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runs a two-page spread on arcade game world record holders: "Video Game VIPs." Life magazine January,
labels Electronic Games , Donkey Kong , and other games with ladders as "climbing games." Space Panic  At the first
Golden Joystick Awards ceremony (held in 1984), takes Manic Miner Game of the Year. The fourth
Arcade Awards are held, for games released during 1981-1982, with winning best Tron arcade game, best Demon Attack console game, best David's Midnight Magic computer game, and best Galaxian standalone game. A major
shakeout of the North American video game industry ("the crash of 1983") begins. By 1986, total video games sales will decrease from US$3.2 billion to US$0.1 billion. 
Business [ edit ]
In the United States, arcade game revenues are worth $2.9 billion (equivalent to $6.89 billion in 2016).  In the United States, home video game sales are worth $3.2 billion, according to Nintendo
(equivalent to $7.6 billion in 2016). 
In Japan, home video game sales approach ¥400 billion (equivalent to $4.58 billion in 2016). 
MCA Universal files suit against Nintendo, claiming that the latter company's video arcade hit violated Universal's copyright on Donkey Kong King Kong. After a brief trial, the judge determined that the rights to the original Kong had passed into the public domain. The case was dismissed, and MCA Universal paid $1.8 million USD in damages to Nintendo., 
Atari files suit against Coleco, claiming violation of Atari's patents on the Atari 2600 video game console. The previous year, Coleco released a peripheral device that made it possible for Atari 2600 game cartridges to be run on the ColecoVision console.  New companies:
Aackosoft, Alligata, Beyond, Graftgold, Infogrames,  Origin Systems,  Interplay,  Navarre,  Mastertronic, Spectrum HoloByte, Tynesoft
Notable releases [ edit ]
Namco releases . Mappy May,
Sega releases in the Astron Belt Japanese market, the first laserdisc video game. It uses pre-rendered, computer-animated film footage as backdrops, overlaid with sprite graphics. June 14,
Nintendo releases , which features the first appearance of Mario Bros. Mario's brother, Luigi. June 19,
Cinematronics releases Advanced Microcomputer Systems's , Dragon's Lair the second  laserdisc video game, and the first in the American market. June,
Data East releases , an early laserdisc video game. Bega's Battle It uses  anime FMV cut scenes to develop a story between the game's shooting stages, which would later become the standard approach to video game storytelling.  July, Namco releases
exclusively in Japan. Pac & Pal August, Sega releases
in Astron Belt Europe, as the first laserdisc game in the region.  August, Namco releases
exclusively in Japan. Phozon October, Namco releases
. Libble Rabble November, Sega releases
in the United States. Astron Belt  December, Namco releases
, adding three additional tracks. Pole Position II
Bally/ Midway releases . Spy Hunter They also release  and Jr. Pac-Man without Professor Pac-Man Namco's authorization, and the latter is an immediate flop. Atari releases
, a color Star Wars vector graphics game based on the popular film franchise, and  Crystal Castles.
Konami releases in Japan. Gyruss Centuri distributes the game in North America.  Nintendo releases
in Japan. Punch-Out!! Williams releases
Blaster, which was originally programmed on an Atari 8-bit computer.
Yuji Horii releases for the The Portopia Serial Murder Case NEC PC-6001 in Japan. It is an influential adventure game that lays the foundations for the visual novel genre.  July 8,
Infocom releases Planetfall, which becomes one of their top sellers. August 23,
Origin Systems publishes , one of the first Ultima III: Exodus role-playing video games to use tactical, turn-based combat. It is released for the Apple II, Atari 800, Commodore 64, and IBM PC. 
ASCII releases for the Bokosuka Wars Sharp X1 in Japan. It is a precursor to the tactical role-playing game and  real-time strategy genres. 
Koei releases for Japanese computers. Its combination of role-playing, turn-based Nobunaga's Ambition grand strategy and management simulation elements sets a standard for the historical simulation and strategy RPG genres. 
Electronic Arts publishes its first titles: , Hard Hat Mack , Pinball Construction Set , Archon , M.U.L.E. , and Worms? . Murder on the Zinderneuf
Bug-Byte releases Matthew Smith's , a Manic Miner platform game, for the ZX Spectrum. 
Ultimate Play The Game, later known as Rare, releases its first video games, and Jetpac , for the ZX Spectrum. Atic Atac 
Hudson Soft releases for the Bomberman MSX and FM-7.
