|1985 by topic|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1985th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 985th year of the 2nd millennium, the 85th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1980s decade.
- January 1
- January 7 – Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency launches Sakigake, Japan's first interplanetary spacecraft and the first deep space probe to be launched by any country other than the United States or the Soviet Union.
- January 15 – Tancredo Neves is elected president of Brazil by the Congress, ending the 21-year military rule.
- January 20 – Ronald Reagan is privately sworn in for a second term as President of the United States.
- January 27 – The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) is formed, in Tehran.
- January 28 – The charity single record "We Are the World" is recorded by USA for Africa.
- February 4 – The border between Gibraltar and Spain reopens for the first time since Francisco Franco closed it in 1969.
- February 5 – Australia cancels its involvement in U.S.-led MX missile tests.
- February 9 – U.S. drug agent Kiki Camarena is kidnapped and murdered in Mexico by drug traffickers; his body is later discovered on March 5.
- February 14 – Lebanon hostage crisis: CNN reporter Jeremy Levin is freed from captivity in Lebanon.
- February 16
- February 19
- William J. Schroeder becomes the first patient with an artificial heart to leave the hospital.
- Iberia Airlines Flight 610 crashes, killing all 148 on board.
- China Airlines Flight 006 is involved in a mid-air incident; while there are 22 minor injuries and 2 serious injuries, no one is killed.
- February 20 – Minolta releases the Maxxum 7000, the world's first autofocus single-lens reflex camera.
- February 28 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army carries out a mortar attack on the Royal Ulster Constabulary police station at Newry in Northern Ireland. With nine officers dead, it is the highest loss of life for the RUC on a single day.
- March – The GNU Manifesto, written by Richard Stallman, is first published.
- March 1 – After a 12-year-long dictatorship, Julio María Sanguinetti is sworn in as the first democratically elected President of Uruguay.
- March 3 – The 8.0 Mw Algarrobo earthquake hits Santiago and Valparaíso, Chile, leaving 177 dead, 2,575 injured, 142,489 houses destroyed, and approximately a million people homeless.
- March 8 – A Beirut car bomb, planted in an attempt to assassinate Islamic cleric Sayyed Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah, kills more than 80 people and injures 200 more.
- March 11
- March 15 – Vice-president José Sarney, upon becoming vice president, assumes the duties of president of Brazil, as the new president Tancredo Neves had become severely ill the day before. Sarney would later become Brazil's first civilian president in 21 years, upon Neves' death on April 21.
- March 16 – Lebanon hostage crisis: US journalist Terry Anderson is taken hostage in Beirut; he remains a prisoner until December 4, 1991.
- March 17 – Expo '85, an international exhibition, opens in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, running until September 16.
- March 18 – Australia's longest-running soap opera, Neighbours, debuts on Seven Network.
- March 21 – Canadian paraplegic athlete and activist Rick Hansen sets out on his 26-month, 40,000-kilometre (25,000 mi) Man in Motion tour, which raises US$26 million for spinal cord research and quality-of-life initiatives.
- March 25
- March 31 – The inaugural WrestleMania is held in Madison Square Garden, New York, and is "main-evented" by Hulk Hogan and Mr. T vs. Paul Orndorff and Roddy Piper in a tag-team match.
- Soviet–Afghan War: The Soviet Union begins to transfer the burden of fighting the mujahideen to the armed forces of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, a cause of the Revolutions of 1989.
- April 1 – Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation, and Japan Tobacco and Salt Public Corporation, are privatized and change their names to Nippon Telegraph and Telephone, and Japan Tobacco, respectively.
- April 12 – El Descanso bombing: A terrorist bombing attributed to the Islamic Jihad Organization in the El Descanso restaurant near Madrid, Spain, mostly attended by U.S. personnel from the Torrejón Air Base, causes 18 deaths (all Spaniards) and 82 injuries.
- April 15 – South Africa ends its ban on interracial marriages.
- April 19 – The Soviet Union performs a nuclear weapon test in eastern Kazakhstan.
- April 23 – Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. The response is overwhelmingly negative and the original formula is back on the market in less than three months.
- April 28 – The Australian Nuclear Disarmament Party (NDP) splits.
- May 4 – The 30th Eurovision Song Contest takes place in Gothenburg, Sweden and is won by the Bobbysocks! song La det swinge for Norway.
