  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) A white jersey with red polka dots. Lejeune–BP + 3' 32"
4  Francisco Galdós (ESP) Kas–Campagnolo + 7' 45"
5  Dietrich Thurau (GER) A white jersey. TI–Raleigh + 12' 24"
6  Eddy Merckx (BEL) Fiat France + 12' 38"
7  Michel Laurent (FRA) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin + 17' 42"
8  Joop Zoetemelk (NED) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel + 19' 22"
9  Raymond Delisle (FRA) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel + 21' 32"
10  Alain Meslet (FRA) Gitane–Campagnolo + 27' 31"

Points classification[edit]

Final points classification (1–10)[1][18]
Rank Rider Team Points
1  Jacques Esclassan (FRA) A green jersey. Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 236
2  Giacinto Santambrogio (ITA) Bianchi–Campagnolo 140
3  Dietrich Thurau (GER) A white jersey. TI–Raleigh 137
4  Pierre-Raymond Villemiane (FRA) Gitane–Campagnolo 128
5  Eddy Merckx (BEL) Fiat France 93
6  Barry Hoban (GBR) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel 91
7  Hennie Kuiper (NED) TI–Raleigh 76
8  Bernard Thévenet (FRA) A yellow jersey. Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 65
9  Jean-Pierre Danguillaume (FRA) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 61
10  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) A white jersey with red polka dots. Lejeune–BP 60

Mountains classification[edit]

Final mountains classification (1–10)[1][18]
Rank Rider Team Points
1  Lucien Van Impe (BEL) A white jersey with red polka dots. Lejeune–BP 244
2  Hennie Kuiper (NED) TI–Raleigh 174
3  Pedro Torres (ESP) Teka 143
4  Bernard Thévenet (FRA) A yellow jersey. Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 114
5  Joop Zoetemelk (NED) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel 80
6  Francisco Galdós (ESP) Kas–Campagnolo 53
7  Antonio Menendez (ESP) Kas–Campagnolo 52
8  Joaquim Agostinho (POR) Teka 42
9  Dietrich Thurau (GER) A white jersey. TI–Raleigh 42
10  Raymond Delisle (FRA) Miko–Mercier–Vivagel 42

Young rider classification[edit]

Final young rider classification (1–5)[19][20]
Rank Rider Team Time
1  Dietrich Thurau (GER) A white jersey. TI–Raleigh 115h +50' 54"
2  Alain Meslet (FRA) Gitane–Campagnolo + 15' 07"
3  Pierre-Raymond Villemiane (FRA) Gitane–Campagnolo + 24' 18"
4  Enrique Martínez Heredia (ESP) Kas–Campagnolo + 47' 30"
5  Henk Lubberding (NED) TI–Raleigh + 1h 02' 13"

Intermediate sprints classification[edit]

Final intermediate sprints classification (1–5)[18]
Rank Rider Team Points
1  Pierre-Raymond Villemiane (FRA) Gitane–Campagnolo 73
2  Giacinto Santambrogio (ITA) Bianchi–Campagnolo 49
3  Jacques Esclassan (FRA) A green jersey. Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 32
4  Jean-Pierre Danguillaume (FRA) Peugeot–Esso–Michelin 16
5  Roland Berland (FRA) Gitane–Campagnolo 9

Team classification[edit]

Final team classification (1–10)[18]
Rank Team Time
1 TI–Raleigh 347h 41' 19"
2 Miko–Mercier–Vivagel + 13' 29"
3 Kas–Campagnolo + 20' 45"
4 Peugeot–Esso–Michelin + 25' 02"
5 Teka + 56' 19"
6 Fiat France + 1h 08' 05"
7 Lejeune–BP + 1h 14' 06"
8 Gitane–Campagnolo + 1h 28' 30"
9 Frisol–Thirion–Gazelle + 3h 05' 34"
10 Bianchi–Campagnolo + 3h 54' 06"

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "64ème Tour de France 1977" (in French). Mémoire du cyclisme. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2010. 
  2. ^ "Onaantastbare positie Lévitan brokkelt af" (in Dutch). Leidsch Dagblad. 29 June 1977. p. 15. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol (2008). The Story of the Tour De France: 1965-2007. Dog Ear Publishing. pp. 104–111. ISBN 1-59858-608-4. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c Augendre 2016, p. 68.
  5. ^ "Punten". Nieuwe Limburger (in Dutch). Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 2 July 1977. p. 21. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  6. ^ "Vliegende etappe-aankomst". Limburgsch Dagblad (in Dutch). Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 1 July 1977. p. 19. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  7. ^ Zwegers, Arian. "Tour de France GC Top Ten". CVCC. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
  8. ^ Augendre 2016, p. 109.
  9. ^ a b Boyce, Barry (2009). "Merckx’s Final Attempt for Glory". Cycling Revealed. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  10. ^ a b "Controle op doping volgens oude regels". Nieuwe Leidsche Courant (in Dutch). 4 July 1977. p. 7. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  11. ^ "Tombés au champs d'honneur" (in French). Magazine Sport & Vie. July 2003. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f "Thevenet: "Dit was Tour van de wraak"". Leidsch Dagblad (in Dutch). 25 July 1977. p. 9. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  13. ^ "Spanjaard Pozo betrapt". Leidsch Dagblad (in Dutch). 22 July 1977. p. 11. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  14. ^ a b c Christian, Sarah (2 July 2009). "Tour de France demystified - Evaluating success". RoadCycling.co.nz Ltd. Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  15. ^ "TDF guides: White jersey". TeamSky.com. BSkyB. 22 June 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  16. ^ Mark, Eddy van der. "Tour Xtra: Intermediate Sprints Classification". Chippewa Valley Cycling Club. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  17. ^ Chauner, David; Halstead, Michael (1990). The Tour de France Complete Book of Cycling. Villard. ISBN 0-679-72936-4. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  18. ^ a b c d "Clasificaciones oficiales". El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 25 July 1977. p. 19. Retrieved 2 October 2011. 
  19. ^ "Tour de France 1977". Cycling Archives. Retrieved 2 October 2011. 
  20. ^ Duniecq, Jacques (1977). Tour de France 1977. Silsden, UK: Kennedy Brothers. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to 1977 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons