1985 Summer Universiade

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XIII Summer Universiade
Nations participating 106
Athletes participating 2,783
Events 11 sports
Opening ceremony August 24
Closing ceremony September 4
Officially opened by Crown Prince Akihito
Main venue Kobe Universiade Memorial Stadium

The 1985 Summer Universiade, also known as the XIII Summer Universiade, took place in Kobe, Japan.

Mascot[edit]

The mascot of the Kobe Universiade, "Unitan", designed by Osamu Tezuka, is a red-crested white crane, symbolic of Japan and a good omen. The name was chosen from some 8,000 suggestions received from throughout the country. The name is derived from a combination of 'uni' from 'Universiade' and 'tan' from the Japanese name for red-crested crane, namely 'tancho-tsuru'.

Gender test[edit]

The sex chromatin test was used at these games to decide on participants' gender; Spanish hurdler Maria José Martínez-Patiño was declared a man and thus ruled ineligible for the women's events.[1] [2][3] In agreement with officials who suggested she fake an injury so she could withdraw without publicity, she complied. She later fought, successfully, to have that diagnosis reversed.[4]

Sports[edit]

Medal table[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Soviet Union 42 22 20 84
2  United States 23 22 24 69
3  Cuba 8 8 5 21
4  China 7 7 6 20
5  Romania 6 7 6 19
6  Japan 6 3 7 16
7  Italy 4 6 5 15
8  Bulgaria 4 6 4 14
9  Netherlands 3 1 4 8
10  North Korea 3 1 3 7
10  Poland 3 1 3 7
12  West Germany 2 4 8 14
13  Australia 2 3 2 7
14  South Korea 2 1 5 8
15  Nigeria 2 1 2 5
16  Hungary 1 4 4 9
17  United Kingdom 1 2 3 6
18  Brazil 1 2 2 5
19  Mexico 1 1 0 2
20  Czechoslovakia 1 0 1 2
20  Jamaica 1 0 1 2
22  Canada 0 6 6 12
23  France 0 5 3 8
24  Yugoslavia 0 1 2 3
25  New Zealand 0 1 0 1
25  Portugal 0 1 0 1
25  Uruguay 0 1 0 1
28  Ivory Coast 0 0 1 1
28  Morocco 0 0 1 1
Total 123 117 128 368

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ruth Padawer (June 28, 2016). "The Humiliating Practice of Sex-Testing Female Athletes". New York Times. 
  2. ^ Ljungqvist, A. (2008-04-15). "Gender Verification". In Barbara L. Drinkwater. The Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine: An IOC Medical Commission Publication, Women in Sport. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 183–93. ISBN 9780470756850. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  3. ^ Schultz, Jaime (2014). Qualifying Times: Points of Change in U.S. Women's Sport. U of Illinois P. pp. 111–12. ISBN 9780252095962. 
  4. ^ Cole, Cheryl L. (2000). "One Chromosome Too Many?". In Kay Schaffer. The Olympics at the Millennium: Power, Politics, and the Games. Sidonie Smith. Rutgers UP. pp. 128–46. ISBN 9780813528205. Retrieved 2 March 2015.