- May 5 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan joins West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl for a controversial funeral service at a cemetery in Bitburg, West Germany, which includes the graves of 59 elite S.S. troops from World War II.
- May 9 – The 3rd total Victory Day Parade (the first being in 1945 and the next in 1965) is held on Red Square in Moscow in the Soviet Union. It features T-34-85 tanks, veterans of World War II from Poland, Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, and is the first parade to be held during the reign of Mikhail Gorbachev.
- May 11
- May 15 – Argentine President Raúl Alfonsín terminates Argentine administration of the Falkland Islands but does not relinquish Argentina's claim to the islands.
- May 16 – Scientists of the British Antarctic Survey announce the discovery of the ozone hole.
- May 25 – Approximately 10,000 people are killed when Bangladesh is affected by the storm surge from Tropical Storm One (1B).
- May 26 – Young driver Danny Sullivan beats veteran Mario Andretti to win the 1985 Indianapolis 500.
- May 29 – Heysel Stadium disaster: Thirty-nine spectators are killed in rioting on the terraces during the European Cup final between Liverpool F.C. and Juventus (0–1) at Heysel Stadium in Brussels, Belgium.
- May 31 – Forty-four tornadoes hit Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York and Ontario, including a rare and powerful F5. In total, the event kills 90 people.
- June 6 – The remains of Josef Mengele, the physician notorious for Nazi human experimentation on inmates of Auschwitz concentration camp, buried in 1979 under the name of Wolfgang Gerhard, are exhumed in Embu das Artes, Brazil.
- June 14
- TWA Flight 847, carrying 153 passengers from Athens to Rome, is hijacked by a Hezbollah fringe group. One passenger, U.S. Navy Petty Officer Robert Stethem, is killed. Greek police arrest a 65-year-old Lebanese suspect on September 21, 2019.
- The Schengen Agreement is signed between certain member states of the European Economic Community, creating the Schengen Area, a bloc of (at this time) 5 states with no internal border controls.
- June 15 – Studio Ghibli, an animation studio, is founded in Tokyo.
- June 20 – 1985 Nepal bombings: A series of bomb blasts occurs in Kathmandu and other cities of Nepal.
- June 22 – British and Irish police foil a "mainland bombing campaign" sponsored by the Provisional Irish Republican Army which targets luxury vacation resorts.
- June 23 – Air India Flight 182, a Boeing 747, is blown up by a terrorist bomb 31,000 feet (9,500 m) above the Atlantic Ocean, south of Ireland, on a Montreal–London–Delhi flight, killing all 329 aboard.
- June 24 – STS-51-G: Space Shuttle Discovery completes its mission, best remembered for having Sultan bin Salman Al Saud, the first Arab and first Muslim in space, as a payload specialist.
- June 27 – The iconic U.S. Route 66 is officially decommissioned.
- July 1 – The Convention on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons enters into force.
- July 10 – The Greenpeace vessel Rainbow Warrior is bombed and sunk in Auckland Harbour by French DGSE agents.
- July 13 – Live Aid benefit concerts in London and Philadelphia raise over £50 million for famine relief in Ethiopia.
- July 19
- New Hampshire teacher Christa McAuliffe is selected as the first person to go into space under the Teacher in Space Project, and designated to ride aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger.
- The Val di Stava dam collapses in Italy, killing 268 people, destroying 63 buildings, and demolishing eight bridges.
- July 20 – State President of South Africa, P. W. Botha, declares a state of emergency in 36 magisterial districts of South Africa amid growing civil unrest in black townships.
- July 27 – The 63 Building officially opens as the tallest skyscraper outside North America in Yeouido, Seoul, South Korea.
- August 2 – Delta Air Lines Flight 191 crashes near Dallas, Texas, killing 137 people.
- August 7 – Takao Doi, Mamoru Mohri and Chiaki Mukai are chosen to be Japan's first astronauts.
- August 12 – Japan Airlines Flight 123 crashes in Japan, killing 520 people, including Japanese singer Kyu Sakamoto; it is the worst single-aircraft disaster in aviation history.
- August 14 – The Accomarca massacre takes place in Ayacucho, Peru.
- August 22 – British Airtours Flight 28M: The 737's left engine catches fire while on its takeoff roll at Manchester Airport in the UK and 55 people are killed while trying to evacuate the aircraft.