Psion release Chequered Flag, the first driving game published for the ZX Spectrum, one of the first computer  car simulators, and the first driving game with selectable cars.  The 4-player simultaneous
is released for the Dandy Atari 8-bit family. It directly inspires 1985's arcade game. Gauntlet
Hardware [ edit ]
Sega releases the SG-1000 console in Japan, on the same day as the Famicom.  July 15,
Nintendo releases the Family Computer (Famicom) console in Japan. Shortly after its release, complaints begin to surface about rampant system instability, prompting Nintendo to issue a product recall and to rerelease the machine with a new motherboard. It would later be released worldwide as the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). 
GameLine, a combination modem and dialup game distribution service for the Atari 2600, is announced but never ships.
Apple Computer releases the Apple IIe, which becomes their most popular 8-bit machine. June 16,
Microsoft Japan releases MSX, an early standardized home computer architecture. March, Atari releases the poorly received 1200XL computer. Late in the year it and the rest of the
Atari 8-bit family are replaced by the 600XL and 800XL. June, Mattel Electronics releases the
Aquarius home computer, originally designed by Radofin Electronics Far East.  October.
Coleco releases the Adam home computer. It is only on the market for 15 months.  October, Mattel discontinues the Aquarius.
Acorn Computers release the Acorn Electron, a cut down version of their BBC Micro to compete in the under £200 home computer market. Problems in manufacture see only 1 in 8 presales being delivered for the Christmas market. Sega releases the
SC-3000, a personal computer version of the SG-1000 console, in Japan. 
References [ edit ]
^ "The Player's Guide to Climbing Games". Electronic Games 1 (11): 49. January 1983.
^ a b c Liedholm, Marcus and Mattias. "The Famicom rules the world! – (1983–89)". Nintendo Land. Archived from the original on January 1, 2010 . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ Video Game Myth Busters - Did the "Crash" of 1983/84 Affect Arcades?, The Golden Age Arcade Historian (December 27, 2013)
^ "25 Dumbest Moments in Gaming / Universal Goes Ape". GameSpy.com. 2003. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007 . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ "Atari and Coleco". New York Times. February 8, 1983 . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ "Atari – 1972–2004". Atari – Official Corporate Site. Archived from the original on January 17, 2007 . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ a b GameSpot Staff (2000). "15 Most Influential Games of All Time / Ultima III: Exodus". GameSpot. Archived from the original on July 17, 2007 . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ Ackerman, Kyle (2002). "The Saga Behind the Sagas: Interplay and the Business of Gaming". Frictionless Insight . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ "Navarre Corporation Completes $12.5 Million Private Placement". Navarre Corporation. 2003 . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ "SEGA-AM2 Co., LTD.". MobyGames. Archived from the original on February 14, 2006 . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ "Dragon's Lair". KLOV.com . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ Travis Fahs (March 3, 2008). "The Lives and Deaths of the Interactive Movie". IGN . Retrieved . March 11, 2011
^ "Spy Hunter". KLOV.com. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007 . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ "Star Wars". KLOV.com . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ "Gyruss". KLOV.com . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ John Szczepaniak (February 2011). "Portopia Renzoku Satsujin Jiken". Retro Gamer . Retrieved . March 16, 2011 (Reprinted at John Szczepaniak. "Retro Gamer 85". Hardcore Gaming 101 . Retrieved . March 16, 2011 )
^ Bokosuka Wars ( translation), Nintendo
^ Dru Hill: The Chronicle of Druaga, 1UP
^ Vestal 1998a, p. "Other NES RPGs"
^ Broad, Andrew (2006). "Manic Miner/Jet Set Willy". Archived from the original on October 28, 2009 . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ "GAMES / timeline". Welcome to Rare. Archived from the original on August 22, 2006 . Retrieved . April 3, 2006
^ "The Complete YS Guide to Driving Games". Your Sinclair (59): 77. November 1990.
^ "Road Racers". CRASH (16): 45. May 1985.
^ "Classic Gaming Expo – Don Daglow". Classic Gaming Expo. 2005 . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ a b "Sega SC-3000 / SG-1000". Obscure Pixels. Archived from the original on February 6, 2006 . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ "Player 3 Stage 3: Contender to the Throne". The Dot Eaters . Retrieved . February 14, 2006
^ Klein, Eric S. "Coleco Adam". Eric Klein's Vintage Computers. Archived from the original on January 31, 2006 . Retrieved . February 14, 2006