1984 in science
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The year 1984 in science and technology involved some significant events.
Astronomy and space exploration
- February 7 – Astronauts Bruce McCandless II and Robert L. Stewart make the first untethered space walk.
- The National Radio Astronomy Observatory in the United States converts the 36-foot radio telescope on Kitt Peak (originally built in 1967) to the ARO 12m Radio Telescope.
- First known case of Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, in England.
- The enzyme telomerase is discovered by Carol W. Greider and Elizabeth Blackburn in the ciliate Tetrahymena.
- Danish physiologist Steen Willadsen first successfully uses cells from early embryos to clone a mammal (sheep) by nuclear transfer at the British Agricultural Research Council's Institute of Animal Physiology, Cambridge.
Chemistry and physics
- Peter Kramer and Dan Shechtman publish their discoveries of what will soon afterwards be named quasicrystals.
- Hiroshi Kobayashi and colleagues announce synthesis of tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate ("BARF").
- January 24 – Apple Computer place the Macintosh personal computer on sale in the United States. It will be the first successful PC to use a graphical user interface.
- June 6 – The Tetris tile-matching video game, designed by Alexey Pajitnov, is launched in the Soviet Union.
History of science
- Robert Gwyn Macfarlane publishes Alexander Fleming: The Man and the Myth.
Physiology and medicine
- February 3 – Dr. John Buster and the research team at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center announce history's first embryo transfer from one woman to another resulting in a live birth.
- April 22 – Dr. Robert Gallo and Margaret Heckler of United States Public Health Service announce the discovery of HTLV-III as the virus that causes AIDS.
- July 21 – In Jackson, Michigan, a factory robot crushes a worker against a safety bar in apparently the first robot-related death in the United States.
- Nobel Prizes
- Turing Award – Niklaus Wirth
- May 14 – Mark Zuckerberg, American computer programmer and entrepreneur, co-founder of social media platform Facebook.
- February 21 – Anna Baetjer (b. 1899), American toxicologist.
- May 13 – Stanislaw Ulam (b. 1909), Polish American mathematician.
- May 24 – Sir Stanley Hooker (b. 1907), English aeronautical engineer.
- August 6 – Abraham Lilienfeld (b. 1920), American epidemiologist.
- August 11 – George Streisinger (b. 1927), Hungarian American molecular biologist, the first person to clone a vertebrate.
- October 20 – Paul Dirac (b. 1902), English-born physicist.
- November 20 – Charles C. Conley (b. 1933), American mathematician working on dynamical systems.
- December 20 – Stanley Milgram (b. 1933), American social psychologist.
- Brown, David (2001-06-19). "The 'recipe for disaster' that killed 80 and left a £5bn bill". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2014-12-02.
- Greider, Carol W.; Blackburn, Elizabeth H. (December 1985). "Identification of a Specific Telomere Terminal Transferase Activity in Tetrahymena Extracts" (PDF). Cell. 43 (2:1): 405–13. PMID 3907856. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90170-9. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
- Willadsen, S. M. (1986). "Nuclear transplantation in sheep embryos". Nature. 320: 63–65. doi:10.1038/320063a0. Retrieved 2016-10-11.
- Willadsen, S. M. (1989). "Cloning of sheep and cow embryos". Genome. 31: 956–62.
- Kramer, P.; Neri, R. (1984). "On periodic and non-periodic space fillings of Em obtained by projection". Acta Crystallographica. A40 (5): 580. doi:10.1107/S0108767384001203.
- Shechtman, D.; Blech, I.; Gratias, D.; Cahn, J. (1984). "Metallic Phase with Long-Range Orientational Order and No Translational Symmetry". Physical Review Letters. 53 (20): 1951–4. Bibcode:1984PhRvL..53.1951S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.1951. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- Levine, Dov; Steinhardt, Paul Joseph (1984). "Quasicrystals: A New Class of Ordered Structures". Physical Review Letters. 53 (26): 2477–80. Bibcode:1984PhRvL..53.2477L. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.2477. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- Nishida, H.; Takada, N.; Yoshimura, M.; Sonods, T.; Kobayshi, H. (1984). "Tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate: Highly Lipophilic Stable Anionic Agent for Solvent-Extraction of Cations". Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan. 57 (9): 2600–2604. doi:10.1246/bcsj.57.2600.
- Paul, Franklin (2009-06-02). "At 25, Tetris still eyeing growth". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-12-02.