- August 25 – Bar Harbor Airlines Flight 1808 crashes in the United States, killing all 8 on board, including thirteen-year-old American celebrity schoolgirl Samantha Smith.
- September 1 – The wreck of the RMS Titanic is located by a joint American-French expedition led by Robert Ballard (WHOI) and Jean-Louis Michel (IFREMER) using side-scan sonar from RV Knorr.
- September 6 – Midwest Express Airlines Flight 105, a Douglas DC-9, crashes just after takeoff from Milwaukee, killing all 31 on board.
- September 13 – Super Mario Bros. is released for the Nintendo Entertainment System.
- September 19 – An 8.0 Mw earthquake strikes Mexico City, killing between 5,000 and 45,000 people and injuring 30,000 more.
- September 20 – The capital gains tax is introduced to Australia.
- September 22
- October 1 – Operation Wooden Leg: The Israeli air force bombs Palestine Liberation Organization headquarters near Tunis.
- October 3 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis makes its maiden flight.
- October 7 – The cruise ship Achille Lauro is hijacked in the Mediterranean Sea by four heavily armed Palestinian terrorists. One passenger, American Leon Klinghoffer, is killed.
- October 16 – The Finnish dry cargo ship MS Hanna-Marjut, on its way from Mariehamn to Naantali, sinks in hard sea on the open water of Kihti between the Kökar and Sottunga islands of Åland, leading to the drowning of four people.
- October 25 – Emirates Airlines is established in Dubai and makes its first flight, to Karachi.
- November 6
- Palace of Justice siege: Members of the 19th of April Movement (M-19) Marxist guerrilla group take over the Palace of Justice of Colombia in Bogotá and hold the Supreme Court hostage. Hours later, after a military raid, the incident leaves almost half of the 25 Supreme Court Justices dead.
- The Argentine tourist village of Villa Epecuén is permanently flooded through the collapse of a dam and dyke.
- November 9 – In an all-Soviet match, 22-year-old Garry Kasparov defeats Anatoly Karpov to become the youngest-ever undisputed winner of the World Chess Championship.
- November 12 – A total solar eclipse occurs over Antarctica at 14:11:22 UTC.
- November 13 – Armero tragedy: The Nevado del Ruiz volcano erupts, killing an estimated 23,000 people, including 21,000 killed by lahars, in the town of Armero, Colombia.
- November 19 – Cold War: In Geneva, U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev meet for the first time.
- November 20 – Microsoft Corporation releases the first U.S. release of Windows 1.0, as version 1.01. International support comes with the release of Windows 1.02 in Europe in May 1986.
- November 23 – EgyptAir Flight 648 is hijacked by the Abu Nidal group and flown to Malta, where Egyptian commandos storm the plane; 60 are killed by gunfire and explosions.
- November 25 – 1985 Aeroflot Antonov An-12 shoot-down: A Soviet Aeroflot Antonov An-12 cargo airplane, en route from Cuito Cuanavale to Luanda, is shot down by South African Special Forces and crashes approximately 43 km (27 mi) east of Menongue, the provincial center of the Cuando Cubango Province, Angola, killing 8 crew members and 13 passengers on board.
- November 29 – Gérard Hoarau, exiled political leader from the Seychelles, is assassinated in London.
- December 1
- December 8 – The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is established.
- December 11 – Hugh Scrutton is killed outside his Sacramento, California, computer rental store by a Unabomber explosive, becoming the first fatality of the bombing campaign.
- December 12 – Arrow Air Flight 1285, a Douglas DC-8, crashes after takeoff from Gander, Newfoundland, killing 256 people – 248 of whom were U.S. servicemen returning to Fort Campbell, Kentucky, after overseeing a peacekeeping force in the Sinai Peninsula.
- December 20 – Pope John Paul II announces the institution of World Youth Day for Catholic youths.
- December 27
- The fullerene Buckminsterfullerene (C60) is first intentionally prepared by Harold Kroto, James R. Heath, Sean O'Brien, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley at Rice University in the US.
- DNA is first used in a criminal case.
- The 1983–85 famine in Ethiopia continues; USA for Africa (We Are the World) and Live Aid raise funds for famine relief.
