1985 Summer Universiade
|This article does not cite any references or sources. (December 2009)|
|XIII Summer Universiade|
|Opening ceremony||August 24|
|Closing ceremony||September 4|
|Officially opened by||Crown Prince Akihito|
|Athlete's Oath||Orujama Hingo|
|Main venue||Univer Memorial Stadium|
The mascot of the Kobe Universiade, "Unitan", designed by Osamu Tezuka, is a red-crested white crane, symbolic of Japan and a good omen. The name was chosen from some 8,000 suggestions received from throughout the country. The name is derived from a combination of 'uni' from 'Universiade' and 'tan' from the Japanese name for red-crested crane, namely 'tancho-tsuru'.
The sex chromatin test was used at these games to decide on participants' gender; Spanish hurdler Maria José Martínez-Patiño was declared a man and thus ruled ineligible for the women's events. In agreement with officials who suggested she fake an injury so she could withdraw without publicity, she complied. She later fought, successfully, to have that diagnosis reversed.
- Athletics ( )
- Basketball ( )
- Diving ( )
- Fencing ( )
- Football ( )
- Gymnastics ( )
- Judo ( )
- Swimming ( )
- Tennis ( )
- Volleyball ( )
- Water polo ( )
- Ljungqvist, A. (2008-04-15). "Gender Verification". In Barbara L. Drinkwater. The Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine: An IOC Medical Commission Publication, Women in Sport. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 183–93. ISBN 9780470756850. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- Schultz, Jaime (2014). Qualifying Times: Points of Change in U.S. Women's Sport. U of Illinois P. pp. 111–12. ISBN 9780252095962.
- Cole, Cheryl L. (2000). "One Chromosome Too Many?". In Kay Schaffer. The Olympics at the Millennium: Power, Politics, and the Games. Sidonie Smith. Rutgers UP. pp. 128–46. ISBN 9780813528205. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
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