1985 Summer Universiade

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XIII Summer Universiade
Nations participating106
Athletes participating2,783
Events11 sports
Opening ceremonyAugust 24
Closing ceremonySeptember 4
Officially opened byCrown Prince Akihito
Main venueKobe Universiade Memorial Stadium

The 1985 Summer Universiade, also known as the XIII Summer Universiade, took place in Kobe, Japan.

Mascot[edit]

The mascot of the Kobe Universiade, "Unitan", designed by Osamu Tezuka, is a red-crested white crane, symbolic of Japan and a good omen. The name was chosen from some 8,000 suggestions received from throughout the country. The name is derived from a combination of 'uni' from 'Universiade' and 'tan' from the Japanese name for red-crested crane, namely 'tancho-tsuru'.

Gender test[edit]

The sex chromatin test was used at these games to decide on participants' gender; Spanish hurdler Maria José Martínez-Patiño was declared a man and thus ruled ineligible for the women's events.[1][2][3] In agreement with officials who suggested she fake an injury so she could withdraw without publicity, she complied. She later fought, successfully, to have that diagnosis reversed.[4]

Sports[edit]

Medal table[edit]

  *   Host nation (Japan)

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Soviet Union (URS)42222084
2 United States (USA)23222469
3 Cuba (CUB)88521
4 China (CHN)77620
5 Romania (ROU)67619
6 Japan (JPN)*63716
7 Italy (ITA)46515
8 Bulgaria (BUL)46414
9 Netherlands (NED)3148
10 North Korea (PRK)3137
 Poland (POL)3137
12 West Germany (FRG)24814
13 Australia (AUS)2327
14 South Korea (KOR)2158
15 Nigeria (NGR)2125
16 Hungary (HUN)1449
17 Great Britain (GBR)1236
18 Brazil (BRA)1225
19 Mexico (MEX)1102
20 Czechoslovakia (TCH)1012
 Jamaica (JAM)1012
22 Canada (CAN)06612
23 France (FRA)0538
24 Yugoslavia (YUG)0123
25 New Zealand (NZL)0101
 Portugal (POR)0101
 Uruguay (URU)0101
28 Ivory Coast (CIV)0011
 Morocco (MAR)0011
Totals (29 nations)123117128368


References[edit]

  1. ^ Ruth Padawer (June 28, 2016). "The Humiliating Practice of Sex-Testing Female Athletes". The New York Times.
  2. ^ Ljungqvist, A. (2008-04-15). "Gender Verification". In Barbara L. Drinkwater (ed.). The Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine: An IOC Medical Commission Publication, Women in Sport. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 183–93. ISBN 9780470756850. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  3. ^ Schultz, Jaime (2014). Qualifying Times: Points of Change in U.S. Women's Sport. U of Illinois P. pp. 111–12. ISBN 9780252095962.
  4. ^ Cole, Cheryl L. (2000). "One Chromosome Too Many?". In Kay Schaffer (ed.). The Olympics at the Millennium: Power, Politics, and the Games. Sidonie Smith. Rutgers UP. pp. 128–46. ISBN 9780813528205. Retrieved 2 March 2015.