1985 Summer Universiade

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XIII Summer Universiade
Nations participating 106
Athletes participating 2,783
Events 11 sports
Opening ceremony August 24
Closing ceremony September 4
Officially opened by Crown Prince Akihito
Athlete's Oath Orujama Hingo
Main venue Univer Memorial Stadium

The 1985 Summer Universiade, also known as the XIII Summer Universiade, took place in Kobe, Japan.

Mascot[edit]

The mascot of the Kobe Universiade, "Unitan", designed by Osamu Tezuka, is a red-crested white crane, symbolic of Japan and a good omen. The name was chosen from some 8,000 suggestions received from throughout the country. The name is derived from a combination of 'uni' from 'Universiade' and 'tan' from the Japanese name for red-crested crane, namely 'tancho-tsuru'.

Gender test[edit]

The sex chromatin test was used at these games to decide on participants' gender; Spanish hurdler Maria José Martínez-Patiño was declared a man and thus ruled ineligible for the women's events.[1][2] In agreement with officials who suggested she fake an injury so she could withdraw without publicity, she complied. She later fought, successfully, to have that diagnosis reversed.[3]

Sports[edit]

Medal table[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Soviet Union 42 22 20 84
2  United States 23 22 24 69
3  Cuba 8 8 5 21
4  China 7 7 6 20
5  Romania 6 7 6 19
6  Japan 6 3 7 16
7  Italy 4 6 5 15
8  Bulgaria 4 6 4 14
9  Netherlands 3 1 4 8
10  North Korea 3 1 3 7
10  Poland 3 1 3 7
12  West Germany 2 4 8 14
13  Australia 2 3 2 7
14  South Korea 2 1 5 8
15  Nigeria 2 1 2 5
16  Hungary 1 4 4 9
17  United Kingdom 1 2 3 6
18  Brazil 1 2 2 5
19  Mexico 1 1 0 2
20  Czechoslovakia 1 0 1 2
20  Jamaica 1 0 1 2
22  Canada 0 6 6 12
23  France 0 5 3 8
24  Yugoslavia 0 1 2 3
25  New Zealand 0 1 0 1
25  Portugal 0 1 0 1
25  Uruguay 0 1 0 1
28  Ivory Coast 0 0 1 1
28  Morocco 0 0 1 1
Total 123 117 128 368

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ljungqvist, A. (2008-04-15). "Gender Verification". In Barbara L. Drinkwater. The Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine: An IOC Medical Commission Publication, Women in Sport. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 183–93. ISBN 9780470756850. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  2. ^ Schultz, Jaime (2014). Qualifying Times: Points of Change in U.S. Women's Sport. U of Illinois P. pp. 111–12. ISBN 9780252095962. 
  3. ^ Cole, Cheryl L. (2000). "One Chromosome Too Many?". In Kay Schaffer. The Olympics at the Millennium: Power, Politics, and the Games. Sidonie Smith. Rutgers UP. pp. 128–46. ISBN 9780813528205. Retrieved 2 March 2015.