- The Union for Aromanian Language and Culture, an Aromanian cultural organization, is founded in Freiburg im Breisgau by the Aromanian professor Vasile Barba.
- Africa has a population growth of 3.2 percent per year.
Births and deaths
- Physics – Klaus von Klitzing
- Chemistry – Herbert A. Hauptman, Jerome Karle
- Literature – Claude Simon
- Peace – International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
- Economics – Franco Modigliani
- Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – Michael Stuart Brown, Joseph L. Goldstein
- Test: Total English Skills Training' 2008 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc. 2008. p. 81. ISBN 978-971-23-5127-3.
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Committee for Fisheries (1985). Problems of Trade in Fishery Products. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. p. 157. ISBN 978-92-64-12775-3.
- John Higley; Richard Gunther; Higley John (1992). Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-521-42422-6.
- Putzel, Michael (January 21, 1985). "Inaugural put on ice". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). Associated Press. p. A1.
- Central Asia Monitor. Central Asia Monitor. 1994. p. 16.
- Bob Smith; Salim Amin (December 20, 2013). The Man Who Moved the World. Master Publishing. p. 85. ISBN 978-9966-052-03-2.
- J. Paxton (December 27, 2016). The Statesman's Year-Book 1985-86. Springer. p. 551. ISBN 978-0-230-27114-2.
- "Hawke Withdraws Support For MX Missile Tests". AP NEWS. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- United States. Drug Enforcement Administration (2003). Drug Enforcement Administration: A Tradition of Excellence, 1973-2003. U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration. p. 63.
- Kifner, John (February 15, 1985). "U.S. TV Reporter Free In Lebanon". The New York Times. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
- Altman, Lawrence K. (August 7, 1986). "WILLIAM SCHROEDER DIES 620 DAYS AFTER RECEIVING ARTIFICIAL HEART". The New York Times. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- Altman, Lawrence K. (August 10, 1986). "A HERO OF MEDICINE; Schroeder, Longest User of Jarvik Device, Helped Prove Hearts Can Be Replaced". The New York Times. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- Kleist, Trina (August 16, 1986). "Schroeder's struggle lasts 620 days - artificial heart recipient William J. Schroeder". Science News. Science Service, Inc. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- "Aircraft accident report : China Airlines Boeing 747-SP, N4522V, 300 nautical miles northwest of San Francisco, California, February 19, 1985" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. March 29, 1986. NTSB/AAR-86/03. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
- "Northern Ireland Bloody Day". TIME. March 11, 1985. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 21, 2007.
- "The RUC: Lauded and condemned". BBC. October 31, 2001. Retrieved April 21, 2007.
- Debra Cameron; Bill Rosenblatt; Eric Raymond; Eric S. Raymond (1996). Learning GNU Emacs. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". p. 471. ISBN 978-1-56592-152-8.
- Brian C. Hanon (1986). Marketing in Uruguay. U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration. p. 3.
- "Sismos importantes o destructivos desde 1570" (in Spanish). Santiago de Chile: University of Chile Seismologic Service. Archived from the original on December 31, 2006. Retrieved September 12, 2010.
- "60 killed by Beirut car bomb". The Guardian. London. March 9, 1985. Retrieved April 20, 2010.
- "1985: Gorbachev becomes Soviet leader". BBC On This Day. March 11, 1985. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
- Geoffrey Gibbs (March 12, 2015). "From the archive, 12 March 1985: Mohamed Al Fayed buys Harrods". The Guardian. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
- Thomas Griffin Sanders (1985). Brazil's New Republic: Tancredo to Sarney. Universities Field Staff International. p. 10.
- United States. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Immigration and Claims (2000). Justice for Victims of Terrorism Act: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Claims of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session, on H.R. 3485, April 13, 2000. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-16-064552-5.
- Pacific Basin Study Mission: Report to the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-eighth Congress, First Session. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1983. p. 52.
- Idato, Michael (July 14, 2005). "An Institution Turns 20". The Age. Melbourne. Archived from the original on July 14, 2010. Retrieved December 22, 2009.
- Thomas Cussans (May 5, 2009). Incredible Journeys: The Stories Behind 60 Remarkable Adventures Over Land, Sea and Air. Pavilion Books. p. 242. ISBN 978-1-84340-534-4.
- "The 57th Academy Awards, 1985". Oscars.org. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
- Terry M. Mays (June 18, 2015). Historical Dictionary of International Organizations in Africa and the Middle East. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-4422-5018-5.
- Frederic Eckhard (December 1985). Issues Before the 40th General Assembly of the United Nations 1985-1986. United Nations Association of the United States of America. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-934654-61-6.
- "Gothenburg 1985". Eurovision Song Contest. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
- "Ronald Reagan: Remarks at a Joint German-American Military Ceremony at Bitburg Air Base in the Federal Republic of Germany". Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- "Fans killed in Bradford stadium fire". BBC News. May 11, 1985. Archived from the original on March 7, 2008. Retrieved December 2, 2008.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 978-0-14-102715-9.
- Farman, J.C.; Gardiner, B.G.; Shanklin, J.D. (1985). "Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction". Nature. 315 (6016): 207–10. Bibcode:1985Natur.315..207F. doi:10.1038/315207a0. S2CID 4346468.
- Zehr, Stephen C. (1994). "Accounting for the Ozone Hole: Scientific Representations of an Anomaly and Prior Incorrect Claims in Public Settings". The Sociological Quarterly. 35 (4): 603–19. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1994.tb00419.x. JSTOR 4121521.
- He appears on the cover of Sports Illustrated.
- In the Matter of Josef Mengele: A Report to the Attorney General of the United States. U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Division. 1992. p. 18.
- Robert Gearty (September 21, 2019), "Greek police arrest suspect in 1985 TWA Flight 847 hijacking", Fox News, retrieved September 21, 2019
- Council of the European Union (2001). The Schengen Acquis: Integrated Into the European Union. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. p. 6. ISBN 978-92-824-1776-8.
- Susan Jolliffe Napier (January 1, 2018). Miyazakiworld: A Life in Art. Yale University Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-300-22685-0.
- Bowman, John Stewart. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000. p. 398
- Roach, Kent (2011). "The Air India Report and the Regulation of Charities and Terrorism Financing". The University of Toronto Law Journal. 61 (1): 46. doi:10.3138/utlj.61.1.045. JSTOR 23018688.
- Special Committee on U.S. Route Numbering (June 26, 1985). "Route Numbering Committee Agenda" (Report). Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Retrieved April 16, 2014 – via Wikisource.
- "Remarks of the Vice President Announcing the Winner of the Teacher in Space Project". The American Presidency Project. July 19, 1985. Retrieved March 16, 2009.
- Yoon, Min-yong (July 26, 2011). "Yesterday's Today 1985 63 Building Completion". The Kyunghyang Shinmun. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
- Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 747SR-46 JA8119 Ueno". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved October 23, 2023.
- "Service held to mark 1985 Manchester air disaster". BBC News. August 22, 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
- "Andropov's Pal Samantha Smith Dies in Plane Crash". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. August 26, 1985. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
- Alfred, Randy (February 9, 2008). "Sept. 2, 1985: Hey, Everyone, We Found the Titanic". Wired. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- "Redirect". ato.gov.au. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012.
- Furuse, Takayuki (September 22, 2015). "30 years after Plaza Accord, nations' currency goals evolve". The Japan Times. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Fineberg, Jonathan David (2004). Christo and Jeanne-Claude: On the Way to The Gates, Central Park, New York City. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10405-9.
- Vaheri-Hyvärinen-Saari: Hanna-Marjut – Hylyt.net (in Finnish)
- M/S Hanna Marjut – Wrecksite.eu
- Edwards, Benj (August 24, 2021). "35 Years of Microsoft Windows: Remembering Windows 1.0". How-To Geek. Archived from the original on February 5, 2022. Retrieved April 15, 2022.
- "Tech Rewind: Interesting facts about Microsoft Windows 1.0". Mid-day. November 19, 2015. Retrieved October 24, 2023.
- "Terror bomb ruled out in Canada's worst crash". Montreal Gazette. news services. December 13, 1985. p. A1.
- Gaines, Larry; Miller, LeRoy (2006). Criminal Justice In Action: The Core. Thomson/Wadsworth. ISBN 978-0-495-00305-2.
- Popescu, Adam (October 4, 2010). ""Lali Vasili a stat 20 de zile pe pământ după moarte"". Evenimentul Zilei (in Romanian).